Abstract

Semiconductor heterostructures represent the most important building block for current optoelectronic devices. One of the common features of semiconductor heterostructures is the existence of internal strain due to lattice mismatch. The internal strain can tilt the band alignment and significantly alter the physical properties of semiconductor heterostructures, such as reducing the internal quantum efficiency of a light emitter. Here, we provide a convenient route to release the internal strain by patterning semiconductor heterostructures into nanotip arrays. The fabrication of the nanotip arrays was achieved by self-masked dry etching technique, which is simple, low cost and compatible with current semiconductor technologies. By implementing our approach to InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells, we demonstrate that the light emission can be enhanced by up to 10 times. Our approach renders an excellent opportunity to manipulate the internal strain, and is very useful to create highly efficient solid state emitters.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, and Y. Aoyagi, "Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2241-2243 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. T. N. Oder, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 466-468 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, "High efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, "InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) Si substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43L1524-L1526 (2004).
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  18. Y. Sun, Y.-H. Cho, H.-M. Kim, and T. W. Kang, "High efficiency and brightness of blue light emission from dislocation-free InGaN/GaN quantum well nanorod arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093115 (2005).
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  20. H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, and C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, Chii-Dong Chen, "Strain Relaxation and Quantum Confinement in InGaN/GaN Nano-posts," Nanotechnology,  17, 1454-1458 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, "Generally Applicable Self-Masked Dry Etching Technique for Nanotip Array Fabrication," Nano Letters,  4, 471-475 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. C. She, K. Zhao, S. Z. Deng, J. Chen, and N. S. Xu, "Field electron emission of Si nanotips with apexes of various compositions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. C. Shi, C. F. Chen, Surojit Chattopadhyay, K. H. Chen, B. W. Ke, L. C. Chen, L. Trinkler, and B. Berzina, "Luminescence properties of wurtzite AlN nanotips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163127 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. Y. Lin, "Converse piezoelectric effect and photoelastic effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 880-882 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (4)

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, "High efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, "Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, and C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, Chii-Dong Chen, "Strain Relaxation and Quantum Confinement in InGaN/GaN Nano-posts," Nanotechnology,  17, 1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Shi, C. F. Chen, Surojit Chattopadhyay, K. H. Chen, B. W. Ke, L. C. Chen, L. Trinkler, and B. Berzina, "Luminescence properties of wurtzite AlN nanotips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. C. She, K. Zhao, S. Z. Deng, J. Chen, and N. S. Xu, "Field electron emission of Si nanotips with apexes of various compositions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, Y.-H. Cho, H.-M. Kim, and T. W. Kang, "High efficiency and brightness of blue light emission from dislocation-free InGaN/GaN quantum well nanorod arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, "InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) Si substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43L1524-L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuokstis, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Shatalov, M. E. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and M. A. Khan, "Room-temperature optically pumped laser emission from a-plane GaN with high optical gain characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2998-3000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 466-468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, "Generally Applicable Self-Masked Dry Etching Technique for Nanotip Array Fabrication," Nano Letters,  4, 471-475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

T. Y. Lin, "Converse piezoelectric effect and photoelastic effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 880-882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J. -I. Chyi, "Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3712-3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, and Y. Aoyagi, "Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2241-2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, "Current and Temperature Dependences of Electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green Light-Emitting Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1358-L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, "The Roles of Structural Imperfections in InGaN-Based Blue Light-Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes," Science 281, 956-961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amanoa, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, "High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs," J. Cryst. Growth 189/190, 778-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, "Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3571-3573 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, "Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2,  36, L382-L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, "High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green and Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Well Structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L797-L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. F. Schubert. Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, and G. J. Zydzik, "Resonant cavity light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921-923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adivarahan, V.

E. Kuokstis, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Shatalov, M. E. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and M. A. Khan, "Room-temperature optically pumped laser emission from a-plane GaN with high optical gain characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2998-3000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amanoa, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, "High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs," J. Cryst. Growth 189/190, 778-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, "Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2,  36, L382-L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, "Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2,  36, L382-L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amanoa, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amanoa, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, "High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs," J. Cryst. Growth 189/190, 778-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, Y.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, and Y. Aoyagi, "Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2241-2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bellet-Amalric, E.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, "High efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. F.

S. C. Shi, C. F. Chen, Surojit Chattopadhyay, K. H. Chen, B. W. Ke, L. C. Chen, L. Trinkler, and B. Berzina, "Luminescence properties of wurtzite AlN nanotips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, "Generally Applicable Self-Masked Dry Etching Technique for Nanotip Array Fabrication," Nano Letters,  4, 471-475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Q.

E. Kuokstis, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Shatalov, M. E. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and M. A. Khan, "Room-temperature optically pumped laser emission from a-plane GaN with high optical gain characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2998-3000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, and C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, Chii-Dong Chen, "Strain Relaxation and Quantum Confinement in InGaN/GaN Nano-posts," Nanotechnology,  17, 1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, and C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, Chii-Dong Chen, "Strain Relaxation and Quantum Confinement in InGaN/GaN Nano-posts," Nanotechnology,  17, 1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. C. She, K. Zhao, S. Z. Deng, J. Chen, and N. S. Xu, "Field electron emission of Si nanotips with apexes of various compositions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. H.

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, "Generally Applicable Self-Masked Dry Etching Technique for Nanotip Array Fabrication," Nano Letters,  4, 471-475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J. -I. Chyi, "Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3712-3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, "Generally Applicable Self-Masked Dry Etching Technique for Nanotip Array Fabrication," Nano Letters,  4, 471-475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J. -I. Chyi, "Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3712-3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. H.

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J. -I. Chyi, "Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3712-3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.-H.

Y. Sun, Y.-H. Cho, H.-M. Kim, and T. W. Kang, "High efficiency and brightness of blue light emission from dislocation-free InGaN/GaN quantum well nanorod arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J. -I.

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J. -I. Chyi, "Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3712-3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. J.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, "High efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Darakchieva, V.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Das, D.

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, "Generally Applicable Self-Masked Dry Etching Technique for Nanotip Array Fabrication," Nano Letters,  4, 471-475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, "Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Della Sala, F.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, "Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deng, S. Z.

J. C. She, K. Zhao, S. Z. Deng, J. Chen, and N. S. Xu, "Field electron emission of Si nanotips with apexes of various compositions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Di Carlo, A.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fichtenbaum, N. A.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, "Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaevski, M. E.

E. Kuokstis, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Shatalov, M. E. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and M. A. Khan, "Room-temperature optically pumped laser emission from a-plane GaN with high optical gain characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2998-3000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Georgakilas, A.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirata, A.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, and Y. Aoyagi, "Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2241-2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, H.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, and Y. Aoyagi, "Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2241-2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. S.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, "High efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. H.

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, "Generally Applicable Self-Masked Dry Etching Technique for Nanotip Array Fabrication," Nano Letters,  4, 471-475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. F.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, and C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, Chii-Dong Chen, "Strain Relaxation and Quantum Confinement in InGaN/GaN Nano-posts," Nanotechnology,  17, 1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huh, C.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hung, Y. T.

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. S.

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, "Generally Applicable Self-Masked Dry Etching Technique for Nanotip Array Fabrication," Nano Letters,  4, 471-475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, "High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green and Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Well Structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L797-L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jalabert, D.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jancu, J.-M.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

T. N. Oder, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 466-468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, Y.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amanoa, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, "High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs," J. Cryst. Growth 189/190, 778-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kang, E. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, T. W.

Y. Sun, Y.-H. Cho, H.-M. Kim, and T. W. Kang, "High efficiency and brightness of blue light emission from dislocation-free InGaN/GaN quantum well nanorod arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Katsuragawa, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, "Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2,  36, L382-L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, M.

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, "InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) Si substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43L1524-L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, "Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

E. Kuokstis, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Shatalov, M. E. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and M. A. Khan, "Room-temperature optically pumped laser emission from a-plane GaN with high optical gain characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2998-3000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, A.

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, "InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) Si substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43L1524-L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

T. N. Oder, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 466-468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-M.

Y. Sun, Y.-H. Cho, H.-M. Kim, and T. W. Kang, "High efficiency and brightness of blue light emission from dislocation-free InGaN/GaN quantum well nanorod arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, A.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, and Y. Aoyagi, "Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2241-2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, K.

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, "InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) Si substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43L1524-L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kiyoko, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Komori, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, "Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2,  36, L382-L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kontos, A. G.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, P. F.

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J. -I. Chyi, "Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3712-3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuokstis, E.

E. Kuokstis, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Shatalov, M. E. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and M. A. Khan, "Room-temperature optically pumped laser emission from a-plane GaN with high optical gain characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2998-3000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Z. X.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, "High efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C. H.

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, "High efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D. Y.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, "High efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

T. N. Oder, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 466-468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. Y.

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Lin, "Converse piezoelectric effect and photoelastic effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 880-882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J. -I. Chyi, "Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3712-3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H. C.

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, "Generally Applicable Self-Masked Dry Etching Technique for Nanotip Array Fabrication," Nano Letters,  4, 471-475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, and C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, Chii-Dong Chen, "Strain Relaxation and Quantum Confinement in InGaN/GaN Nano-posts," Nanotechnology,  17, 1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lugli, P.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsusshita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, "Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, "Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, "Current and Temperature Dependences of Electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green Light-Emitting Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1358-L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, "High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green and Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Well Structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L797-L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, D.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, "Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3571-3573 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, S.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amanoa, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, "High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs," J. Cryst. Growth 189/190, 778-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, "Current and Temperature Dependences of Electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green Light-Emitting Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1358-L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, "The Roles of Structural Imperfections in InGaN-Based Blue Light-Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes," Science 281, 956-961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, "High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green and Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Well Structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L797-L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, C. J.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, "Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oder, T. N.

T. N. Oder, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 466-468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paskov, P. P.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paskova, T.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pelekanos, N. T.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raptis, Y. S.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riblet, P.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, and Y. Aoyagi, "Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2241-2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amanoa, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, "High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs," J. Cryst. Growth 189/190, 778-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, S.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, "Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3571-3573 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schaake, C.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, "Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, R.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert. Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, and G. J. Zydzik, "Resonant cavity light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921-923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, "High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green and Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Well Structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L797-L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shatalov, M.

E. Kuokstis, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Shatalov, M. E. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and M. A. Khan, "Room-temperature optically pumped laser emission from a-plane GaN with high optical gain characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2998-3000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

She, J. C.

J. C. She, K. Zhao, S. Z. Deng, J. Chen, and N. S. Xu, "Field electron emission of Si nanotips with apexes of various compositions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S. C.

S. C. Shi, C. F. Chen, Surojit Chattopadhyay, K. H. Chen, B. W. Ke, L. C. Chen, L. Trinkler, and B. Berzina, "Luminescence properties of wurtzite AlN nanotips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sota, S.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amanoa, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, "High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs," J. Cryst. Growth 189/190, 778-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, "Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2,  36, L382-L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, "Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sugahara, T.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, "Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3571-3573 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sugano, T.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, and Y. Aoyagi, "Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2241-2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, Y.-H. Cho, H.-M. Kim, and T. W. Kang, "High efficiency and brightness of blue light emission from dislocation-free InGaN/GaN quantum well nanorod arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Surojit Chattopadhyay, C. F.

S. C. Shi, C. F. Chen, Surojit Chattopadhyay, K. H. Chen, B. W. Ke, L. C. Chen, L. Trinkler, and B. Berzina, "Luminescence properties of wurtzite AlN nanotips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tada, M.

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, "InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) Si substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43L1524-L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, "Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2,  36, L382-L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amanoa, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, "High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs," J. Cryst. Growth 189/190, 778-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, "Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2,  36, L382-L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, T. Y.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, and C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, Chii-Dong Chen, "Strain Relaxation and Quantum Confinement in InGaN/GaN Nano-posts," Nanotechnology,  17, 1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J.

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, "Generally Applicable Self-Masked Dry Etching Technique for Nanotip Array Fabrication," Nano Letters,  4, 471-475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valcheva, E.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, "Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3571-3573 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, "Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3571-3573 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, "Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. S.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, and C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, Chii-Dong Chen, "Strain Relaxation and Quantum Confinement in InGaN/GaN Nano-posts," Nanotechnology,  17, 1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. T.

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, "Generally Applicable Self-Masked Dry Etching Technique for Nanotip Array Fabrication," Nano Letters,  4, 471-475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, "Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, N. S.

J. C. She, K. Zhao, S. Z. Deng, J. Chen, and N. S. Xu, "Field electron emission of Si nanotips with apexes of various compositions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, "Current and Temperature Dependences of Electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green Light-Emitting Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1358-L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amanoa, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, "High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs," J. Cryst. Growth 189/190, 778-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamaoka, Y.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amanoa, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, "High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs," J. Cryst. Growth 189/190, 778-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, and C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, Chii-Dong Chen, "Strain Relaxation and Quantum Confinement in InGaN/GaN Nano-posts," Nanotechnology,  17, 1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. C.

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J. -I. Chyi, "Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3712-3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. W.

E. Kuokstis, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Shatalov, M. E. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and M. A. Khan, "Room-temperature optically pumped laser emission from a-plane GaN with high optical gain characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2998-3000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. J.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, "High efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. M.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, and C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, Chii-Dong Chen, "Strain Relaxation and Quantum Confinement in InGaN/GaN Nano-posts," Nanotechnology,  17, 1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, K.

J. C. She, K. Zhao, S. Z. Deng, J. Chen, and N. S. Xu, "Field electron emission of Si nanotips with apexes of various compositions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. H.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, "High efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (16)

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, and Y. Aoyagi, "Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2241-2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yang, P. F. Kuo, T. Y. Lin, Y. F. Chen, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, and J. -I. Chyi, "Mechanism of luminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3712-3714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuokstis, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. Shatalov, M. E. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and M. A. Khan, "Room-temperature optically pumped laser emission from a-plane GaN with high optical gain characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2998-3000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 466-468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, "High efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, "Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3571-3573 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert. Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, and G. J. Zydzik, "Resonant cavity light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921-923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, Y.-H. Cho, H.-M. Kim, and T. W. Kang, "High efficiency and brightness of blue light emission from dislocation-free InGaN/GaN quantum well nanorod arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. She, K. Zhao, S. Z. Deng, J. Chen, and N. S. Xu, "Field electron emission of Si nanotips with apexes of various compositions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Shi, C. F. Chen, Surojit Chattopadhyay, K. H. Chen, B. W. Ke, L. C. Chen, L. Trinkler, and B. Berzina, "Luminescence properties of wurtzite AlN nanotips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Lin, "Converse piezoelectric effect and photoelastic effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 880-882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, "Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amanoa, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, "High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs," J. Cryst. Growth 189/190, 778-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys (1)

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, "Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2,  36, L382-L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, "Current and Temperature Dependences of Electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green Light-Emitting Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1358-L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, "High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green and Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Well Structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L797-L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, "InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) Si substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43L1524-L1526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Letters (1)

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, "Generally Applicable Self-Masked Dry Etching Technique for Nanotip Array Fabrication," Nano Letters,  4, 471-475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, and C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, Chii-Dong Chen, "Strain Relaxation and Quantum Confinement in InGaN/GaN Nano-posts," Nanotechnology,  17, 1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Nakamura, "The Roles of Structural Imperfections in InGaN-Based Blue Light-Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes," Science 281, 956-961 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer, Berlin, 1997).

Cited By

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron micrograph images of tilted top-view of InGaN/GaN nanotips.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photoluminescence spectra of InGaN/GaN nanotips (solid line) and multiple quantum wells (dot line).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of as-grown InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells excited with optical excitation density ranging from 2.5×103 to 2×105 W/cm2. (b) The PL spectra of InGaN/GaN nanotips excited with optical excitation density ranging from 2.5×103 to 2×105 W/cm2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Room-temperature Raman scattering spectra of InGaN/GaN nanotips and as-grown multiple quantum wells. (b) and (c) Room-temperature Raman scattering spectra of as-grown multiple quantum wells and nanotips under different excitation densities.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated strain of InGaN/GaN nanotips and as-grown multiple quantum wells as a function of optical excitation density based on Eq. (1).

Equations (1)

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ε = Δ ω [ 2 ( a b C 13 C 33 ) ] ,

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