Abstract

We report for the first time to our knowledge optical waveguiding in an organic crystalline waveguide produced by ion implantation. Using H+ ions a refractive index barrier suitable for waveguiding has been realized in the highly nonlinear optical organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST). The refractive index changes in the waveguiding region as a function of the distance from the surface have been measured. Maximal refractive index changes of up to -0.2 and -0.1 at wavelengths of 633nm and 810nm have been realized, respectively. The waveguide refractive index profiles as a function of the ion fluence have been determined. Planar waveguiding has been demonstrated by polishing sharp edges and using conventional end-fire coupling. The measured losses are ~7dB/cm at 1.57μm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST Channel Optical Waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Science,  220, 88-95 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys.,  3, 449-462, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation, (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-Dimethylamino-4’-N’-Methyl-stilbazolium Tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, "Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023-6031 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. D. Townsend, "An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguide profiles," Nucl. Instrum. and Methods B 46, 18-25 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Zhang, P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and J. R. Kulisch, "Ion implanted waveguides in polymethylmethacrylate," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4547-4548 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Guarino and P. Günter, "Nondestructive method for the characterization of ion-implanted optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2412-2414 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Science,  220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST Channel Optical Waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys.,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-Dimethylamino-4’-N’-Methyl-stilbazolium Tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, "Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023-6031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. D. Townsend, "An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguide profiles," Nucl. Instrum. and Methods B 46, 18-25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

L. Zhang, P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and J. R. Kulisch, "Ion implanted waveguides in polymethylmethacrylate," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4547-4548 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bartlome, R.

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Science,  220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, St.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, L.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bhowmik, A.

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys.,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-Dimethylamino-4’-N’-Methyl-stilbazolium Tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buchal, Ch.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, "Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023-6031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cai, B.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST Channel Optical Waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, D. R.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P. J.

L. Zhang, P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and J. R. Kulisch, "Ion implanted waveguides in polymethylmethacrylate," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4547-4548 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deneault, S. J.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dittrich, Ph.

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Science,  220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ehrensperger, M.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys.,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fleuster, M.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, "Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023-6031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, D.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, "Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023-6031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Follonier, S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Geis, W.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guarino, A.

Günter, P.

A. Guarino and P. Günter, "Nondestructive method for the characterization of ion-implanted optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2412-2414 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Science,  220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys.,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-Dimethylamino-4’-N’-Methyl-stilbazolium Tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, "Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023-6031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jazbinšek, M.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, "Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023-6031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST Channel Optical Waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knöpfle, G.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krohn, K. E.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kulisch, J. R.

L. Zhang, P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and J. R. Kulisch, "Ion implanted waveguides in polymethylmethacrylate," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4547-4548 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manetta, S.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys.,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marchant, M. F.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Science,  220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mowers, W.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mutter, L.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pan, F.

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-Dimethylamino-4’-N’-Methyl-stilbazolium Tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pliska, T.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sinta, R.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solcia, C.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spreiter, R.

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, K.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST Channel Optical Waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, M.

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, "An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguide profiles," Nucl. Instrum. and Methods B 46, 18-25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and J. R. Kulisch, "Ion implanted waveguides in polymethylmethacrylate," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4547-4548 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-Dimethylamino-4’-N’-Methyl-stilbazolium Tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and J. R. Kulisch, "Ion implanted waveguides in polymethylmethacrylate," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4547-4548 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST Channel Optical Waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-Dimethylamino-4’-N’-Methyl-stilbazolium Tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Science (1)

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Science,  220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Phys. (1)

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys.,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, "Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023-6031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and J. R. Kulisch, "Ion implanted waveguides in polymethylmethacrylate," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4547-4548 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. and Methods B (1)

P. D. Townsend, "An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguide profiles," Nucl. Instrum. and Methods B 46, 18-25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation, (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for the determination of the refractive index profile by measuring the back reflected light from a wedged-polished sample, which was scanned in η direction in steps of 5 μm yielding a depth resolution of less than 0.1 μm in z direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Nuclear (blue) and electronic (red) energy deposition in dependence on the implantation depth for 720 keV He+ ions in DAST calculated with SRIM.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Refractive index change of n 1 versus implantation depth z at the wavelength 633 nm for 720 keV He+ ion implantation in DAST with a fluence of ϕ = 0.8 × 1013 ions/cm2 measured with the reflection scan method (Fig.1). The full line is a guide line for the eye.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Nuclear (blue) and electronic (red) energy deposition curve of 450 keV (dashed line) and 1 MeV H+ ions (full line) in DAST calculated with SRIM. For reason of comparison, ordinate axes with the same order of magnitude as in Fig. 2 have been chosen.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Refractive index change of n 1 versus implantation depth z at the wavelength 633 nm (a) and 810 nm (b) for 1MeV H+ ion implantation in DAST with a fluence of ϕ=1.25×1014 ions/cm2 measured with the reflection scan measurement method. The full lines are theoretical curves based on the theoretical model. The corresponding parameters are summarized in Table1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

a) Experimental setup for the determination of the effective mode indices with the barrier coupling method. b) Detected reflectivity as a function of the external angle θat λ= 810 nm for light polarized along the dielectric x 1 axis. The DAST sample was implanted with 1MeV H+ ions with a fluence of 1.0×1014 ions/cm2.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

a) Refractive index profiles atλ= 850 nm for fluences of 1.25×1014 ions/cm2 (red), 1.0×1014 ions/cm2 (blue) and 0.5×1014 ions/cm2 (green) calculated with the parameters obtained with the reflection scan measurement method. b) Corresponding calculated (full line) and measured (∘) effective mode indices N eff; the calculated modes indices are connected for clarity reasons. The dashed lines for the effective indices correspond best to the measured modes obtained by a reduction of the barrier position of about 5% compared to the depicted refractive index profiles in a).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

a) Experimental setup for the determination of the waveguiding characteristics and loss determination: L: lens, CCD: infrared camera, PD: photodiode. b) Photograph of the end-face of the crystal taken with the CCD camera. The cross section of the planar guided light at 1570 nm is clearly visible.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Model parameters of Eq.(3), which correspond best to the experimental data shown in Fig. 5 obtained by a least square theoretical analysis.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n ( z ) = Δ n el ( z ) + Δn n ( z ) .
Δ n n ( z ) = Δ n n , 0 [ 1 exp ( ϕ G n ( μ z ) G n , 0 ) γ n ]
Δn el ( z ) = Δ n el , 0 [ 1 exp ( ϕ G el ( μ z ) G el , 0 ) γ el ] ,
n = 1 + R 1 R .

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