Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate enhanced Kerr nonlinear effects in highly nonlinear As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber tapered down to subwavelength waist diameter of 1.2 µm. Based on self phase modulation measurements, we infer an enhanced nonlinearity of 68 W-1m-1. This is 62,000 times larger than in standard silica singlemode fiber, owing to the 500 times larger n 2 and almost 125 times smaller effective mode area. We also consider the potential to exploit the modified dispersion in these tapers for ultra-low threshold supercontinuum generation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, "Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers," Opt. Express 12, 2258-2263 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. K. Lize, E. C. Magi, V. G. Ta'eed, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, "Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter," Opt. Express 12, 3209-3217 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and M. W. Mason, "Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2864-2869 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. R. Gattass, G. T. Svacha, L. M. Tong, and E. Mazur, "Supercontinuum generation in submicrometer diameter silica fibers," Opt. Express 14, 9408-9414 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Express 12, 2880-2887 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. A. Siviloglou, S. Suntsov, R. El-Ganainy, R. Iwanow, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Morandotti, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, F. Pozzi, C. R. Stanley, and M. Sorel, "Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in optical AlGaAs nanowires," Opt. Express 14, 9377-9384 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 2641-2645 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers," Opt. Express 11, 3568-3573 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "Bismuth glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity," Opt. Express 12, 5082-5087 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 21, 1146-1155 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. C. Nguyen, K. Finsterbusch, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion in nonlinear figure of merit of As2Se3 chalcogenide fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 571-572 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. B. Fu, M. Rochette, V. G. Ta'eed, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Investigation of self-phase modulation based optical regeneration in single mode As2Se3 chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7637-7644 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spälter, R. E. Slusher, S. W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Large Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses", Opt. Lett. 25, 254-256 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics, Academic Press, 2001.

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

2004 (7)

2003 (3)

2000 (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. C. Nguyen, K. Finsterbusch, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion in nonlinear figure of merit of As2Se3 chalcogenide fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 571-572 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (11)

L. B. Fu, M. Rochette, V. G. Ta'eed, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Investigation of self-phase modulation based optical regeneration in single mode As2Se3 chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7637-7644 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Siviloglou, S. Suntsov, R. El-Ganainy, R. Iwanow, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Morandotti, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, F. Pozzi, C. R. Stanley, and M. Sorel, "Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in optical AlGaAs nanowires," Opt. Express 14, 9377-9384 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Gattass, G. T. Svacha, L. M. Tong, and E. Mazur, "Supercontinuum generation in submicrometer diameter silica fibers," Opt. Express 14, 9408-9414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 2641-2645 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers," Opt. Express 11, 3568-3573 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, "Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers," Opt. Express 12, 2258-2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and M. W. Mason, "Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2864-2869 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Express 12, 2880-2887 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lize, E. C. Magi, V. G. Ta'eed, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, "Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter," Opt. Express 12, 3209-3217 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "Bismuth glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity," Opt. Express 12, 5082-5087 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. (1)

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 21, 1146-1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics, Academic Press, 2001.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

γ as a function of taper diameter calculated for As2Se3 and silica fiber tapers. Insets show calculated Poynting vector, Sz, magnitudes of linear polarized mode profiles for tapers with diameters of 0.6 µm at 1550 nm. The white ring denotes the surface of the taper.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Step-1: pre-taper a multimode As2Se3 fiber into a single mode fiber. (b) Step-2: further taper As2Se3 fiber down to 1.2 µm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of experimental setup for nonlinear measurement. VOA: variable optical attenuator; PC: polarization controller; Tap coupler (99:1); SMF: single mode fiber (SMF28)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimentally measured power transfer function and simulation with β=2.5×10-12 m.W-1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SPM spectra under different incident peak power in the As2Se3 fiber

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dispersion as a function of taper diameter at wavelength of 1550 nm.

Equations (1)

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γ = 2 π λ n 2 S z 2 d 2 r ( S z 2 d 2 r ) 2

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