Abstract

We investigate ultrashort laser pulse filamentation within the framework of spontaneous X Wave formation. After a brief overview of the filamentation process we study the case of an intense filament co-propagating with a weaker seed pulse. The filament is shown to induce strong Cross-Phase-Modulation (XPM) effects on the weak seed pulse: driven by the pump, the seed pulse undergoes pulse splitting with the daughter pulses slaved to their pump counterparts. They undergo strong spatio-temporal reshaping and are transformed into X Waves traveling at the same group velocities as the pump split-off pulses. In the presence of a gain mechanism such as Four-Wave-Mixing or Stimulated Raman Scattering, energy is then transferred from the pump filament leading to amplification of the seed X Wave and formation of a temporally compressed intensity peak.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (8)

M.A. Porras, A. Parola, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Light-filament dynamics and the spatiotemporal instability of the Townes profile,” Phys. Rev. A,  76011803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu , “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007)
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media, Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, ”Attosecond Science”, Nature Physics 3, 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Uiberacker et al., “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gallmann, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S .R. Leone, “Comparison of the filamentation and the hollw-core fiber characteristics for pulse compression into the few-cycle regime” App. Phys. B. 86, 2503–2508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, and O. Vasseur, “Spatial Mode Cleaning by Femtosecond Filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2601–2603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Zäir, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation”, Opt. Express 15, 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (9)

H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, ”Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3662–3664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Stationary phase-mask for control and stabilization of optical filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2326–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M. A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between Phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Optics 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. P. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X-wave formation by femtosecond filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 016608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

2004 (6)

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation simulation: From Maxwell’s to unidirectional equations,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 036604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic Nonlinear X Waves for Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, “Generation and nonlinear dynamics of X Waves of the Schrodinger equation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moll, A.L. Gaeta, and G. Fibich, “Self-Similar Optical Wave Collapse: Observation of the Townes Profile”, Phs, Rev. Lett.,  90203902 (2004)
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, E. Gaižauskas, G. Tamošauskas, and Paolo Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92252903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X Waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaižauskas, V. Kudriašov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaičaitis, and A. Piskarskas, “Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses,” SPIE Proc. 4932, 346357 (2003).

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X waves in second-harmonic generation: Experimental results,” Phys. Rev. E,  68, 0266101–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Theory and simulation of supercontinuum generation in transparent bulk media,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 185–195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, G. Méchain, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Propagation of twin laser pulses in air and concatenation of plasma strings produced by femtosecond infrared filaments,” Opt. Commun. 225, 177–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

M. Wittmann and A. Penzkofer, “Spectral superbroadening of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 126, 308–317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abel, M. J.

L. Gallmann, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S .R. Leone, “Comparison of the filamentation and the hollw-core fiber characteristics for pulse compression into the few-cycle regime” App. Phys. B. 86, 2503–2508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Stationary phase-mask for control and stabilization of optical filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2326–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, G.P.

G.P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear fiber optics,” Academic Press Inc., New York (1989).

Aközbek, N.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R.R.

R.R. Alfano, “The Supercontinuum Laser Source,” Springer-Verlag, New York (1989).

André, Y.B.

Anscombe, M. P.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. P. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Averchi, A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M. A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between Phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Dubietis, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, P. Di Trapani, and A . Couairon, “Stimulated-Raman X Waves in Ultrashort Optical Pulse Filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 184–186 (200)
[CrossRef]

Baltuška, A.

Barkauskas, M.

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaižauskas, V. Kudriašov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaičaitis, and A. Piskarskas, “Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses,” SPIE Proc. 4932, 346357 (2003).

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellanca, G.

Biegert, J.

A. Zäir, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation”, Opt. Express 15, 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. P. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Optics 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Pulse self-compression to the single cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett,  30, 2657–2659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bragheri, F.

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M. A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between Phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijo-sius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 862–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bramati, A.

Buersing, H.

Butkus, R.

Chakraborty, H.

M. B. Gaarde, H. Chakraborty, and A. Couairon, “An alternative source of isolated attosecond light pulses,” SPIE Newsroom 10.1117/2.1200706.0619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, H. S.

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu , “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007)
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clement, T.S.

Conti, C.

C. Conti, “Generation and nonlinear dynamics of X Waves of the Schrodinger equation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X Waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X waves in second-harmonic generation: Experimental results,” Phys. Rev. E,  68, 0266101–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, “Coloured conical emission via second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.,  27, 1451–1453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, ”Attosecond Science”, Nature Physics 3, 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A .

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media, Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, and O. Vasseur, “Spatial Mode Cleaning by Femtosecond Filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2601–2603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.A. Porras, A. Parola, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Light-filament dynamics and the spatiotemporal instability of the Townes profile,” Phys. Rev. A,  76011803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Zäir, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation”, Opt. Express 15, 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, ”Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3662–3664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Optics 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X-wave formation by femtosecond filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 016608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M. A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between Phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaizauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E,  72, 037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Pulse self-compression to the single cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett,  30, 2657–2659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, G. Méchain, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Propagation of twin laser pulses in air and concatenation of plasma strings produced by femtosecond infrared filaments,” Opt. Commun. 225, 177–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, H. Chakraborty, and A. Couairon, “An alternative source of isolated attosecond light pulses,” SPIE Newsroom 10.1117/2.1200706.0619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Danielius, R.

Degiorgio, V.

Diddams, S.A.

Dubietis, A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M. A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between Phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X-wave formation by femtosecond filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 016608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijo-sius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 862–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaizauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E,  72, 037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, E. Gaižauskas, G. Tamošauskas, and Paolo Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92252903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Dubietis, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, P. Di Trapani, and A . Couairon, “Stimulated-Raman X Waves in Ultrashort Optical Pulse Filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 184–186 (200)
[CrossRef]

Eberle, B.

Eckle, P.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. P. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Engen, A.G. Van

Faccio, D.

M.A. Porras, A. Parola, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Light-filament dynamics and the spatiotemporal instability of the Townes profile,” Phys. Rev. A,  76011803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X-wave formation by femtosecond filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 016608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M. A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between Phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijo-sius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 862–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaizauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E,  72, 037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Dubietis, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, P. Di Trapani, and A . Couairon, “Stimulated-Raman X Waves in Ultrashort Optical Pulse Filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 184–186 (200)
[CrossRef]

Fibich, G.

K. D. Moll, A.L. Gaeta, and G. Fibich, “Self-Similar Optical Wave Collapse: Observation of the Townes Profile”, Phs, Rev. Lett.,  90203902 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, and O. Vasseur, “Spatial Mode Cleaning by Femtosecond Filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2601–2603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Zäir, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation”, Opt. Express 15, 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Pulse self-compression to the single cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett,  30, 2657–2659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, G. Méchain, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Propagation of twin laser pulses in air and concatenation of plasma strings produced by femtosecond infrared filaments,” Opt. Commun. 225, 177–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, T.

Fujii, T.

Gaarde, M. B.

H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, ”Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3662–3664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, H. Chakraborty, and A. Couairon, “An alternative source of isolated attosecond light pulses,” SPIE Newsroom 10.1117/2.1200706.0619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A.L.

K. D. Moll, A.L. Gaeta, and G. Fibich, “Self-Similar Optical Wave Collapse: Observation of the Townes Profile”, Phs, Rev. Lett.,  90203902 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Gaizauskas, E.

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaizauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E,  72, 037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Gaižauskas, E.

A. Couairon, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X-wave formation by femtosecond filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 016608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, E. Gaižauskas, G. Tamošauskas, and Paolo Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92252903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaižauskas, V. Kudriašov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaičaitis, and A. Piskarskas, “Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses,” SPIE Proc. 4932, 346357 (2003).

Gallmann, L.

Grigonis, R.

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaižauskas, V. Kudriašov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaičaitis, and A. Piskarskas, “Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses,” SPIE Proc. 4932, 346357 (2003).

Guandalini, A.

A. Zäir, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation”, Opt. Express 15, 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. P. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C. P.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Optics 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Optics 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holler, M.

Ishii, N.

Jedrkiewicz, O.

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X waves in second-harmonic generation: Experimental results,” Phys. Rev. E,  68, 0266101–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X Waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, “Coloured conical emission via second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.,  27, 1451–1453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalkner, W.

Kasparian, J.

Katona, G.

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Theory and simulation of supercontinuum generation in transparent bulk media,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 185–195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

A. Zäir, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation”, Opt. Express 15, 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. P. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Optics 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Pulse self-compression to the single cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett,  30, 2657–2659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klingbeil, L.

Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Interpretation of the spectrally resolved far field of femtosecond pulses propagating in bulk nonlinear dispersive media,” Opt. Express 13, 10729–10741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation simulation: From Maxwell’s to unidirectional equations,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 036604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic Nonlinear X Waves for Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Theory and simulation of supercontinuum generation in transparent bulk media,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 185–195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional Optical Pulse Propagation Equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kornelis, W.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Optics 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

Krenz, M.

Kudriašov, V.

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaižauskas, V. Kudriašov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaičaitis, and A. Piskarskas, “Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses,” SPIE Proc. 4932, 346357 (2003).

Lamouroux, B.

A. Couairon, G. Méchain, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Propagation of twin laser pulses in air and concatenation of plasma strings produced by femtosecond infrared filaments,” Opt. Commun. 225, 177–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leone, S .R.

L. Gallmann, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S .R. Leone, “Comparison of the filamentation and the hollw-core fiber characteristics for pulse compression into the few-cycle regime” App. Phys. B. 86, 2503–2508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leone, S. R.

Liberale, C.

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu , “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007)
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matijosius, A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M. A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between Phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaizauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E,  72, 037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Matijo-sius, A.

Méchain, G.

A. Couairon, G. Méchain, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Propagation of twin laser pulses in air and concatenation of plasma strings produced by femtosecond infrared filaments,” Opt. Commun. 225, 177–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Minardi, S.

Mlejnek, M.

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional Optical Pulse Propagation Equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K. D.

K. D. Moll, A.L. Gaeta, and G. Fibich, “Self-Similar Optical Wave Collapse: Observation of the Townes Profile”, Phs, Rev. Lett.,  90203902 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation simulation: From Maxwell’s to unidirectional equations,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 036604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional Optical Pulse Propagation Equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J.V.

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Interpretation of the spectrally resolved far field of femtosecond pulses propagating in bulk nonlinear dispersive media,” Opt. Express 13, 10729–10741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic Nonlinear X Waves for Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Theory and simulation of supercontinuum generation in transparent bulk media,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 185–195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media, Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Zäir, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation”, Opt. Express 15, 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, and O. Vasseur, “Spatial Mode Cleaning by Femtosecond Filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2601–2603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Optics 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Pulse self-compression to the single cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett,  30, 2657–2659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, G. Méchain, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Propagation of twin laser pulses in air and concatenation of plasma strings produced by femtosecond infrared filaments,” Opt. Commun. 225, 177–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Reth-meier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Nagel, P. M.

L. Gallmann, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S .R. Leone, “Comparison of the filamentation and the hollw-core fiber characteristics for pulse compression into the few-cycle regime” App. Phys. B. 86, 2503–2508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neumark, D. M.

L. Gallmann, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S .R. Leone, “Comparison of the filamentation and the hollw-core fiber characteristics for pulse compression into the few-cycle regime” App. Phys. B. 86, 2503–2508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Stationary phase-mask for control and stabilization of optical filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2326–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niedermeier, S.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (200)
[CrossRef]

Parola, A.

M.A. Porras, A. Parola, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Light-filament dynamics and the spatiotemporal instability of the Townes profile,” Phys. Rev. A,  76011803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Penzkofer, A.

M. Wittmann and A. Penzkofer, “Spectral superbroadening of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 126, 308–317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

L. Gallmann, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S .R. Leone, “Comparison of the filamentation and the hollw-core fiber characteristics for pulse compression into the few-cycle regime” App. Phys. B. 86, 2503–2508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Stationary phase-mask for control and stabilization of optical filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2326–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piskarkas, A.

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaizauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E,  72, 037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Piskarkas, R.

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaizauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E,  72, 037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M. A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between Phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ishii, L. Turi, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Fuji, F. Krausz, A. Baltuška, R. Butkus, G. Veitas, V. Smilgevičius, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas “Multimillijoule chirped parametric amplification of few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Lett. 30, 567–569 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X waves in second-harmonic generation: Experimental results,” Phys. Rev. E,  68, 0266101–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaižauskas, V. Kudriašov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaičaitis, and A. Piskarskas, “Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses,” SPIE Proc. 4932, 346357 (2003).

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X Waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Dubietis, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, P. Di Trapani, and A . Couairon, “Stimulated-Raman X Waves in Ultrashort Optical Pulse Filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 184–186 (200)
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, R.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M. A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between Phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polesana, P.

Porras, M. A.

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M. A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between Phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Porras, M.A.

M.A. Porras, A. Parola, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Light-filament dynamics and the spatiotemporal instability of the Townes profile,” Phys. Rev. A,  76011803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, and O. Vasseur, “Spatial Mode Cleaning by Femtosecond Filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2601–2603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, G. Méchain, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Propagation of twin laser pulses in air and concatenation of plasma strings produced by femtosecond infrared filaments,” Opt. Commun. 225, 177–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rairoux, P.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (200)
[CrossRef]

Rätsep, M.

Reth-meier, K.

Rodriguez, M.

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Reth-meier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002)
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (200)
[CrossRef]

Ronneberger, F.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (200)
[CrossRef]

Saari, P.

Salmon, E.

Sauerbrey, R.

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Reth-meier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002)
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (200)
[CrossRef]

Schapper, F.

Schillinger, H.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (200)
[CrossRef]

Schlup, P.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. P. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seiffer, D.

Sirutkaitis, V.

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaižauskas, V. Kudriašov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaičaitis, and A. Piskarskas, “Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses,” SPIE Proc. 4932, 346357 (2003).

Smilgevicius, V.

So?najalg, H.

Stein, B.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (200)
[CrossRef]

Tamošauskas, G.

A. Dubietis, E. Gaižauskas, G. Tamošauskas, and Paolo Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92252903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu , “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007)
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trapani, P. Di

M.A. Porras, A. Parola, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Light-filament dynamics and the spatiotemporal instability of the Townes profile,” Phys. Rev. A,  76011803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X-wave formation by femtosecond filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 016608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M. A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between Phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijo-sius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 862–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaizauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E,  72, 037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X waves in second-harmonic generation: Experimental results,” Phys. Rev. E,  68, 0266101–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X Waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, “Coloured conical emission via second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.,  27, 1451–1453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Dubietis, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, P. Di Trapani, and A . Couairon, “Stimulated-Raman X Waves in Ultrashort Optical Pulse Filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 184–186 (200)
[CrossRef]

Trapani, Paolo Di

A. Dubietis, E. Gaižauskas, G. Tamošauskas, and Paolo Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92252903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trillo, S.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X Waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X waves in second-harmonic generation: Experimental results,” Phys. Rev. E,  68, 0266101–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, “Coloured conical emission via second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.,  27, 1451–1453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trull, J.

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X waves in second-harmonic generation: Experimental results,” Phys. Rev. E,  68, 0266101–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X Waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, “Coloured conical emission via second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.,  27, 1451–1453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Turi, L.

Tzortzakis, S.

A. Couairon, G. Méchain, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Propagation of twin laser pulses in air and concatenation of plasma strings produced by femtosecond infrared filaments,” Opt. Commun. 225, 177–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

M. Uiberacker et al., “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaicaitis, V.

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaižauskas, V. Kudriašov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaičaitis, and A. Piskarskas, “Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses,” SPIE Proc. 4932, 346357 (2003).

Valiulis, G.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X Waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X waves in second-harmonic generation: Experimental results,” Phys. Rev. E,  68, 0266101–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, “Coloured conical emission via second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.,  27, 1451–1453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Varanavicius, A.

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaizauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E,  72, 037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Vasseur, O.

Veitas, G.

Waite, D.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (200)
[CrossRef]

Wedekind, C.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (200)
[CrossRef]

Wille, H.

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Reth-meier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002)
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (200)
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, M.

M. Wittmann and A. Penzkofer, “Spectral superbroadening of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 126, 308–317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.P.

Wöste, L.

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Reth-meier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002)
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (200)
[CrossRef]

Wright, E.M.

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Interpretation of the spectrally resolved far field of femtosecond pulses propagating in bulk nonlinear dispersive media,” Opt. Express 13, 10729–10741 (2005).
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M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic Nonlinear X Waves for Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
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M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Theory and simulation of supercontinuum generation in transparent bulk media,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 185–195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

Yu, J.

Zäir, A.

Ziener, C.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (200)
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. B. (1)

L. Gallmann, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S .R. Leone, “Comparison of the filamentation and the hollw-core fiber characteristics for pulse compression into the few-cycle regime” App. Phys. B. 86, 2503–2508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Theory and simulation of supercontinuum generation in transparent bulk media,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 185–195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (200)
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu , “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007)
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Optics (1)

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Optics 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. P. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Uiberacker et al., “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Physics (1)

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, ”Attosecond Science”, Nature Physics 3, 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Wittmann and A. Penzkofer, “Spectral superbroadening of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 126, 308–317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, G. Méchain, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Propagation of twin laser pulses in air and concatenation of plasma strings produced by femtosecond infrared filaments,” Opt. Commun. 225, 177–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett (1)

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, ”Pulse self-compression to the single cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett,  30, 2657–2659 (2005).
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Opt. Lett. (8)

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T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Stationary phase-mask for control and stabilization of optical filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2326–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, and O. Vasseur, “Spatial Mode Cleaning by Femtosecond Filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2601–2603 (2007).
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D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Dubietis, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, P. Di Trapani, and A . Couairon, “Stimulated-Raman X Waves in Ultrashort Optical Pulse Filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 184–186 (200)
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Reth-meier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002)
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, “Coloured conical emission via second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.,  27, 1451–1453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Ishii, L. Turi, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Fuji, F. Krausz, A. Baltuška, R. Butkus, G. Veitas, V. Smilgevičius, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas “Multimillijoule chirped parametric amplification of few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Lett. 30, 567–569 (2005).
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Phs, Rev. Lett. (1)

K. D. Moll, A.L. Gaeta, and G. Fibich, “Self-Similar Optical Wave Collapse: Observation of the Townes Profile”, Phs, Rev. Lett.,  90203902 (2004)
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A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media, Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
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Phys. Rev. A (1)

M.A. Porras, A. Parola, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Light-filament dynamics and the spatiotemporal instability of the Townes profile,” Phys. Rev. A,  76011803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (6)

C. Conti, “Generation and nonlinear dynamics of X Waves of the Schrodinger equation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaizauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E,  72, 037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X waves in second-harmonic generation: Experimental results,” Phys. Rev. E,  68, 0266101–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation simulation: From Maxwell’s to unidirectional equations,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 036604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M. A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between Phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, “Nonlinear X-wave formation by femtosecond filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 73, 016608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

A. Dubietis, E. Gaižauskas, G. Tamošauskas, and Paolo Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92252903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic Nonlinear X Waves for Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X Waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional Optical Pulse Propagation Equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

SPIE Proc. (1)

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaižauskas, V. Kudriašov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaičaitis, and A. Piskarskas, “Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses,” SPIE Proc. 4932, 346357 (2003).

Other (4)

R.R. Alfano, “The Supercontinuum Laser Source,” Springer-Verlag, New York (1989).

Commercial CCD cameras come equipped with a limiting spectral filter in front of the CCD. This may be removed and substituted with a clear glass. For more details see http://www.lifepixel.com/IR.htm.

G.P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear fiber optics,” Academic Press Inc., New York (1989).

M. B. Gaarde, H. Chakraborty, and A. Couairon, “An alternative source of isolated attosecond light pulses,” SPIE Newsroom 10.1117/2.1200706.0619 (2007).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spatio-temporal modification of a weak, 250 nJ, 490 nm seed pulse in the presence of an intense, 2 μJ, 527 nm pump pulse. The inset shows the experimental spectrum taken at a lower, 1 μJ input pump energy, i.e. in the absence of nonlinear interactions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Experimentally measured spectrum with a 550 nm seed pulse that is reshaped into an X Wave through XPM and amplified and converted to ~ 505 nm through FWM. (b) Measured peak fluence amplification of the seed pulse as the wavelength is tuned from 570 nm to 650 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Measured (θ, λ) spectrum of 2.4 μJ filament in 4 cm of water with a weak 250 nJ, 637 nm seed pulse. All colors are real up to 700 nm: longer wavelengths are pink due to false color response of the modified Nikon D70 camera used for the measurement. Delay between pump and seed pulses has been optimized to maximize the intensity of X tails at the Stokes wavelength. (b) Numerical simulation (in logarithmic scale, 6 decades are shown, KO code) with the experimental input parameters in (a) and 600 fs relative delay between seed and pump pulses as measured at the water cell input facet. White lines in the graph indicate the X wave modes and related FWM curves as described in the text.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Same as in Fig. 3 but with a 3.5 μJ pump pulse. (a) Experimental spectrum, (b) and (c) are the numerically simulated spectra with the KO code and CO codes, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured (θ,λ) spectrum of 3.5 μJ filament in 4 cm of ethanol with a weak 250 nJ, 623 nm seed pulse. A second-order Raman X Wave and the second-Stokes wavelength (760 nm) is observed.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Numerically simulated (CO code) on-axis temporal intensity profiles for the pump pulse (black lines) and the seed pulse (red lines). The propagation distance z is indicated in each graph. The last graph shows the Raman gain (energy at Stokes wavelength normalized to pump energy) versus z.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Phase matching scheme used in deriving the longitudinal phase matching relations that explain the “whisker” features in the spectra. The corresponding phase matching curves are drawn as white lines in Fig. 3.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Numerically simulated (CO code) near-field profiles for the spectra in normalized logarithmic scale shown in Fig. 4. (a) the full NF profile. The dashed and dotted lines show the features associated to the red-shifted and blue-shifted “whisker” patterns, respectively. These have been isolated and are shown in (b) and (c) by filtering the full spectrum as shown in the respective insets.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Numerically simulated (CO code) on-axis temporal intensity profiles taken from Fig. 8. (a) the unfiltered profile, (b) the red-shifted “whisker” temporal profile showing a single isolated peak with ~ 15 fs duration and (c) the blue-shifted “whisker” temporal profile showing a single isolated peak with ~ 8 fs duration.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters for water used in the numerical simulations

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters for the input pulse and seed

Equations (15)

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k = k 2 k z 2 with k z = ( k 0 β ) + ( k 0 α ) Ω ,
K z ( ω , k ) = K z ( ω S , 0 ) ω S ω v pol ,
v g , p 1 = 2.17 ± 0.02 × 10 8 m / s ( red - shifte tails )
v g , p 2 = 2.236 ± 0.005 × 10 8 m / s ( blue - shifte tails )
v g , seed = 2.236 ± 0.006 × 10 8 m / s ,
v g , b = 2.24 ± 0.01 × 10 8 m / s .
K z ( ω , k ) 2 K z ( ω 0 , 0 ) + K z ( ω S , 0 ) ω S 2 ω 0 + ω v g 0
K z ( ω , k ) 2 K z ( ω S , 0 ) + K z ( ω 0 , 0 ) ω 0 2 ω S + ω v g 0
E ω , k , z z = i k z E ω , k , z + 1 2 k z ( i ω 2 c 2 P ω , k , z ω c 2 J ω , k , z )
2 K g 𝓔 ω , r , z z = i 2 𝓔 ω , r , z + i ( k 2 ( ω ) K g 2 ) 𝓔 ω , r , z + ( i ω 2 c 2 𝓟 ω , r , z ω c 2 𝓙 ω , r , z )
𝓟 t , r , z = 2 n 0 n 2 [ t d t′ R ( t t′ ) 𝓔 t′ , r , z 2 ] 𝓔 t , r , z
R ( t ) = ( 1 f R ) δ ( t ) + f R Λ 2 + Γ 2 Λ e Γ t sin ( Λ t ) ,
𝓙 = c ( σ ( ω ) ) ρ 𝓔 n 0 β K 𝓔 2 K 2 𝓔
σ ( ω ) = σ r + i σ i = ω 0 c ρ c ω 0 τ c ( 1 + i ω τ c ) 1 + ω τ c 2
ρ t = β K K h ¯ ω 0 𝓔 2 K + σ r U i 𝓔 2

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