Abstract

Using magnetic fields to differentiate the effects of electrons and x-rays, it was discovered that single strand breaks in supercoiled DNA were mainly caused by the energetic ultrafast electrons rather than the ultrafast x-ray photons emitted from the same table-top ultrafast x-ray source. At constant pulse energy of the driving laser pulses, shorter laser pulses produced more strand breaks than longer ones. This was attributed to the increased flux of electrons produced with the shorter laser pulses. Other factors contributing to the DNA damage were investigated and discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Foley, Carter, J. , Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation," Chem. Commun.3192-3194 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Porter, Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76.043108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

F. Shan, Couch, V.  and Guo, T.  "Atomic tungsten for ultrafast hard X-ray generation," J. Phys. Chem. A. 109.4216-4220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Shan, Couch, V.  and Guo, T.  "Atomic tungsten for ultrafast hard X-ray generation," J. Phys. Chem. A. 109.4216-4220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Shan and Guo, T.  "Ultrafast selected energy X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations of Ni and Zn species," J. Chem. Phys. 122.244710 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Shan and Guo, T.  "Ultrafast selected energy X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations of Ni and Zn species," J. Chem. Phys. 122.244710 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Foley, Carter, J. , Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation," Chem. Commun.3192-3194 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Foley, Carter, J. , Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation," Chem. Commun.3192-3194 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Porter, Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76.043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Porter, Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76.043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Crowell, Gosztola, D. , Shkrob, I. , Oulianov, D. , Jonah, C.  and Rajh, T.  "Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry," Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501-509 (2004).

R. Crowell, Gosztola, D. , Shkrob, I. , Oulianov, D. , Jonah, C.  and Rajh, T.  "Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry," Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501-509 (2004).

2003

X. Wang, Saleh, N. , Krishnan, M. , Wang, H. , Backus, S. , Murnane, M. , Kapteyn, H. , Umstadter, D. , Wang, Q. ,  et al. "Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse," J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Saleh, N. , Krishnan, M. , Wang, H. , Backus, S. , Murnane, M. , Kapteyn, H. , Umstadter, D. , Wang, Q. ,  et al. "Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse," J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

T. Guo, Spielmann, C. , Walker, B. C.  and Barty, C. P. J.  "Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72.41-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Guo, Spielmann, C. , Walker, B. C.  and Barty, C. P. J.  "Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72.41-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

N. Saleh, Flippo, K. , Nemoto, K. , Umstadter, D. , Crowell, R. , Jonah, C.  and Trifunac, A.  "Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305-2308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Saleh, Flippo, K. , Nemoto, K. , Umstadter, D. , Crowell, R. , Jonah, C.  and Trifunac, A.  "Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305-2308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Reich, Gibbon, P. , Uschmann, I.  and Forster, E.  "Yield optimization and time structure of femtosecond laser plasma K alpha sources," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84.4846-4849 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Reich, Gibbon, P. , Uschmann, I.  and Forster, E.  "Yield optimization and time structure of femtosecond laser plasma K alpha sources," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84.4846-4849 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

S. C. Wilks and Kruer, W. L.  "Absorption of Ultrashort, Ultra-Intense Laser Light By Solids and Overdense Plasmas," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33.1954-1968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Wilks and Kruer, W. L.  "Absorption of Ultrashort, Ultra-Intense Laser Light By Solids and Overdense Plasmas," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33.1954-1968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Kozawa, Kobayashi, T. , Ueda, T.  and Uesaka, M.  "Generation of high-current (1kA) subpicosecond electron single pulse," Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A 399.180-184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Kozawa, Kobayashi, T. , Ueda, T.  and Uesaka, M.  "Generation of high-current (1kA) subpicosecond electron single pulse," Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A 399.180-184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. D. Perry and Mourou, G.  "Terawatt to Petawatt Subpicosecond Lasers," Science. 264.917-924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry and Mourou, G.  "Terawatt to Petawatt Subpicosecond Lasers," Science. 264.917-924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

M. M. Murnane, Kapteyn, H. C. , Rosen, M. D.  and Falcone, R. W.  "Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses From Laser-Produced Plasmas," Science. 251.531-536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Murnane, Kapteyn, H. C. , Rosen, M. D.  and Falcone, R. W.  "Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses From Laser-Produced Plasmas," Science. 251.531-536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, H.

X. Wang, Saleh, N. , Krishnan, M. , Wang, H. , Backus, S. , Murnane, M. , Kapteyn, H. , Umstadter, D. , Wang, Q. ,  et al. "Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse," J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barty, B. C.

T. Guo, Spielmann, C. , Walker, B. C.  and Barty, C. P. J.  "Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72.41-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carter, E.

E. Foley, Carter, J. , Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation," Chem. Commun.3192-3194 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G. J.

Couch, F.

F. Shan, Couch, V.  and Guo, T.  "Atomic tungsten for ultrafast hard X-ray generation," J. Phys. Chem. A. 109.4216-4220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crowell, D.

N. Saleh, Flippo, K. , Nemoto, K. , Umstadter, D. , Crowell, R. , Jonah, C.  and Trifunac, A.  "Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305-2308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crowell, R.

R. Crowell, Gosztola, D. , Shkrob, I. , Oulianov, D. , Jonah, C.  and Rajh, T.  "Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry," Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501-509 (2004).

Falcone, M. D.

M. M. Murnane, Kapteyn, H. C. , Rosen, M. D.  and Falcone, R. W.  "Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses From Laser-Produced Plasmas," Science. 251.531-536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flippo, N.

N. Saleh, Flippo, K. , Nemoto, K. , Umstadter, D. , Crowell, R. , Jonah, C.  and Trifunac, A.  "Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305-2308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foley, E.

E. Foley, Carter, J. , Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation," Chem. Commun.3192-3194 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forster, I.

C. Reich, Gibbon, P. , Uschmann, I.  and Forster, E.  "Yield optimization and time structure of femtosecond laser plasma K alpha sources," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84.4846-4849 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, F.

Gibbon, C.

C. Reich, Gibbon, P. , Uschmann, I.  and Forster, E.  "Yield optimization and time structure of femtosecond laser plasma K alpha sources," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84.4846-4849 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gosztola, R.

R. Crowell, Gosztola, D. , Shkrob, I. , Oulianov, D. , Jonah, C.  and Rajh, T.  "Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry," Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501-509 (2004).

Guo, A.

Guo, F.

R. Porter, Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76.043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Shan and Guo, T.  "Ultrafast selected energy X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations of Ni and Zn species," J. Chem. Phys. 122.244710 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Foley, Carter, J. , Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation," Chem. Commun.3192-3194 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

T. Guo, Spielmann, C. , Walker, B. C.  and Barty, C. P. J.  "Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72.41-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guo, V.

F. Shan, Couch, V.  and Guo, T.  "Atomic tungsten for ultrafast hard X-ray generation," J. Phys. Chem. A. 109.4216-4220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jonah, D.

R. Crowell, Gosztola, D. , Shkrob, I. , Oulianov, D. , Jonah, C.  and Rajh, T.  "Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry," Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501-509 (2004).

Jonah, R.

N. Saleh, Flippo, K. , Nemoto, K. , Umstadter, D. , Crowell, R. , Jonah, C.  and Trifunac, A.  "Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305-2308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, M.

X. Wang, Saleh, N. , Krishnan, M. , Wang, H. , Backus, S. , Murnane, M. , Kapteyn, H. , Umstadter, D. , Wang, Q. ,  et al. "Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse," J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, M. M.

M. M. Murnane, Kapteyn, H. C. , Rosen, M. D.  and Falcone, R. W.  "Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses From Laser-Produced Plasmas," Science. 251.531-536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kozawa, Kobayashi, T. , Ueda, T.  and Uesaka, M.  "Generation of high-current (1kA) subpicosecond electron single pulse," Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A 399.180-184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kozawa, T.

T. Kozawa, Kobayashi, T. , Ueda, T.  and Uesaka, M.  "Generation of high-current (1kA) subpicosecond electron single pulse," Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A 399.180-184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, N.

X. Wang, Saleh, N. , Krishnan, M. , Wang, H. , Backus, S. , Murnane, M. , Kapteyn, H. , Umstadter, D. , Wang, Q. ,  et al. "Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse," J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kruer, S. C.

S. C. Wilks and Kruer, W. L.  "Absorption of Ultrashort, Ultra-Intense Laser Light By Solids and Overdense Plasmas," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33.1954-1968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, M. D.

M. D. Perry and Mourou, G.  "Terawatt to Petawatt Subpicosecond Lasers," Science. 264.917-924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

M. M. Murnane, Kapteyn, H. C. , Rosen, M. D.  and Falcone, R. W.  "Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses From Laser-Produced Plasmas," Science. 251.531-536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, S.

X. Wang, Saleh, N. , Krishnan, M. , Wang, H. , Backus, S. , Murnane, M. , Kapteyn, H. , Umstadter, D. , Wang, Q. ,  et al. "Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse," J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, K.

N. Saleh, Flippo, K. , Nemoto, K. , Umstadter, D. , Crowell, R. , Jonah, C.  and Trifunac, A.  "Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305-2308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oulianov, I.

R. Crowell, Gosztola, D. , Shkrob, I. , Oulianov, D. , Jonah, C.  and Rajh, T.  "Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry," Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501-509 (2004).

Perry, M. D.

M. D. Perry and Mourou, G.  "Terawatt to Petawatt Subpicosecond Lasers," Science. 264.917-924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, R.

R. Porter, Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76.043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rajh, C.

R. Crowell, Gosztola, D. , Shkrob, I. , Oulianov, D. , Jonah, C.  and Rajh, T.  "Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry," Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501-509 (2004).

Reich, C.

C. Reich, Gibbon, P. , Uschmann, I.  and Forster, E.  "Yield optimization and time structure of femtosecond laser plasma K alpha sources," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84.4846-4849 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, H. C.

M. M. Murnane, Kapteyn, H. C. , Rosen, M. D.  and Falcone, R. W.  "Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses From Laser-Produced Plasmas," Science. 251.531-536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saleh, N.

N. Saleh, Flippo, K. , Nemoto, K. , Umstadter, D. , Crowell, R. , Jonah, C.  and Trifunac, A.  "Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305-2308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, X.

X. Wang, Saleh, N. , Krishnan, M. , Wang, H. , Backus, S. , Murnane, M. , Kapteyn, H. , Umstadter, D. , Wang, Q. ,  et al. "Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse," J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shan, F.

F. Shan, Couch, V.  and Guo, T.  "Atomic tungsten for ultrafast hard X-ray generation," J. Phys. Chem. A. 109.4216-4220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Shan and Guo, T.  "Ultrafast selected energy X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations of Ni and Zn species," J. Chem. Phys. 122.244710 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shan, G. J.

Shan, J.

E. Foley, Carter, J. , Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation," Chem. Commun.3192-3194 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shan, R.

R. Porter, Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76.043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shkrob, D.

R. Crowell, Gosztola, D. , Shkrob, I. , Oulianov, D. , Jonah, C.  and Rajh, T.  "Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry," Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501-509 (2004).

Spielmann, T.

T. Guo, Spielmann, C. , Walker, B. C.  and Barty, C. P. J.  "Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72.41-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trifunac, C.

N. Saleh, Flippo, K. , Nemoto, K. , Umstadter, D. , Crowell, R. , Jonah, C.  and Trifunac, A.  "Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305-2308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, T.

T. Kozawa, Kobayashi, T. , Ueda, T.  and Uesaka, M.  "Generation of high-current (1kA) subpicosecond electron single pulse," Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A 399.180-184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uesaka, T.

T. Kozawa, Kobayashi, T. , Ueda, T.  and Uesaka, M.  "Generation of high-current (1kA) subpicosecond electron single pulse," Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A 399.180-184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Umstadter, H.

X. Wang, Saleh, N. , Krishnan, M. , Wang, H. , Backus, S. , Murnane, M. , Kapteyn, H. , Umstadter, D. , Wang, Q. ,  et al. "Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse," J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Umstadter, K.

N. Saleh, Flippo, K. , Nemoto, K. , Umstadter, D. , Crowell, R. , Jonah, C.  and Trifunac, A.  "Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305-2308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uschmann, P.

C. Reich, Gibbon, P. , Uschmann, I.  and Forster, E.  "Yield optimization and time structure of femtosecond laser plasma K alpha sources," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84.4846-4849 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, C.

T. Guo, Spielmann, C. , Walker, B. C.  and Barty, C. P. J.  "Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72.41-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

X. Wang, Saleh, N. , Krishnan, M. , Wang, H. , Backus, S. , Murnane, M. , Kapteyn, H. , Umstadter, D. , Wang, Q. ,  et al. "Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse," J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

X. Wang, Saleh, N. , Krishnan, M. , Wang, H. , Backus, S. , Murnane, M. , Kapteyn, H. , Umstadter, D. , Wang, Q. ,  et al. "Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse," J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Saleh, N. , Krishnan, M. , Wang, H. , Backus, S. , Murnane, M. , Kapteyn, H. , Umstadter, D. , Wang, Q. ,  et al. "Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse," J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilks, S. C.

S. C. Wilks and Kruer, W. L.  "Absorption of Ultrashort, Ultra-Intense Laser Light By Solids and Overdense Plasmas," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33.1954-1968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Commun.

E. Foley, Carter, J. , Shan, F.  and Guo, T.  "Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation," Chem. Commun.3192-3194 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.

S. C. Wilks and Kruer, W. L.  "Absorption of Ultrashort, Ultra-Intense Laser Light By Solids and Overdense Plasmas," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33.1954-1968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental layout. X-rays and electrons are produced from the x-ray target and collimated with the lead slits.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

X-ray spectra at shorter and longer optical pulses. The slope indicates the electron temperature. The dark line represents the x-ray photon histogram of the longer pulse, and the gray line of the shorter pulse.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

DNA damage by LEXS. Fig. 3A shows the arrangement of the sample with respect to the source. Fig. 3B shows the gel results. The top band in each lane represents the damage scDNA, and the lower band is the scDNA.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

DNA damage by LEXS with magnetic field shielding. Fig. 4A shows the arrangement, and 4B shows the gel results. Little damage to scDNA was observed in all three cases.

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