Abstract

We developed a far infrared technique for detecting objects that are concealed behind a barrier, which is opaque for visible light. The technique makes use of the fact that mechanically coupled objects can be distinguished by their acoustic phase during a driven vibration. The pattern of the acoustic phase is imaged using 70 GHz radiation. The experimental data demonstrate that virtually all objects can be sensed, which includes metals as well as dielectric materials.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2007

J. C. Chen and S. Kaushik, "Terahertz interferometer that senses vibrations behind barriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Buersgens, G. Acuna, and R. Kersting, "Acoustic phase imaging with terahertz radiation," Opt. Express 15, 4427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Ning, S. Jongling, S. Jinhai, L. Laishun, X. Xiaoyu, L. Meihong, and J. Yan, "Study of the THz spectrum of methamphetamine," Opt. Express 5, 6750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241,116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Bjarnason, T. Chan, A. Lee, M. Celis, and E. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Appleby, "Passive millimetre-wave imaging and how it differs from terahertz imaging," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Darmo, V. Tamosiunas, G. Fasching, J. Kroll, K. Unterrainer, M. Beck, M. Giovanni, J. Faist, C. Kremser, and P. Debbage, "Imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 12, 1879 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express 11, 2549 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Berry, "Risk perception and safety issues," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. J. Siebert, T. Loffler, H. Quast, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, R. Leonhardt, S. Czasch, and H. G. Roskos, "Alloptoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3743 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Harazin and J. Grzesik, "The transmission of vertical whole-body vibration to the body segments of standing subjects," J. Sound and Vib. 215, 775 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1957

D. Dieckmann, "Einfluss vertikaler mechanischer Schwingungen auf den Menschen," Internat. Z. angew. Physiol. einschl.Arbeitsphysiol. 16, 519 (1957).

Acuna, G.

Appleby, R.

R. Appleby, "Passive millimetre-wave imaging and how it differs from terahertz imaging," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berry, E.

E. Berry, "Risk perception and safety issues," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bjarnason, J.

J. Bjarnason, T. Chan, A. Lee, M. Celis, and E. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Breede, M.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E.

J. Bjarnason, T. Chan, A. Lee, M. Celis, and E. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buersgens, F.

Campuria, G.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Celis, M.

J. Bjarnason, T. Chan, A. Lee, M. Celis, and E. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, T.

J. Bjarnason, T. Chan, A. Lee, M. Celis, and E. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. C.

J. C. Chen and S. Kaushik, "Terahertz interferometer that senses vibrations behind barriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241,116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Conglio, D.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D’Arienzo, M.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Darmo, J.

Dieckmann, D.

D. Dieckmann, "Einfluss vertikaler mechanischer Schwingungen auf den Menschen," Internat. Z. angew. Physiol. einschl.Arbeitsphysiol. 16, 519 (1957).

Donhuijsen, K.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doria, A.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fasching, G.

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gallerano, G. P.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giovenale, E.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grzesik, J.

B. Harazin and J. Grzesik, "The transmission of vertical whole-body vibration to the body segments of standing subjects," J. Sound and Vib. 215, 775 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harazin, B.

B. Harazin and J. Grzesik, "The transmission of vertical whole-body vibration to the body segments of standing subjects," J. Sound and Vib. 215, 775 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hein, G.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, S.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

Jepsen, P.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jinhai, S.

L. Ning, S. Jongling, S. Jinhai, L. Laishun, X. Xiaoyu, L. Meihong, and J. Yan, "Study of the THz spectrum of methamphetamine," Opt. Express 5, 6750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jongling, S.

L. Ning, S. Jongling, S. Jinhai, L. Laishun, X. Xiaoyu, L. Meihong, and J. Yan, "Study of the THz spectrum of methamphetamine," Opt. Express 5, 6750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaushik, S.

J. C. Chen and S. Kaushik, "Terahertz interferometer that senses vibrations behind barriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241,116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kersting, R.

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knobloch, P.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lai, A.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laishun, L.

L. Ning, S. Jongling, S. Jinhai, L. Laishun, X. Xiaoyu, L. Meihong, and J. Yan, "Study of the THz spectrum of methamphetamine," Opt. Express 5, 6750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A.

J. Bjarnason, T. Chan, A. Lee, M. Celis, and E. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, T.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241,116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meihong, L.

L. Ning, S. Jongling, S. Jinhai, L. Laishun, X. Xiaoyu, L. Meihong, and J. Yan, "Study of the THz spectrum of methamphetamine," Opt. Express 5, 6750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Messina, G.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Modjesch, G.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ning, L.

L. Ning, S. Jongling, S. Jinhai, L. Laishun, X. Xiaoyu, L. Meihong, and J. Yan, "Study of the THz spectrum of methamphetamine," Opt. Express 5, 6750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pierz, K.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pietro, R. D.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romaneo, M.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scarfi, M. R.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241,116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siebert, K. J.

K. J. Siebert, T. Loffler, H. Quast, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, R. Leonhardt, S. Czasch, and H. G. Roskos, "Alloptoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3743 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sperling, M.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P. F.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the setup used for spatially resolved phase measurements employing homodyne detection.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Interferogram (a), the measured acoustic phase (b) depending on changes of the optical path length, and the acoustic phase (c) calculated by equating ϕ calc = mod meas + π,π). The oscillation amplitude for the phase measurement was about 750 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Phase contrast of items coupled to a vibrating plate by hook-and-loop tape. For clarity all phase values are shifted. The objects were scanned across the focus of the GHz beam as depicted in Fig. 1. All objects were covered by textiles. The gray bars indicate the position of the respective items.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of the phase noise on the oscillation amplitude of the back plate.

Equations (2)

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tan ϕ ac = ωγ k m ω 2 ,
Φ meas = { ϕ ac if ( 2 n 1 ) < 4 Δ z λ GHz < 2 n , with n ϕ ac π else ,

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