Abstract

Retinal sampling poses a fundamental limit to resolution acuity in the periphery. However, reduced image quality from optical aberrations may also influence peripheral resolution. In this study, we investigate the impact of different degrees of optical correction on acuity in the periphery. We used an adaptive optics system to measure and modify the off-axis aberrations of the right eye of six normal subjects at 20° eccentricity. The system consists of a Hartmann-Shack sensor, a deformable mirror, and a channel for visual testing. Four different optical corrections were tested, ranging from foveal sphero-cylindrical correction to full correction of eccentric low- and high-order monochromatic aberrations. High-contrast visual acuity was measured in green light using a forced choice procedure with Landolt C’s, viewed via the deformable mirror through a 4.8-mm artificial pupil. The Zernike terms mainly induced by eccentricity were defocus and with- and against-the-rule astigmatism and each correction condition was successfully implemented. On average, resolution decimal visual acuity improved from 0.057 to 0.061 as the total root-mean-square wavefront error changed from 1.01 μm to 0.05 μm. However, this small tendency of improvement in visual acuity with correction was not significant. The results suggest that for our experimental conditions and subjects, the resolution acuity in the periphery cannot be improved with optical correction.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. N. Thibos, D. J. Walsh, and F. E. Cheney, “Vision beyond the resolution limit: aliasing in the periphery,” Vision Res. 27, 2193–2197 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, “Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 35, 939–947 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201–212 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Guirao and P. Artal, “Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye,” Vision Res. 39, 207–217 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. Seidemann, F. Schaeffel, A. Guirao, N. Lopez-Gil, and P. Artal, “Peripheral refractive errors in myopic, emmetropic, and hyperopic young subjects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2363–2373 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo. “Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction,” Accepted for publication in Optom. Vis. Sci. (2007).
  8. M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, “Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity,” Vision Res. 15, 1357–1362 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision,” Ophthalmologica 173, 128–135 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. N. Thibos, D. L. Still, and A. Bradley, “Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 36, 249–258 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 2134–2143 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  12. D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, “The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101–1104 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, “Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 298–306 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. R. S. Anderson, “The selective effect of optical defocus on detection and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Curr. Eye Res. 15, 351–353 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, “Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 666–670 (1982).
    [PubMed]
  16. J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, and P. Unsbo, “Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393–400 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. E. J. Fernández, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Closed-loop adaptive optics in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 26, 746–748 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634–638 (2002).
  19. P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388–1398 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  20. L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Transformation of Zernike coefficients: scaled, translated, and rotated wavefronts with circular and elliptical pupils,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 569–577 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, “Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 26–35 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. M. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, “Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 13, 400–409 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 6–14 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. D. A. Atchison, “Recent advances in measurement of monochromatic aberrations of human eyes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 5–27 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497–506 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (3)

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. M. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, “Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 13, 400–409 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, “Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 298–306 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Atchison, “Recent advances in measurement of monochromatic aberrations of human eyes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 5–27 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, “The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101–1104 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, “Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 26–35 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 6–14 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Guirao and P. Artal, “Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye,” Vision Res. 39, 207–217 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 2134–2143 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (3)

L. N. Thibos, D. L. Still, and A. Bradley, “Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 36, 249–258 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Anderson, “The selective effect of optical defocus on detection and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Curr. Eye Res. 15, 351–353 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, “Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 35, 939–947 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

L. N. Thibos, D. J. Walsh, and F. E. Cheney, “Vision beyond the resolution limit: aliasing in the periphery,” Vision Res. 27, 2193–2197 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, “Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 666–670 (1982).
[PubMed]

1976 (1)

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision,” Ophthalmologica 173, 128–135 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, “Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity,” Vision Res. 15, 1357–1362 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. S.

R. S. Anderson, “The selective effect of optical defocus on detection and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Curr. Eye Res. 15, 351–353 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aragon, J. L.

Artal, P.

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. M. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, “Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 13, 400–409 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Seidemann, F. Schaeffel, A. Guirao, N. Lopez-Gil, and P. Artal, “Peripheral refractive errors in myopic, emmetropic, and hyperopic young subjects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2363–2373 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634–638 (2002).

E. J. Fernández, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Closed-loop adaptive optics in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 26, 746–748 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497–506 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388–1398 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Guirao and P. Artal, “Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye,” Vision Res. 39, 207–217 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, “Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 35, 939–947 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201–212 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atchison, D. A.

D. A. Atchison, “Recent advances in measurement of monochromatic aberrations of human eyes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 5–27 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, A.

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 2134–2143 (1997).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, D. L. Still, and A. Bradley, “Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 36, 249–258 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brainard, D. H.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchheister, J.

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, and P. Unsbo, “Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393–400 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheney, F. E.

L. N. Thibos, D. J. Walsh, and F. E. Cheney, “Vision beyond the resolution limit: aliasing in the periphery,” Vision Res. 27, 2193–2197 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coats, D. K.

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, “The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101–1104 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombo, E.

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, “Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 35, 939–947 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Derrington, A. M.

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, “Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 35, 939–947 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Díaz-Santana, L.

L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, “Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 26–35 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Fernández, E. J.

Gasser, W.

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 6–14 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goelz, S.

Guirao, A.

A. Seidemann, F. Schaeffel, A. Guirao, N. Lopez-Gil, and P. Artal, “Peripheral refractive errors in myopic, emmetropic, and hyperopic young subjects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2363–2373 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Guirao and P. Artal, “Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye,” Vision Res. 39, 207–217 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, J.

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, “Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 298–306 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, and P. Unsbo, “Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393–400 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo. “Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction,” Accepted for publication in Optom. Vis. Sci. (2007).

Hermann, B.

Hofer, H.

Hoogenboom, W. P. H.

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision,” Ophthalmologica 173, 128–135 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoogerheide, J.

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision,” Ophthalmologica 173, 128–135 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hussein, M. A.

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, “The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101–1104 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hyvarinen, L.

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, “Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 666–670 (1982).
[PubMed]

Iglesias, I.

Jackson, D. W.

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, “The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101–1104 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, C. A.

M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, “Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity,” Vision Res. 15, 1357–1362 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kenmore, T.

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 6–14 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamont, A.

M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, “Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity,” Vision Res. 15, 1357–1362 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lara-Saucedo, D.

L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, “Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 26–35 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laurinen, P.

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, “Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 666–670 (1982).
[PubMed]

Leibowitz, H. W.

M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, “Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity,” Vision Res. 15, 1357–1362 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Llorente, L.

L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, “Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 26–35 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez-Gil, N.

Lundström, L.

L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Transformation of Zernike coefficients: scaled, translated, and rotated wavefronts with circular and elliptical pupils,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 569–577 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, “Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 298–306 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo. “Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction,” Accepted for publication in Optom. Vis. Sci. (2007).

Manzanera, S.

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634–638 (2002).

Marcos, S.

L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, “Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 26–35 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMahon, M. J.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Millodot, M.

M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, “Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity,” Vision Res. 15, 1357–1362 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Navarro, R.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36, 1103–1114 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201–212 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paysse, E. A.

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, “The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101–1104 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piers, P.

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics visual simulator,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634–638 (2002).

Prieto, P. M.

Rempt, F.

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision,” Ophthalmologica 173, 128–135 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosby, G.

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, “The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101–1104 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rovamo, J.

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, “Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23, 666–670 (1982).
[PubMed]

Salmon, T. O.

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 6–14 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaeffel, F.

Seidemann, A.

Singer, B.

Still, D. L.

L. N. Thibos, D. L. Still, and A. Bradley, “Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 36, 249–258 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svensson, I.

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, “Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 298–306 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terenius, E.

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, and P. Unsbo, “Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393–400 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 2134–2143 (1997).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, D. L. Still, and A. Bradley, “Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 36, 249–258 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, D. J. Walsh, and F. E. Cheney, “Vision beyond the resolution limit: aliasing in the periphery,” Vision Res. 27, 2193–2197 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unsbo, P.

L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Transformation of Zernike coefficients: scaled, translated, and rotated wavefronts with circular and elliptical pupils,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 569–577 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, “Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 298–306 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, “Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 6–14 (2003).
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Other (1)

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo. “Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction,” Accepted for publication in Optom. Vis. Sci. (2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Main components of the optical setup. The entrance pupil of the eye is conjugated to the deformable mirror and the wavefront sensor via telescopes. For the sake of clarity, lenses and some mirrors have been excluded and the setup is not drawn to scale.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Remaining peripheral aberrations for each correction level: A - Foveal sphero-cylindrical correction, B - Eccentric defocus correction, C - Eccentric sphero-cylindrical correction, D - Full eccentric aberration correction. The columns show the average defocus, C(2,0), oblique astigmatism, C(2,-2), horizontal/vertical astigmatism, C(2,2), and the root-mean-square error of high-order wavefront aberrations, RMSHOA. The colored dots are the values for each individual subject. All values are given in μm over a circular pupil of 4.8 mm in diameter (λ = 532 nm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Wavefront map and associated PSF for subject LL for each correction level (A-D, same as in Fig. 2). The brightness of the PSFs has been increased.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Peripheral resolution threshold values in decimal visual acuity for the six subjects (SM, NG, GP, LL, EV, and AM) with the same optical corrections (A-D) as in Fig. 2. The bars are the average of three visual evaluation measurements, which are also shown individually by the black dots.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Mean peripheral resolution threshold values plotted against the aberration root-mean-square (including defocus and astigmatism). The different markers denote the four optical corrections presented in Fig. 2 (A-D). The error bars are the standard deviation of the three visual testing runs.

Equations (1)

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freq . of seeing = 100 % 25 % 1 + e ( t t 0 ) Δ t + 25 % .

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