Abstract

In this work, modal birefringence and polarization-dependent leakage loss for the fundamental mode in elliptical-hole rectangular-lattice photonic crystal fibers (EH-RL-PCFs) with modified air holes near the core are investigated by using a full-vector, finite-difference method in the frequency domain. Numerical results show that by introducing modified air holes, a heightened modal birefringence of the order of 10-2 has been obtained within the wavelengths ranging from 1.0 to 1.6 μm in the proposed PCFs, with a lattice length of 2 μm and with a large lattice length of 3 μm at 1.55 μm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Monsoriu, E. Silvestre, A. Ferrando, P. Andrés, and J. Miret, "High-index-core Bragg fibers: dispersion properties," Opt. Express 11, 1400-1405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Xu, J. Song, C Li, and K. Ueda "Cylindrically symmetrical hollow fiber," Opt. Commun. 182, 343-348 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Y. Chen, R. J. Yu, and A. P. Zhao, "Highly birefringent rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 997-1000 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Ju, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Design of single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fiber at 1.30 and 1.55 μm," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 825-830 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. Steel and R. M. Osgood Jr., "Elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 26, 229-231 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. C. Zografopoulos, E. E. Kriezis, and T. D. Tsiboukis, "Tunable highly birefringent bandgap-guiding liquid-crystal microstructured fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3427-3432 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, S. Z. Yuan, and X. Y. Dong, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with squeezed hexagonal lattice," Opt. Lett. 32, 469-471 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. X. Chen, M.-J. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, W. A. Wood, A. M. Crowley, J. P. Carberry, L. A. Zenteno, and K. W. Koch, "Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 12, 3888-3893 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Y. Chen and R. J. Yu, "Polarization properties of elliptical-hole rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 512-515 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. C. Liu and Y. Lai, "Optical birefringence and polarization dependent loss of square- and rectangular-lattice holey fibers with elliptical air holes: numerical analysis," Opt. Express 13, 225-235 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, and S. Z. Yuan, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with two big circular air holes adjacent to the core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2638-2640 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Guo, F. Wu, S. Albin, H. Tai, and R. Rogowski, "Loss and dispersion analysis of microstructured fibers by finite-difference method," Opt. Express 12, 3341-3352 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear FiberOptics, 2nd ed., (Academic, 1995).
  16. J. M. Fini, "Bend-resistant design of conventional and microstructure fibers with very large mode area," Opt. Express 14, 69-81 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett. 29, 1336-1338 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

2004 (6)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

J. Xu, J. Song, C Li, and K. Ueda "Cylindrically symmetrical hollow fiber," Opt. Commun. 182, 343-348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Albin, S.

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrés, P.

Birks, T. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carberry, J. P.

Chen, M. Y.

M. Y. Chen and R. J. Yu, "Polarization properties of elliptical-hole rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 512-515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Chen, R. J. Yu, and A. P. Zhao, "Highly birefringent rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 997-1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Cox, F.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowley, A. M.

Demokan, M. S.

Dong, X. Y.

Fellew, M.

Ferrando, A.

Fini, J. M.

Gallagher, M. T.

Guo, S.

Henry, G.

Issa, N. A.

Jin, L.

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, S. Z. Yuan, and X. Y. Dong, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with squeezed hexagonal lattice," Opt. Lett. 32, 469-471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, and S. Z. Yuan, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with two big circular air holes adjacent to the core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2638-2640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Ju, J.

Kai, G. Y.

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, S. Z. Yuan, and X. Y. Dong, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with squeezed hexagonal lattice," Opt. Lett. 32, 469-471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, and S. Z. Yuan, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with two big circular air holes adjacent to the core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2638-2640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, K. W.

Kriezis, E. E.

Lai, Y.

Large, M. C. J.

Li, C

J. Xu, J. Song, C Li, and K. Ueda "Cylindrically symmetrical hollow fiber," Opt. Commun. 182, 343-348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.-J.

Li, Y.

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, S. Z. Yuan, and X. Y. Dong, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with squeezed hexagonal lattice," Opt. Lett. 32, 469-471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, and S. Z. Yuan, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with two big circular air holes adjacent to the core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2638-2640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. G.

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, S. Z. Yuan, and X. Y. Dong, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with squeezed hexagonal lattice," Opt. Lett. 32, 469-471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, and S. Z. Yuan, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with two big circular air holes adjacent to the core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2638-2640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. C.

Liu, Y. G.

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, S. Z. Yuan, and X. Y. Dong, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with squeezed hexagonal lattice," Opt. Lett. 32, 469-471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, and S. Z. Yuan, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with two big circular air holes adjacent to the core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2638-2640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. F.

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, S. Z. Yuan, and X. Y. Dong, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with squeezed hexagonal lattice," Opt. Lett. 32, 469-471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, and S. Z. Yuan, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with two big circular air holes adjacent to the core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2638-2640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miret, J.

Monsoriu, J.

Osgood, R. M.

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogowski, R.

Russell, P. St. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silvestre, E.

Song, J.

J. Xu, J. Song, C Li, and K. Ueda "Cylindrically symmetrical hollow fiber," Opt. Commun. 182, 343-348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Sun, T. T.

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, S. Z. Yuan, and X. Y. Dong, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with squeezed hexagonal lattice," Opt. Lett. 32, 469-471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, and S. Z. Yuan, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with two big circular air holes adjacent to the core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2638-2640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tai, H.

Tsiboukis, T. D.

Ueda, K.

J. Xu, J. Song, C Li, and K. Ueda "Cylindrically symmetrical hollow fiber," Opt. Commun. 182, 343-348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Venkataraman, N.

Wang, Z.

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, S. Z. Yuan, and X. Y. Dong, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with squeezed hexagonal lattice," Opt. Lett. 32, 469-471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, and S. Z. Yuan, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with two big circular air holes adjacent to the core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2638-2640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. A.

Wu, F.

Xu, J.

J. Xu, J. Song, C Li, and K. Ueda "Cylindrically symmetrical hollow fiber," Opt. Commun. 182, 343-348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, R. J.

M. Y. Chen, R. J. Yu, and A. P. Zhao, "Highly birefringent rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 997-1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Chen and R. J. Yu, "Polarization properties of elliptical-hole rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 512-515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S. Z.

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, S. Z. Yuan, and X. Y. Dong, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with squeezed hexagonal lattice," Opt. Lett. 32, 469-471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, and S. Z. Yuan, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with two big circular air holes adjacent to the core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2638-2640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yue, Y.

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, S. Z. Yuan, and X. Y. Dong, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with squeezed hexagonal lattice," Opt. Lett. 32, 469-471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, and S. Z. Yuan, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with two big circular air holes adjacent to the core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2638-2640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zenteno, L. A.

Zhang, C. S.

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, S. Z. Yuan, and X. Y. Dong, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with squeezed hexagonal lattice," Opt. Lett. 32, 469-471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, and S. Z. Yuan, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with two big circular air holes adjacent to the core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2638-2640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, A. P.

M. Y. Chen, R. J. Yu, and A. P. Zhao, "Highly birefringent rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 997-1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zografopoulos, D. C.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Yue, G. Y. Kai, Z. Wang, T. T. Sun, L. Jin, Y. F. Lu, C. S. Zhang, J. G. Liu, Y. Li, Y. G. Liu, and S. Z. Yuan, "Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fiber with two big circular air holes adjacent to the core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2638-2640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

M. Y. Chen, R. J. Yu, and A. P. Zhao, "Highly birefringent rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 997-1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Chen and R. J. Yu, "Polarization properties of elliptical-hole rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 512-515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Xu, J. Song, C Li, and K. Ueda "Cylindrically symmetrical hollow fiber," Opt. Commun. 182, 343-348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear FiberOptics, 2nd ed., (Academic, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Cross-section of the HB-PM-PCF. (b) One quarter of the fiber cross-section.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Modal birefringence for case with a co= 0.2Λ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Modal birefringence for case with b co= Λ.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Birefringence increment ratio for case with a co= 0.3Λ.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The leakage loss for case with Λ=3 μm, b co= Λ.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The leakage loss for case with Λ=2 μm, b co= Λ.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The mode field patterns of the x-polarized mode (a, b) and y-polarized mode (c, d) at 1.55 μm. (a) and (c) are for the case with modified air holes.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Modal birefringence for case with a co= 0.1Λ and the random case. Inset, bending loss as a function of the bending radius at λ = 1μm and λ = 1.55μm, respectively.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

B ( λ ) = λ 2 π [ β y ( λ ) β x ( λ ) ] ,
Leakage loss = 2.10 7 ln ( 10 ) 2 π λ ∙Im [ n eff i ] , i = x y ,
BIR = B ( λ ) B ref ( λ ) B ref ( λ ) 100 % ,

Metrics