Abstract

A ridge waveguide technology exhibiting high polarization dependency is developed for new efficient multi-section passive polarization rotator applications. In the presented configuration, the calculated mode coupling between the waveguide sections is very efficient and allows a polarization rotation with a high extinction ratio at λ=1,55 µm. Experimental results show efficient polarization rotation with low cross-talk levels (-16dB) and no significant excess losses between sections. However, the overall transmission efficiency is limited by propagation losses and coupling losses to standard optical fibers.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. R. Watts and M. Qi, “Towards integrated polarization diversity: design, fabrication, and characterization of integrated polarization splitters and rotators,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC)Anaheim, California, 6–11 March (2005).
  2. Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278–1280 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. J. G. M. van der tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaale, F. Hakimzadeh, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, “Realization of short integrated optic passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 893–895 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. El-Refaei and D. Yevick, “An optimized InGaAsP/InP polarization converter employing asymmetric rib waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1544–1548 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. R. Watts and H. A. Hauss, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization rotators,” Opt. Lett. 13, 138–140 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and C. Aubert “A buried ridge waveguide technology for polarization rotation and polarization splitting,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), Grenoble (France), 6–8 April 2005.
  8. T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and L. Roussel, “Integrated Polarization Converter of Sputtered Inorganic Ta205 and Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films,” OSA conference on Integrated Photonics Research and Application (IPRA), Uncasville, Connecticut, 24–26 April 2006.
  9. V. P. Tzolov and M. Fontaine, “A passive polarization converter free of longitudinally-periodic structure,” Opt. Commun. 127, 7–13 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Subdø, “Film Mode Matching, a versatile numerical method for vector mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides,” Pure. Appl. Opt. 2, 211–233 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610–2618 (1999).
  12. P. Coudray, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Integrated optics based on organo-mineral materials,” Mater. Sci. Semisecond Process 3, 331–337 (2000).
    [Crossref]

2006 (1)

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and L. Roussel, “Integrated Polarization Converter of Sputtered Inorganic Ta205 and Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films,” OSA conference on Integrated Photonics Research and Application (IPRA), Uncasville, Connecticut, 24–26 April 2006.

2005 (2)

M. R. Watts and H. A. Hauss, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization rotators,” Opt. Lett. 13, 138–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and C. Aubert “A buried ridge waveguide technology for polarization rotation and polarization splitting,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), Grenoble (France), 6–8 April 2005.

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Integrated optics based on organo-mineral materials,” Mater. Sci. Semisecond Process 3, 331–337 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610–2618 (1999).

1996 (2)

C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. P. Tzolov and M. Fontaine, “A passive polarization converter free of longitudinally-periodic structure,” Opt. Commun. 127, 7–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. J. G. M. van der tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaale, F. Hakimzadeh, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, “Realization of short integrated optic passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 893–895 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

A. Subdø, “Film Mode Matching, a versatile numerical method for vector mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides,” Pure. Appl. Opt. 2, 211–233 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278–1280 (1991).
[Crossref]

Alferness, R.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278–1280 (1991).
[Crossref]

Aubert, C.

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and C. Aubert “A buried ridge waveguide technology for polarization rotation and polarization splitting,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), Grenoble (France), 6–8 April 2005.

Coudray, P.

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and L. Roussel, “Integrated Polarization Converter of Sputtered Inorganic Ta205 and Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films,” OSA conference on Integrated Photonics Research and Application (IPRA), Uncasville, Connecticut, 24–26 April 2006.

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and C. Aubert “A buried ridge waveguide technology for polarization rotation and polarization splitting,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), Grenoble (France), 6–8 April 2005.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Integrated optics based on organo-mineral materials,” Mater. Sci. Semisecond Process 3, 331–337 (2000).
[Crossref]

Culshaw, I. S.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610–2618 (1999).

Dam, C. Van

C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[Crossref]

De Micheli, M.

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and L. Roussel, “Integrated Polarization Converter of Sputtered Inorganic Ta205 and Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films,” OSA conference on Integrated Photonics Research and Application (IPRA), Uncasville, Connecticut, 24–26 April 2006.

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and C. Aubert “A buried ridge waveguide technology for polarization rotation and polarization splitting,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), Grenoble (France), 6–8 April 2005.

El-Refaei, H.

Escoubas, L.

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and L. Roussel, “Integrated Polarization Converter of Sputtered Inorganic Ta205 and Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films,” OSA conference on Integrated Photonics Research and Application (IPRA), Uncasville, Connecticut, 24–26 April 2006.

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and C. Aubert “A buried ridge waveguide technology for polarization rotation and polarization splitting,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), Grenoble (France), 6–8 April 2005.

Etienne, P.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Integrated optics based on organo-mineral materials,” Mater. Sci. Semisecond Process 3, 331–337 (2000).
[Crossref]

Flory, F.

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and L. Roussel, “Integrated Polarization Converter of Sputtered Inorganic Ta205 and Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films,” OSA conference on Integrated Photonics Research and Application (IPRA), Uncasville, Connecticut, 24–26 April 2006.

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and C. Aubert “A buried ridge waveguide technology for polarization rotation and polarization splitting,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), Grenoble (France), 6–8 April 2005.

Fontaine, M.

V. P. Tzolov and M. Fontaine, “A passive polarization converter free of longitudinally-periodic structure,” Opt. Commun. 127, 7–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

Groen, F. H.

C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. J. G. M. van der tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaale, F. Hakimzadeh, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, “Realization of short integrated optic passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 893–895 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hakimzadeh, F.

J. J. G. M. van der tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaale, F. Hakimzadeh, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, “Realization of short integrated optic passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 893–895 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ham, F. P. G. M. Van

C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hamacher, M.

C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hauss, H. A.

M. R. Watts and H. A. Hauss, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization rotators,” Opt. Lett. 13, 138–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heidrich, H.

C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[Crossref]

Koch, T.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278–1280 (1991).
[Crossref]

Koren, U.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278–1280 (1991).
[Crossref]

Mangeat, T.

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and L. Roussel, “Integrated Polarization Converter of Sputtered Inorganic Ta205 and Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films,” OSA conference on Integrated Photonics Research and Application (IPRA), Uncasville, Connecticut, 24–26 April 2006.

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and C. Aubert “A buried ridge waveguide technology for polarization rotation and polarization splitting,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), Grenoble (France), 6–8 April 2005.

Metaale, E. G.

J. J. G. M. van der tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaale, F. Hakimzadeh, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, “Realization of short integrated optic passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 893–895 (1995).
[Crossref]

Miller, B. I.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278–1280 (1991).
[Crossref]

Moerman, I.

J. J. G. M. van der tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaale, F. Hakimzadeh, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, “Realization of short integrated optic passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 893–895 (1995).
[Crossref]

Moreau, Y.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Integrated optics based on organo-mineral materials,” Mater. Sci. Semisecond Process 3, 331–337 (2000).
[Crossref]

Morman, I.

C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[Crossref]

Oei, Y. S.

J. J. G. M. van der tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaale, F. Hakimzadeh, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, “Realization of short integrated optic passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 893–895 (1995).
[Crossref]

Oron, M.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278–1280 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pascher, W. W.

C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pedersen, J. W.

J. J. G. M. van der tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaale, F. Hakimzadeh, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, “Realization of short integrated optic passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 893–895 (1995).
[Crossref]

Qi, M.

M. R. Watts and M. Qi, “Towards integrated polarization diversity: design, fabrication, and characterization of integrated polarization splitters and rotators,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC)Anaheim, California, 6–11 March (2005).

Roussel, L.

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and L. Roussel, “Integrated Polarization Converter of Sputtered Inorganic Ta205 and Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films,” OSA conference on Integrated Photonics Research and Application (IPRA), Uncasville, Connecticut, 24–26 April 2006.

Shani, Y.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278–1280 (1991).
[Crossref]

Smit, M. K.

C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[Crossref]

Spiekman, L. H.

C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[Crossref]

Subdø, A.

A. Subdø, “Film Mode Matching, a versatile numerical method for vector mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides,” Pure. Appl. Opt. 2, 211–233 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tol, J. J. G. M. Van Der

C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. J. G. M. van der tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaale, F. Hakimzadeh, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, “Realization of short integrated optic passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 893–895 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tzolov, V. P.

V. P. Tzolov and M. Fontaine, “A passive polarization converter free of longitudinally-periodic structure,” Opt. Commun. 127, 7–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts and H. A. Hauss, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization rotators,” Opt. Lett. 13, 138–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. R. Watts and M. Qi, “Towards integrated polarization diversity: design, fabrication, and characterization of integrated polarization splitters and rotators,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC)Anaheim, California, 6–11 March (2005).

Weinert, C. M.

C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[Crossref]

Whittaker, D. M.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610–2618 (1999).

Yevick, D.

Young, M. G.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278–1280 (1991).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278–1280 (1991).
[Crossref]

European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), Grenoble (France) (1)

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and C. Aubert “A buried ridge waveguide technology for polarization rotation and polarization splitting,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), Grenoble (France), 6–8 April 2005.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. J. G. M. van der tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaale, F. Hakimzadeh, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, “Realization of short integrated optic passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 893–895 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. Van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, I. Morman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Noval compact polarization converter based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Mater. Sci. Semisecond Process (1)

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Integrated optics based on organo-mineral materials,” Mater. Sci. Semisecond Process 3, 331–337 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. P. Tzolov and M. Fontaine, “A passive polarization converter free of longitudinally-periodic structure,” Opt. Commun. 127, 7–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

M. R. Watts and H. A. Hauss, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization rotators,” Opt. Lett. 13, 138–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

OSA conference on Integrated Photonics Research and Application (IPRA), Uncasville, Connecticut (1)

T. Mangeat, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, M. De Micheli, P. Coudray, and L. Roussel, “Integrated Polarization Converter of Sputtered Inorganic Ta205 and Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films,” OSA conference on Integrated Photonics Research and Application (IPRA), Uncasville, Connecticut, 24–26 April 2006.

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610–2618 (1999).

Pure. Appl. Opt. (1)

A. Subdø, “Film Mode Matching, a versatile numerical method for vector mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides,” Pure. Appl. Opt. 2, 211–233 (1993).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. R. Watts and M. Qi, “Towards integrated polarization diversity: design, fabrication, and characterization of integrated polarization splitters and rotators,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC)Anaheim, California, 6–11 March (2005).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

“Left shifted” and “right shifted” asymmetric waveguide cross section.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Polarisation rotation at the output of the asymmetric sections

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Structure of the polarization converter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Near field intensity profiles and effective indices of TE00 and TM00 modes in “right” and “left” shifted sections (computation performed using the Field Mode Matching method).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The TE to TM (a) and the TM to TE (b) power exchanges versus the number of periods in the polarization rotator.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical Nomarsky microscopy images of the waveguide patterns fabricated after a first step of photolithographic process (a) and after a second one (b).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental TE to TM power conversion (a) and theoretical TE to TM power conversion (b) versus wavelength.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Insertion losses of the rotator compared to those of a reference waveguide in TE and TM polarizations.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L b = λ 2 ( neff TE 00 neff TM 00 ) = λ 2 Δ neff
θ = ( 1 ) n 4 n φ

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