Abstract

A computational model for operation of co-doped Tm,Ho solid-state lasers is developed coupling (i) 8-level rate equations with (ii) TEM00 laser beam distribution, and (iii) complex heat dissipation model. Simulations done for Q-switched ≈0.1 J giant pulse generation by Tm,Ho:YLF laser show that ≈43 % of the 785 nm light diode side-pumped energy is directly transformed into the heat inside the crystal, whereas ≈45 % is the spontaneously emitted radiation from 3F4, 5I7, 3H4 and 3H5 levels. In water-cooled operation this radiation is absorbed inside the thermal boundary layer where the heat transfer is dominated by heat conduction. In high-power operation the resulting temperature increase is shown to lead to (i) significant decrease in giant pulse energy and (ii) thermal lensing.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.K. Tyminski, D.M. Franich, and M. Kokta “Gain dynamics of Tm,Ho:YAG pumped in near infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.  65, 3181–3188 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  2. V.A. French, R.R. Petrin, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,” Phys. Rev.  B 46, 8018–8026 (1992).
  3. R.R. Petrin, M.G. Jani, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Spectral dynamics of laser-pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho lasers,” Opt. Mater.  1,111–124 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  4. M.G. Jani, R J. Reeves, R.C. Powell, G.J. Quarles, and L. Esterovitz, “Alexandrite-laser excitation of a Tm:Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser.” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 8, 741–746 (1991).
  5. M. G. Jani, F. L. Naranjo, N. P. Barnes, K.E. Murray, and G.E. Lockard, “Diode-pumped long-pulse-length Ho:Tm:YLiF4 laser at 10 Hz,” Opt. Lett.  20, 872–874 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Yu, U.N. Singh, N.P. Barnes, and M. Petros “125-mJ diode-pumped injection-seeded Ho:Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett.  23, 780–782 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. A.N. Alpat’ev, V.A. Smirnov, and I.A. Shcherbakov, “Relaxation oscillations of the radiation from a 2-µm holmium laser with a Cr,Tm,Ho:YSGG crystal,” Quantum Electron.  28, 143–146 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. I.F. Elder and M.J.P. Payne, “Lasing in diode-pumped Tm:YAP, Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho,YLF,” Opt. Commun.  145, 329–339 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  9. N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm Lasers I: Theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 92–103 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N.P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm Lasers II: Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 104–111 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 1645–1656 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, and J. Pelon, “Modeling of Tm,Ho:YAG and Tm,Ho:YLF 2-µm lasers and calculation of extractable energies,” Appl. Opt.  37, 8406–8419 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. L. Bourdet and G. Lescroart, “Theoretical modeling and design of a Tm,Ho:YLiF4 microchip laser,” Appl. Opt.  38, 3275–3281 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. D. Jackson and T.A. King, “CW operation of a 1.064-µm pumped Tm-Ho-Doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron.  34, 1578–1587 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. V. Sudesh and K. Asai, “Spectroscopic and diode-pumped-laser properties of Tm,Ho:YLF; Tm,Ho:LuLF; and Tm,Ho:LuAG crystals: a comparative study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 20, 1829–1837 (2003).
  16. A. Sato, K. Asai, and K. Mizutani, “Lasing characteristics and optimizations of diode-side-pumped Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 836–838 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. B.M. Walsh, N.P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U.N. Singh, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys.  95, 3255–3271 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. G. Galzerano, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Widely tunable continuous-wave diode-pumped 2-µm Tm-Ho:KYF4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 715–717 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. Izawa, H. Nakajima, H. Hara, and Y. Arimoto, “Comparison of lasing performance of Tm,Ho:YLF lasers by use of single and double cavities,” Appl. Opt.  39, 2418–2421 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U.N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.  31, 462–464 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. X. Zhang, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of actively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 7745–7750 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. O.A. Louchev, Y. Urata, and S. Wada, “Numerical simulation and optimization of Q-switched 2 µm Tm,Ho:YLF laser,” Opt. Express 15, 3940–3947 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. P. Černý and D. Burns, “Modeling and experimental investigation of a diode-pumped Tm:YAlO3 laser with a- and b-cut crystal orientations,” IEEE J. of selected topics in quantum electron.  11, 674–681 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  24. V.P. Risk, “Modeling of longitudinally pumped solid-state lasers exhibiting reabsorption losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 5, 1412–1423 (1988).
  25. D. Golla, M. Bode, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, and A. Tünnermann, “62-W cw TEM00 Nd:YAG laser side-pumped by fiber-coupled diode lasers,” Opt. Lett.  21, 210–212 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, and M. R. Querry, “Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water,” Appl. Opt.  28, 1714–1719 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 6th Edition (New-York, Springer, 2006).

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U.N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.  31, 462–464 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of actively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 7745–7750 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

P. Černý and D. Burns, “Modeling and experimental investigation of a diode-pumped Tm:YAlO3 laser with a- and b-cut crystal orientations,” IEEE J. of selected topics in quantum electron.  11, 674–681 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

A. Sato, K. Asai, and K. Mizutani, “Lasing characteristics and optimizations of diode-side-pumped Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 836–838 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.M. Walsh, N.P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U.N. Singh, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys.  95, 3255–3271 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Galzerano, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Widely tunable continuous-wave diode-pumped 2-µm Tm-Ho:KYF4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 715–717 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

V. Sudesh and K. Asai, “Spectroscopic and diode-pumped-laser properties of Tm,Ho:YLF; Tm,Ho:LuLF; and Tm,Ho:LuAG crystals: a comparative study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 20, 1829–1837 (2003).

2000 (1)

J. Izawa, H. Nakajima, H. Hara, and Y. Arimoto, “Comparison of lasing performance of Tm,Ho:YLF lasers by use of single and double cavities,” Appl. Opt.  39, 2418–2421 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. L. Bourdet and G. Lescroart, “Theoretical modeling and design of a Tm,Ho:YLiF4 microchip laser,” Appl. Opt.  38, 3275–3281 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (4)

S. D. Jackson and T.A. King, “CW operation of a 1.064-µm pumped Tm-Ho-Doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron.  34, 1578–1587 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, and J. Pelon, “Modeling of Tm,Ho:YAG and Tm,Ho:YLF 2-µm lasers and calculation of extractable energies,” Appl. Opt.  37, 8406–8419 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, U.N. Singh, N.P. Barnes, and M. Petros “125-mJ diode-pumped injection-seeded Ho:Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett.  23, 780–782 (1998).
[Crossref]

A.N. Alpat’ev, V.A. Smirnov, and I.A. Shcherbakov, “Relaxation oscillations of the radiation from a 2-µm holmium laser with a Cr,Tm,Ho:YSGG crystal,” Quantum Electron.  28, 143–146 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (4)

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm Lasers I: Theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 92–103 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N.P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm Lasers II: Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 104–111 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 1645–1656 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. Golla, M. Bode, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, and A. Tünnermann, “62-W cw TEM00 Nd:YAG laser side-pumped by fiber-coupled diode lasers,” Opt. Lett.  21, 210–212 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

I.F. Elder and M.J.P. Payne, “Lasing in diode-pumped Tm:YAP, Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho,YLF,” Opt. Commun.  145, 329–339 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. G. Jani, F. L. Naranjo, N. P. Barnes, K.E. Murray, and G.E. Lockard, “Diode-pumped long-pulse-length Ho:Tm:YLiF4 laser at 10 Hz,” Opt. Lett.  20, 872–874 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

V.A. French, R.R. Petrin, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,” Phys. Rev.  B 46, 8018–8026 (1992).

R.R. Petrin, M.G. Jani, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Spectral dynamics of laser-pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho lasers,” Opt. Mater.  1,111–124 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

M.G. Jani, R J. Reeves, R.C. Powell, G.J. Quarles, and L. Esterovitz, “Alexandrite-laser excitation of a Tm:Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser.” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 8, 741–746 (1991).

1989 (2)

J.K. Tyminski, D.M. Franich, and M. Kokta “Gain dynamics of Tm,Ho:YAG pumped in near infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.  65, 3181–3188 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, and M. R. Querry, “Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water,” Appl. Opt.  28, 1714–1719 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

V.P. Risk, “Modeling of longitudinally pumped solid-state lasers exhibiting reabsorption losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 5, 1412–1423 (1988).

Alpat’ev, A.N.

A.N. Alpat’ev, V.A. Smirnov, and I.A. Shcherbakov, “Relaxation oscillations of the radiation from a 2-µm holmium laser with a Cr,Tm,Ho:YSGG crystal,” Quantum Electron.  28, 143–146 (1998).
[Crossref]

Arimoto, Y.

J. Izawa, H. Nakajima, H. Hara, and Y. Arimoto, “Comparison of lasing performance of Tm,Ho:YLF lasers by use of single and double cavities,” Appl. Opt.  39, 2418–2421 (2000).
[Crossref]

Asai, K.

A. Sato, K. Asai, and K. Mizutani, “Lasing characteristics and optimizations of diode-side-pumped Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 836–838 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Sudesh and K. Asai, “Spectroscopic and diode-pumped-laser properties of Tm,Ho:YLF; Tm,Ho:LuLF; and Tm,Ho:LuAG crystals: a comparative study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 20, 1829–1837 (2003).

Bai, Y.

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U.N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.  31, 462–464 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm Lasers I: Theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 92–103 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. G. Jani, F. L. Naranjo, N. P. Barnes, K.E. Murray, and G.E. Lockard, “Diode-pumped long-pulse-length Ho:Tm:YLiF4 laser at 10 Hz,” Opt. Lett.  20, 872–874 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, N.P.

B.M. Walsh, N.P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U.N. Singh, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys.  95, 3255–3271 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, U.N. Singh, N.P. Barnes, and M. Petros “125-mJ diode-pumped injection-seeded Ho:Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett.  23, 780–782 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N.P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm Lasers II: Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 104–111 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bode, M.

D. Golla, M. Bode, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, and A. Tünnermann, “62-W cw TEM00 Nd:YAG laser side-pumped by fiber-coupled diode lasers,” Opt. Lett.  21, 210–212 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourdet, G. L.

G. L. Bourdet and G. Lescroart, “Theoretical modeling and design of a Tm,Ho:YLiF4 microchip laser,” Appl. Opt.  38, 3275–3281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bruneau, D.

D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, and J. Pelon, “Modeling of Tm,Ho:YAG and Tm,Ho:YLF 2-µm lasers and calculation of extractable energies,” Appl. Opt.  37, 8406–8419 (1998).
[Crossref]

Burns, D.

P. Černý and D. Burns, “Modeling and experimental investigation of a diode-pumped Tm:YAlO3 laser with a- and b-cut crystal orientations,” IEEE J. of selected topics in quantum electron.  11, 674–681 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cerný, P.

P. Černý and D. Burns, “Modeling and experimental investigation of a diode-pumped Tm:YAlO3 laser with a- and b-cut crystal orientations,” IEEE J. of selected topics in quantum electron.  11, 674–681 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U.N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.  31, 462–464 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delmonte, S.

D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, and J. Pelon, “Modeling of Tm,Ho:YAG and Tm,Ho:YLF 2-µm lasers and calculation of extractable energies,” Appl. Opt.  37, 8406–8419 (1998).
[Crossref]

Elder, I.F.

I.F. Elder and M.J.P. Payne, “Lasing in diode-pumped Tm:YAP, Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho,YLF,” Opt. Commun.  145, 329–339 (1995).
[Crossref]

Esterovitz, L.

M.G. Jani, R J. Reeves, R.C. Powell, G.J. Quarles, and L. Esterovitz, “Alexandrite-laser excitation of a Tm:Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser.” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 8, 741–746 (1991).

Filer, E. D.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm Lasers I: Theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 92–103 (1996).
[Crossref]

Franich, D.M.

J.K. Tyminski, D.M. Franich, and M. Kokta “Gain dynamics of Tm,Ho:YAG pumped in near infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.  65, 3181–3188 (1989).
[Crossref]

French, V.A.

V.A. French, R.R. Petrin, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,” Phys. Rev.  B 46, 8018–8026 (1992).

Galzerano, G.

G. Galzerano, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Widely tunable continuous-wave diode-pumped 2-µm Tm-Ho:KYF4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 715–717 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golla, D.

D. Golla, M. Bode, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, and A. Tünnermann, “62-W cw TEM00 Nd:YAG laser side-pumped by fiber-coupled diode lasers,” Opt. Lett.  21, 210–212 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, G.

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N.P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm Lasers II: Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 104–111 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hara, H.

J. Izawa, H. Nakajima, H. Hara, and Y. Arimoto, “Comparison of lasing performance of Tm,Ho:YLF lasers by use of single and double cavities,” Appl. Opt.  39, 2418–2421 (2000).
[Crossref]

Izawa, J.

J. Izawa, H. Nakajima, H. Hara, and Y. Arimoto, “Comparison of lasing performance of Tm,Ho:YLF lasers by use of single and double cavities,” Appl. Opt.  39, 2418–2421 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson and T.A. King, “CW operation of a 1.064-µm pumped Tm-Ho-Doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron.  34, 1578–1587 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jani, M. G.

M. G. Jani, F. L. Naranjo, N. P. Barnes, K.E. Murray, and G.E. Lockard, “Diode-pumped long-pulse-length Ho:Tm:YLiF4 laser at 10 Hz,” Opt. Lett.  20, 872–874 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jani, M.G.

R.R. Petrin, M.G. Jani, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Spectral dynamics of laser-pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho lasers,” Opt. Mater.  1,111–124 (1992).
[Crossref]

M.G. Jani, R J. Reeves, R.C. Powell, G.J. Quarles, and L. Esterovitz, “Alexandrite-laser excitation of a Tm:Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser.” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 8, 741–746 (1991).

Ju, Y.

Kavaya, M. J.

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U.N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.  31, 462–464 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

King, T.A.

S. D. Jackson and T.A. King, “CW operation of a 1.064-µm pumped Tm-Ho-Doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron.  34, 1578–1587 (1998).
[Crossref]

Knoke, S.

D. Golla, M. Bode, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, and A. Tünnermann, “62-W cw TEM00 Nd:YAG laser side-pumped by fiber-coupled diode lasers,” Opt. Lett.  21, 210–212 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 6th Edition (New-York, Springer, 2006).

Kokta, M.

R.R. Petrin, M.G. Jani, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Spectral dynamics of laser-pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho lasers,” Opt. Mater.  1,111–124 (1992).
[Crossref]

V.A. French, R.R. Petrin, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,” Phys. Rev.  B 46, 8018–8026 (1992).

J.K. Tyminski, D.M. Franich, and M. Kokta “Gain dynamics of Tm,Ho:YAG pumped in near infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.  65, 3181–3188 (1989).
[Crossref]

Laporta, P.

G. Galzerano, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Widely tunable continuous-wave diode-pumped 2-µm Tm-Ho:KYF4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 715–717 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C. J.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm Lasers I: Theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 92–103 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N.P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm Lasers II: Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 104–111 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lescroart, G.

G. L. Bourdet and G. Lescroart, “Theoretical modeling and design of a Tm,Ho:YLiF4 microchip laser,” Appl. Opt.  38, 3275–3281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lockard, G.E.

M. G. Jani, F. L. Naranjo, N. P. Barnes, K.E. Murray, and G.E. Lockard, “Diode-pumped long-pulse-length Ho:Tm:YLiF4 laser at 10 Hz,” Opt. Lett.  20, 872–874 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Louchev, O.A.

Mizutani, K.

A. Sato, K. Asai, and K. Mizutani, “Lasing characteristics and optimizations of diode-side-pumped Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 836–838 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Modlin, E. A.

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U.N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.  31, 462–464 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morrison, C. A.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm Lasers I: Theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 92–103 (1996).
[Crossref]

Murray, K.E.

M. G. Jani, F. L. Naranjo, N. P. Barnes, K.E. Murray, and G.E. Lockard, “Diode-pumped long-pulse-length Ho:Tm:YLiF4 laser at 10 Hz,” Opt. Lett.  20, 872–874 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakajima, H.

J. Izawa, H. Nakajima, H. Hara, and Y. Arimoto, “Comparison of lasing performance of Tm,Ho:YLF lasers by use of single and double cavities,” Appl. Opt.  39, 2418–2421 (2000).
[Crossref]

Naranjo, F. L.

M. G. Jani, F. L. Naranjo, N. P. Barnes, K.E. Murray, and G.E. Lockard, “Diode-pumped long-pulse-length Ho:Tm:YLiF4 laser at 10 Hz,” Opt. Lett.  20, 872–874 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Payne, M.J.P.

I.F. Elder and M.J.P. Payne, “Lasing in diode-pumped Tm:YAP, Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho,YLF,” Opt. Commun.  145, 329–339 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pelon, J.

D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, and J. Pelon, “Modeling of Tm,Ho:YAG and Tm,Ho:YLF 2-µm lasers and calculation of extractable energies,” Appl. Opt.  37, 8406–8419 (1998).
[Crossref]

Petrin, R.R.

V.A. French, R.R. Petrin, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,” Phys. Rev.  B 46, 8018–8026 (1992).

R.R. Petrin, M.G. Jani, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Spectral dynamics of laser-pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho lasers,” Opt. Mater.  1,111–124 (1992).
[Crossref]

Petros, M.

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U.N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.  31, 462–464 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.M. Walsh, N.P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U.N. Singh, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys.  95, 3255–3271 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, U.N. Singh, N.P. Barnes, and M. Petros “125-mJ diode-pumped injection-seeded Ho:Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett.  23, 780–782 (1998).
[Crossref]

Petzar, P. J.

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U.N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.  31, 462–464 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Powell, R.C.

R.R. Petrin, M.G. Jani, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Spectral dynamics of laser-pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho lasers,” Opt. Mater.  1,111–124 (1992).
[Crossref]

V.A. French, R.R. Petrin, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,” Phys. Rev.  B 46, 8018–8026 (1992).

M.G. Jani, R J. Reeves, R.C. Powell, G.J. Quarles, and L. Esterovitz, “Alexandrite-laser excitation of a Tm:Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser.” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 8, 741–746 (1991).

Quarles, G.J.

M.G. Jani, R J. Reeves, R.C. Powell, G.J. Quarles, and L. Esterovitz, “Alexandrite-laser excitation of a Tm:Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser.” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 8, 741–746 (1991).

Querry, M. R.

D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, and M. R. Querry, “Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water,” Appl. Opt.  28, 1714–1719 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reeves, R J.

M.G. Jani, R J. Reeves, R.C. Powell, G.J. Quarles, and L. Esterovitz, “Alexandrite-laser excitation of a Tm:Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser.” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 8, 741–746 (1991).

Risk, V.P.

V.P. Risk, “Modeling of longitudinally pumped solid-state lasers exhibiting reabsorption losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 5, 1412–1423 (1988).

Rustad, G.

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 1645–1656 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sani, E.

G. Galzerano, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Widely tunable continuous-wave diode-pumped 2-µm Tm-Ho:KYF4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 715–717 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, A.

A. Sato, K. Asai, and K. Mizutani, “Lasing characteristics and optimizations of diode-side-pumped Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 836–838 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schöne, W.

D. Golla, M. Bode, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, and A. Tünnermann, “62-W cw TEM00 Nd:YAG laser side-pumped by fiber-coupled diode lasers,” Opt. Lett.  21, 210–212 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shcherbakov, I.A.

A.N. Alpat’ev, V.A. Smirnov, and I.A. Shcherbakov, “Relaxation oscillations of the radiation from a 2-µm holmium laser with a Cr,Tm,Ho:YSGG crystal,” Quantum Electron.  28, 143–146 (1998).
[Crossref]

Singh, U.N.

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U.N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.  31, 462–464 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.M. Walsh, N.P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U.N. Singh, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys.  95, 3255–3271 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, U.N. Singh, N.P. Barnes, and M. Petros “125-mJ diode-pumped injection-seeded Ho:Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett.  23, 780–782 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, V.A.

A.N. Alpat’ev, V.A. Smirnov, and I.A. Shcherbakov, “Relaxation oscillations of the radiation from a 2-µm holmium laser with a Cr,Tm,Ho:YSGG crystal,” Quantum Electron.  28, 143–146 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stenersen, K.

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 1645–1656 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sudesh, V.

V. Sudesh and K. Asai, “Spectroscopic and diode-pumped-laser properties of Tm,Ho:YLF; Tm,Ho:LuLF; and Tm,Ho:LuAG crystals: a comparative study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 20, 1829–1837 (2003).

Taccheo, S.

G. Galzerano, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Widely tunable continuous-wave diode-pumped 2-µm Tm-Ho:KYF4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 715–717 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toncelli, A.

G. Galzerano, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Widely tunable continuous-wave diode-pumped 2-µm Tm-Ho:KYF4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 715–717 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonelli, M.

G. Galzerano, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Widely tunable continuous-wave diode-pumped 2-µm Tm-Ho:KYF4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 715–717 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trieu, B. C.

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U.N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.  31, 462–464 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

D. Golla, M. Bode, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, and A. Tünnermann, “62-W cw TEM00 Nd:YAG laser side-pumped by fiber-coupled diode lasers,” Opt. Lett.  21, 210–212 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tyminski, J.K.

J.K. Tyminski, D.M. Franich, and M. Kokta “Gain dynamics of Tm,Ho:YAG pumped in near infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.  65, 3181–3188 (1989).
[Crossref]

Urata, Y.

Valle, G. Della

G. Galzerano, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Widely tunable continuous-wave diode-pumped 2-µm Tm-Ho:KYF4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 715–717 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wada, S.

Walsh, B.M.

B.M. Walsh, N.P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U.N. Singh, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys.  95, 3255–3271 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Weng, S.

D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, and M. R. Querry, “Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water,” Appl. Opt.  28, 1714–1719 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wieliczka, D. M.

D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, and M. R. Querry, “Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water,” Appl. Opt.  28, 1714–1719 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U.N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.  31, 462–464 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.M. Walsh, N.P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U.N. Singh, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys.  95, 3255–3271 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, U.N. Singh, N.P. Barnes, and M. Petros “125-mJ diode-pumped injection-seeded Ho:Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett.  23, 780–782 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Appl. Opt (4)

D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, and J. Pelon, “Modeling of Tm,Ho:YAG and Tm,Ho:YLF 2-µm lasers and calculation of extractable energies,” Appl. Opt.  37, 8406–8419 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. L. Bourdet and G. Lescroart, “Theoretical modeling and design of a Tm,Ho:YLiF4 microchip laser,” Appl. Opt.  38, 3275–3281 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Izawa, H. Nakajima, H. Hara, and Y. Arimoto, “Comparison of lasing performance of Tm,Ho:YLF lasers by use of single and double cavities,” Appl. Opt.  39, 2418–2421 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, and M. R. Querry, “Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water,” Appl. Opt.  28, 1714–1719 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. of Quantum Electron (1)

S. D. Jackson and T.A. King, “CW operation of a 1.064-µm pumped Tm-Ho-Doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron.  34, 1578–1587 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. of selected topics in quantum electron (1)

P. Černý and D. Burns, “Modeling and experimental investigation of a diode-pumped Tm:YAlO3 laser with a- and b-cut crystal orientations,” IEEE J. of selected topics in quantum electron.  11, 674–681 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (3)

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm Lasers I: Theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 92–103 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N.P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm Lasers II: Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 104–111 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  32, 1645–1656 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys (2)

B.M. Walsh, N.P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U.N. Singh, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys.  95, 3255–3271 (2004).
[Crossref]

J.K. Tyminski, D.M. Franich, and M. Kokta “Gain dynamics of Tm,Ho:YAG pumped in near infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.  65, 3181–3188 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am (3)

M.G. Jani, R J. Reeves, R.C. Powell, G.J. Quarles, and L. Esterovitz, “Alexandrite-laser excitation of a Tm:Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser.” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 8, 741–746 (1991).

V. Sudesh and K. Asai, “Spectroscopic and diode-pumped-laser properties of Tm,Ho:YLF; Tm,Ho:LuLF; and Tm,Ho:LuAG crystals: a comparative study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 20, 1829–1837 (2003).

V.P. Risk, “Modeling of longitudinally pumped solid-state lasers exhibiting reabsorption losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.  B 5, 1412–1423 (1988).

Opt. Commun (1)

I.F. Elder and M.J.P. Payne, “Lasing in diode-pumped Tm:YAP, Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho,YLF,” Opt. Commun.  145, 329–339 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett (6)

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U.N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.  31, 462–464 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Golla, M. Bode, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, and A. Tünnermann, “62-W cw TEM00 Nd:YAG laser side-pumped by fiber-coupled diode lasers,” Opt. Lett.  21, 210–212 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Jani, F. L. Naranjo, N. P. Barnes, K.E. Murray, and G.E. Lockard, “Diode-pumped long-pulse-length Ho:Tm:YLiF4 laser at 10 Hz,” Opt. Lett.  20, 872–874 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yu, U.N. Singh, N.P. Barnes, and M. Petros “125-mJ diode-pumped injection-seeded Ho:Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett.  23, 780–782 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Sato, K. Asai, and K. Mizutani, “Lasing characteristics and optimizations of diode-side-pumped Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 836–838 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Galzerano, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Widely tunable continuous-wave diode-pumped 2-µm Tm-Ho:KYF4 laser,” Opt. Lett.  29, 715–717 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater (1)

R.R. Petrin, M.G. Jani, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Spectral dynamics of laser-pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho lasers,” Opt. Mater.  1,111–124 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev (1)

V.A. French, R.R. Petrin, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, “Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,” Phys. Rev.  B 46, 8018–8026 (1992).

Quantum Electron (1)

A.N. Alpat’ev, V.A. Smirnov, and I.A. Shcherbakov, “Relaxation oscillations of the radiation from a 2-µm holmium laser with a Cr,Tm,Ho:YSGG crystal,” Quantum Electron.  28, 143–146 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 6th Edition (New-York, Springer, 2006).

Cited By

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Energy transfer processes in co-doped Tm,Ho materials and energy differences used in Eq. (16).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation of G-pulse generation: pulse power versus time.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Energy balance versus time during laser operation: (a) energy pumping and release and (b) optical loss by spontaneous radiation from different levels.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temperature distribution inside the operating Tm,Ho:YLF crystal and thermal boundary layer for single G-pulse generation for h=104 W/m2K (δ T ≈60 µm, water temperature T w=290 K).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

20 and 50 Hz G-pulse laser operation: (a) G-pulse power modification with time and (b) temperature increase in the operating crystal versus time for h=104 W/m2 K for crystal axis and surface.

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dn 1 dt = R p ( t ) + n 2 τ 2 + p 28 n 2 n 8 p 71 n 7 n 1 p 41 n 4 n 1 + p 22 n 2 2 ,
+ p 27 n 2 n 7 p 51 n 5 n 1 p 61 n 6 n 1 + p 38 n 3 n 8
dn 2 dt = n 2 τ 2 + n 3 τ 3 p 28 n 2 n 8 + p 71 n 7 n 1 + 2 p 41 n 4 n 1 2 p 22 n 2 2 ,
p 27 n 2 n 7 + p 51 n 5 n 1
dn 3 dt = n 3 τ 3 + n 4 τ 4 + p 61 n 6 n 1 p 38 n 3 n 8 ,
dn 4 dt = R p ( t , z , r ) n 4 τ 4 p 41 n 4 n 1 p 22 n 2 2 ,
dn 5 dt = n 5 τ 5 + p 27 n 7 n 2 p 51 n 5 n 1 ,
dn 6 dt = n 6 τ 6 + n 5 τ 5 p 61 n 6 n 1 p 38 n 8 n 3 .
dn 7 dt = n 7 τ 7 + n 6 τ 6 p 28 n 2 n 8 p 71 n 7 n 1 p 27 n 2 n 7 + p 51 n 5 n 1 c σ se η ( f 7 n 7 f 8 n 8 ) ϕ ( t , r ) .
dn 8 dt = n 7 τ 7 p 28 n 2 n 8 + p 71 n 7 n 1 + p 61 n 6 n 1 p 38 n 3 n 8 c σ se η ( f 7 n 7 f 8 n 8 ) ϕ ( t , r ) ,
d Φ 0 ( t ) dt = Φ 0 ( t ) c σ se η V cr ( f 7 n 7 f 8 n 8 ) ϕ 0 ( r , z ) dV Φ 0 ( t ) τ c + ε τ 7 V cr n 7 dV ,
τ c 1 = c 2 L opt [ ln R 1 ln ( 1 T out ) + β ] ,
ϕ 0 ( r ) = 2 π w 0 2 L cav exp ( 2 r 2 w 0 2 ) ,
I 0 ( t , r ) = Φ 0 ch ν las 2 L opt ln 1 1 T out × 2 π w 0 * 2 exp ( 2 r 2 w 0 * 2 ) ,
R p ( t ) η p η a Q p π d 2 L cr h ν p Δ t p × { 1 , t Δ t p 0 , t > Δ t p .
f i ( t , r ) = g i exp [ E i k B T ( t , r ) ] j g j exp [ E j k B T ( t , r ) ] ,
q cr ( t , r ) = i = 2 7 Δ E i n i τ inr ,
q cr ( t , r ) = R p ( t ) h ν p c σ se η 1 h ν l ( f 7 n 7 f 8 n 8 ) ϕ ( t , r ) i = 2 7 Δ E i n i τ ir i = 2 7 Δ E i * dn i dt ,
Δ T cr ( t , r ) 1 ρ c 0 t q cr ( t , r ) dt .
δ T k w h 6 600 μ m .
ρ i C i T i t = ( k i T i ) + q i ( t , r ) ,
q w ( t , r ) = R 0 r i J 0 i ( t ) α i exp [ α i ( r R 0 ) ] ,
J 0 i ( t ) = 1 S cr V Δ E i n i ( t , r ) τ ir dV .

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