Abstract

Ultra-thin semiconductor crystals were investigated as nonlinear materials for second-harmonic generation. Nonlinear susceptibilities of sub-micrometer-thick ZnO, GaN, and AlN crystals were measured, and these crystals were used for sub-10-fs pulse measurement by a fringe-resolved autocorrelation method. We found that a one-cycle pulse could be characterized by using these ultra-thin-film crystals.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, "Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 432, 605-608 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Matsubara, K. Yamane, T. Sekikawa, M. Yamashita, "Generation of 2.6 fs optical pulses using induced-phase modulation in a gas-filled hollow fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 985-989 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. W. Hänsch, "A proposed sub-femtosecond pulse synthesizer using separate phase-locked Laser Oscillators," Opt. Commun. 80, 71-75 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Shimoda, "Theory and application of optical subharmonic oscillator," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3566-3569 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Kobayashi, D. Yoshitomi, M. Kakehata, H. Takada, and K. Torizuka, "Long-term optical phase locking between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 2496-2498 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Bartels, N. R. Newbury, I. Thomann, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Broadband phase-coherent optical frequency synthesis with actively linked Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite femtosecond lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 403-405 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. R. Schibli, J. Kim, O. Kuzucu, J. T. Gopinath, S. N. Tandon, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, "Attosecond active synchronization of passively mode-locked lasers by balanced cross correlation," Opt. Lett. 28, 947-949 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. U. Griebner, R. A. Kaindl, T. Elsaesser, and W. Seeber, "Frequency doubling and autocorrelation studies of 20 fs pulses using polycrystalline zinc oxide thin films," App. Phys. B 67, 757-760 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Yang, S. J. Xu, Q. Li, and J. Zhang, "Resonantly enhanced femtosecond second-harmonic generation and nonlinear luminescence in GaN film grown on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Miragliotta, D. K. Wickenden, T. J. Kistenmacher, and W. A. Bryden, "Linear- and nonlinear-optical properties of GaN thin films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1447-1456 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, "Optical second-harmonic generation in sputter-deposited AlN films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5922-5927 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. L. Bond, "Measurement of the refractive indices of several crystals," J. of Appl. Phys. 36, 1674-1677 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, Jr., H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, "Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers," App. Phys. Lett. 75, 67-69 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. Ozgur, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, "Systematic measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4103-4105 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

H. Yang, S. J. Xu, Q. Li, and J. Zhang, "Resonantly enhanced femtosecond second-harmonic generation and nonlinear luminescence in GaN film grown on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Ozgur, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, "Systematic measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4103-4105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, Jr., H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, "Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers," App. Phys. Lett. 75, 67-69 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, "Optical second-harmonic generation in sputter-deposited AlN films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5922-5927 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Griebner, R. A. Kaindl, T. Elsaesser, and W. Seeber, "Frequency doubling and autocorrelation studies of 20 fs pulses using polycrystalline zinc oxide thin films," App. Phys. B 67, 757-760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Shimoda, "Theory and application of optical subharmonic oscillator," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3566-3569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

T. W. Hänsch, "A proposed sub-femtosecond pulse synthesizer using separate phase-locked Laser Oscillators," Opt. Commun. 80, 71-75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

W. L. Bond, "Measurement of the refractive indices of several crystals," J. of Appl. Phys. 36, 1674-1677 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

Bergmann, M. J.

M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, Jr., H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, "Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers," App. Phys. Lett. 75, 67-69 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bond, W. L.

W. L. Bond, "Measurement of the refractive indices of several crystals," J. of Appl. Phys. 36, 1674-1677 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryden, W. A.

Casey, H. C.

M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, Jr., H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, "Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers," App. Phys. Lett. 75, 67-69 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsaesser, T.

U. Griebner, R. A. Kaindl, T. Elsaesser, and W. Seeber, "Frequency doubling and autocorrelation studies of 20 fs pulses using polycrystalline zinc oxide thin films," App. Phys. B 67, 757-760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H. O.

U. Ozgur, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, "Systematic measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4103-4105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, Jr., H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, "Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers," App. Phys. Lett. 75, 67-69 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gopinath, J. T.

Griebner, U.

U. Griebner, R. A. Kaindl, T. Elsaesser, and W. Seeber, "Frequency doubling and autocorrelation studies of 20 fs pulses using polycrystalline zinc oxide thin films," App. Phys. B 67, 757-760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. W. Hänsch, "A proposed sub-femtosecond pulse synthesizer using separate phase-locked Laser Oscillators," Opt. Commun. 80, 71-75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

Ippen, E. P.

Kaertner, F. X.

Kaindl, R. A.

U. Griebner, R. A. Kaindl, T. Elsaesser, and W. Seeber, "Frequency doubling and autocorrelation studies of 20 fs pulses using polycrystalline zinc oxide thin films," App. Phys. B 67, 757-760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kakehata, M.

Kanai, T.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, "Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 432, 605-608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketterson, J. B.

G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, "Optical second-harmonic generation in sputter-deposited AlN films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5922-5927 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiehne, G. T.

G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, "Optical second-harmonic generation in sputter-deposited AlN films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5922-5927 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Kistenmacher, T. J.

Kobayashi, Y.

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Kosuge, A.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, "Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 432, 605-608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzucu, O.

Li, Q.

H. Yang, S. J. Xu, Q. Li, and J. Zhang, "Resonantly enhanced femtosecond second-harmonic generation and nonlinear luminescence in GaN film grown on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, E.

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miragliotta, J.

Morkoc, H.

U. Ozgur, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, "Systematic measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4103-4105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muth, J. F.

M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, Jr., H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, "Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers," App. Phys. Lett. 75, 67-69 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

Ozgur, U.

U. Ozgur, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, "Systematic measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4103-4105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, Jr., H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, "Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers," App. Phys. Lett. 75, 67-69 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

Seeber, W.

U. Griebner, R. A. Kaindl, T. Elsaesser, and W. Seeber, "Frequency doubling and autocorrelation studies of 20 fs pulses using polycrystalline zinc oxide thin films," App. Phys. B 67, 757-760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sekikawa, T.

Shimoda, K.

K. Shimoda, "Theory and application of optical subharmonic oscillator," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3566-3569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, H.

Tandon, S. N.

Thomann, I.

Torizuka, K.

Watanabe, S.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, "Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 432, 605-608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb-Wood, G.

U. Ozgur, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, "Systematic measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4103-4105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wickenden, D. K.

Wong, G. K. L.

G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, "Optical second-harmonic generation in sputter-deposited AlN films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5922-5927 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. J.

H. Yang, S. J. Xu, Q. Li, and J. Zhang, "Resonantly enhanced femtosecond second-harmonic generation and nonlinear luminescence in GaN film grown on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamane, K.

Yamashita, M.

Yang, H.

H. Yang, S. J. Xu, Q. Li, and J. Zhang, "Resonantly enhanced femtosecond second-harmonic generation and nonlinear luminescence in GaN film grown on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshitomi, D.

Yun, F.

U. Ozgur, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, "Systematic measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4103-4105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Yang, S. J. Xu, Q. Li, and J. Zhang, "Resonantly enhanced femtosecond second-harmonic generation and nonlinear luminescence in GaN film grown on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. B (1)

U. Griebner, R. A. Kaindl, T. Elsaesser, and W. Seeber, "Frequency doubling and autocorrelation studies of 20 fs pulses using polycrystalline zinc oxide thin films," App. Phys. B 67, 757-760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, Jr., H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, "Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers," App. Phys. Lett. 75, 67-69 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

U. Ozgur, G. Webb-Wood, H. O. Everitt, F. Yun, and H. Morkoc, "Systematic measurement of AlxGa1-xN refractive indices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4103-4105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, S. J. Xu, Q. Li, and J. Zhang, "Resonantly enhanced femtosecond second-harmonic generation and nonlinear luminescence in GaN film grown on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, "Optical second-harmonic generation in sputter-deposited AlN films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5922-5927 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. of Appl. Phys. (1)

W. L. Bond, "Measurement of the refractive indices of several crystals," J. of Appl. Phys. 36, 1674-1677 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Shimoda, "Theory and application of optical subharmonic oscillator," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3566-3569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, "Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 432, 605-608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. W. Hänsch, "A proposed sub-femtosecond pulse synthesizer using separate phase-locked Laser Oscillators," Opt. Commun. 80, 71-75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

One-optical-cycle electric field propagation through 5µm-thick BBO crystal (a). Incident (output) electric field is indicated by the black (red) curve. Pulse propagation results of 0.3µm-thick ZnO, GaN, and AlN crystal (b). The output electric fields of ZnO, GaN, and AlN crystals are represented by red, green, and blue curves.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Coherent lengths of ZnO (red curve), GaN (green curve), and ZnO (blue curve) crystals. (b) Relative intensity of the SH light versus the fundamental wavelength.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Measured dependence of the SH intensity on the fundamental polarization angle by AlN crystal. (b) Second-harmonic powers and nonlinear efficiencies of semiconductor thin-film crystals.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Ti:sapphire laser spectrum (a), and autocorrelation traces obtained by 10µm BBO (b), 220nm ZnO (c), 340nm GaN (d), and 340nm thick AlN (e) crystals.

Metrics