Abstract

This paper describes a procedure to replicate a polymeric wavelength filter. In this work, the grating structure on a polymer is fabricated first using holographic interferometry and micro-molding processes. The polymeric wavelength filters are produced by a two-step molding process where the master mold is first formed on a negative tone photoresist and subsequently transferred to a PDMS mold; following this step, the PDMS silicon rubber mold was used as a stamp to transfer the pattern of the polymeric wavelength filters onto a UV cure epoxy. Initial results show good pattern transfer in physical shape. At the Bragg wavelength, a transmission dip of -15.5 dB relative to the -3dB background insertion loss and a 3-dB-transmission bandwidth of ∼ 6nm were obtained from the device.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

J. W. Kang, M. J. Kim, J. P. Kim, S. J. Yoo, J. S. Lee, D. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, "Polymeric wavelength filters fabricated using holographic surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3823-3825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Wook Kang, J.-J. Kim, J. Kim, X. Li, and M.-H. Lee, "Low-loss and thermally stable TE-mode selective polymer waveguide using photosensitive fluorinated polyimide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1297-1299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

O. Watanabe and M. Tsuchimori, "Improvement in linear and nonlinear optical-properties by blending poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) with an electro-optic polymer," Polymer 42, 6447-6451 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 6, 54-68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, "Effect of grating heights on highly efficient unibond SOI waveguide grating couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 59-61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, M. Maxfield, D. Pant, G. Boudoughian, C. Poga, and R. A Norwood, "Thermooptic planar polymer Bragg grating OADM’s with broad tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 448-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlit, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of surface relief grating on azo-hybrid gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichannel OADMS using polymer Bragg grating MZIS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Paul, T. L. Breen, J. Aizenberg, and G. M. Whitesides, "Maskless Photolithography: embossed photoresist as its own optical element," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2893-2895 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, A. Huser, and H. P. Herzig, "Simple technique for replication of micro-optical elements," Opt. Eng. 37, 1804-1808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, "Optical add-drop multiplexer based on an asymmetric Bragg coupler," Opt. Commun. 157, 249-264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. C. Lotters, W. Olthuis, P. H. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, "The mechanical properties of the rubber elastic polymer polydimethylsiloxane for sensor applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 7, 145-147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X.-M. Zhao, S. P-Smith, S. J. Waldman, G. M. Whitesides, and M. Prentiss, "Demonstration of waveguide couplers fabricated using microtransfer molding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1017-1019 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, and J. T. Yardley,"Laser-fabricated low loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, Z. H. Zhu, Y. Qian, and Y. H. Lo, "Cascade self-induced holography: a new grating fabrication technology for DFB/DBR lasers and WDM laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 32, 1752-1759 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and T. Tamamura, "Effect of sidelobe on demultiplexing characteristics of a grating-folded directional coupler demultiplexer," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 87-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, "Narrow spectral bandwidths with grating waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4154-4156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Hillmer, A. Grabmaier, H. L. Zhu, S. Hansmann, and H. Burkhard, "Continuously chirped DFB gratings by specially bent waveguides for tunable lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1905-1912 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, and T. Tamamura, "Embedded channel polyimide waveguide fabrication by direct electron beam writing method," J. Lightwave Technol 13, 1718-1723 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W. Wang, D. Chen, and H. R. Fetterman, "Travelling wave electro-optic phase modulator using cross-linked nonlinear optical polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 929-931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, M. Amano, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, and H. Kozawaguchi, "Optical intensity modulation in a vertically stacked coupler incorporating electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1161-1163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Aramaki, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, and M. Marciniak, "Realization of integrated Bragg reflectors in DANs-polymer waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 189-195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, and S. Wu, "Optical monitoring for plasma-etching depth process," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 894-896 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

T. E. Van Eck, A. J. Ticknor, R. S. Lytel, and G. F. Lipscomb, "Complementary optical tap fabricated in an electro-optic polymer waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1588-1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

B. L. Booth, "Low loss channel waveguides in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445-1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

N. Imoto, "An analysis for contradirectional-coupler-type optical grating filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 895-900 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.-W.

D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, "Tunable polymeric Bragg grating filter using nanoimprint technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aizenberg, J.

K. E. Paul, T. L. Breen, J. Aizenberg, and G. M. Whitesides, "Maskless Photolithography: embossed photoresist as its own optical element," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2893-2895 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Amano, M.

M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, M. Amano, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, and H. Kozawaguchi, "Optical intensity modulation in a vertically stacked coupler incorporating electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1161-1163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ang, A. W.

A. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, "Effect of grating heights on highly efficient unibond SOI waveguide grating couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 59-61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aramaki, S.

S. Aramaki, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, and M. Marciniak, "Realization of integrated Bragg reflectors in DANs-polymer waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 189-195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

S. Aramaki, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, and M. Marciniak, "Realization of integrated Bragg reflectors in DANs-polymer waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 189-195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aydinli, A.

Bae, B. S.

Bergveld, P.

J. C. Lotters, W. Olthuis, P. H. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, "The mechanical properties of the rubber elastic polymer polydimethylsiloxane for sensor applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 7, 145-147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blomquist, R.

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, M. Maxfield, D. Pant, G. Boudoughian, C. Poga, and R. A Norwood, "Thermooptic planar polymer Bragg grating OADM’s with broad tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 448-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichannel OADMS using polymer Bragg grating MZIS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boilot, J.-P.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlit, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of surface relief grating on azo-hybrid gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Booth, B. L.

B. L. Booth, "Low loss channel waveguides in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445-1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Boudoughian, G.

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, M. Maxfield, D. Pant, G. Boudoughian, C. Poga, and R. A Norwood, "Thermooptic planar polymer Bragg grating OADM’s with broad tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 448-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Breen, T. L.

K. E. Paul, T. L. Breen, J. Aizenberg, and G. M. Whitesides, "Maskless Photolithography: embossed photoresist as its own optical element," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2893-2895 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, H.

H. Hillmer, A. Grabmaier, H. L. Zhu, S. Hansmann, and H. Burkhard, "Continuously chirped DFB gratings by specially bent waveguides for tunable lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1905-1912 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. C.

Chaput, F.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlit, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of surface relief grating on azo-hybrid gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

W. Wang, D. Chen, and H. R. Fetterman, "Travelling wave electro-optic phase modulator using cross-linked nonlinear optical polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 929-931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chin, W.-J.

D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, "Tunable polymeric Bragg grating filter using nanoimprint technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, W. C.

Darracq, B.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlit, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of surface relief grating on azo-hybrid gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 6, 54-68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, M. Maxfield, D. Pant, G. Boudoughian, C. Poga, and R. A Norwood, "Thermooptic planar polymer Bragg grating OADM’s with broad tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 448-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichannel OADMS using polymer Bragg grating MZIS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, and J. T. Yardley,"Laser-fabricated low loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, "Optical add-drop multiplexer based on an asymmetric Bragg coupler," Opt. Commun. 157, 249-264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, A. G. R.

A. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, "Effect of grating heights on highly efficient unibond SOI waveguide grating couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 59-61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

W. Wang, D. Chen, and H. R. Fetterman, "Travelling wave electro-optic phase modulator using cross-linked nonlinear optical polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 929-931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, "Narrow spectral bandwidths with grating waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4154-4156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Glass, C.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichannel OADMS using polymer Bragg grating MZIS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grabmaier, A.

H. Hillmer, A. Grabmaier, H. L. Zhu, S. Hansmann, and H. Burkhard, "Continuously chirped DFB gratings by specially bent waveguides for tunable lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1905-1912 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Hansmann, S.

H. Hillmer, A. Grabmaier, H. L. Zhu, S. Hansmann, and H. Burkhard, "Continuously chirped DFB gratings by specially bent waveguides for tunable lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1905-1912 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

P. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, A. Huser, and H. P. Herzig, "Simple technique for replication of micro-optical elements," Opt. Eng. 37, 1804-1808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, M. Amano, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, and H. Kozawaguchi, "Optical intensity modulation in a vertically stacked coupler incorporating electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1161-1163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hillmer, H.

H. Hillmer, A. Grabmaier, H. L. Zhu, S. Hansmann, and H. Burkhard, "Continuously chirped DFB gratings by specially bent waveguides for tunable lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1905-1912 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C. T.

Huang, Y.

Huser, A.

P. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, A. Huser, and H. P. Herzig, "Simple technique for replication of micro-optical elements," Opt. Eng. 37, 1804-1808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Imoto, N.

N. Imoto, "An analysis for contradirectional-coupler-type optical grating filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 895-900 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Josey, M. R.

A. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, "Effect of grating heights on highly efficient unibond SOI waveguide grating couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 59-61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D. J.

Kang, J. W.

J. W. Kang, M. J. Kim, J. P. Kim, S. J. Yoo, J. S. Lee, D. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, "Polymeric wavelength filters fabricated using holographic surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3823-3825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

J. W. Kang, M. J. Kim, J. P. Kim, S. J. Yoo, J. S. Lee, D. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, "Polymeric wavelength filters fabricated using holographic surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3823-3825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-H.

D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, "Tunable polymeric Bragg grating filter using nanoimprint technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. J.

J. W. Kang, M. J. Kim, J. P. Kim, S. J. Yoo, J. S. Lee, D. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, "Polymeric wavelength filters fabricated using holographic surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3823-3825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

Kim, J. P.

J. W. Kang, M. J. Kim, J. P. Kim, S. J. Yoo, J. S. Lee, D. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, "Polymeric wavelength filters fabricated using holographic surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3823-3825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. J.

J. W. Kang, M. J. Kim, J. P. Kim, S. J. Yoo, J. S. Lee, D. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, "Polymeric wavelength filters fabricated using holographic surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3823-3825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kocabas, A.

Kondo, Y.

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and T. Tamamura, "Effect of sidelobe on demultiplexing characteristics of a grating-folded directional coupler demultiplexer," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 87-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kozawaguchi, H.

M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, M. Amano, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, and H. Kozawaguchi, "Optical intensity modulation in a vertically stacked coupler incorporating electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1161-1163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lahlit, K.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlit, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of surface relief grating on azo-hybrid gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

J. W. Kang, M. J. Kim, J. P. Kim, S. J. Yoo, J. S. Lee, D. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, "Polymeric wavelength filters fabricated using holographic surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3823-3825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-D.

D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, "Tunable polymeric Bragg grating filter using nanoimprint technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-S.

D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, "Tunable polymeric Bragg grating filter using nanoimprint technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levy, Y.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlit, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of surface relief grating on azo-hybrid gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

C. H. Lin, Z. H. Zhu, Y. Qian, and Y. H. Lo, "Cascade self-induced holography: a new grating fabrication technology for DFB/DBR lasers and WDM laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 32, 1752-1759 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lipscomb, G. F.

T. E. Van Eck, A. J. Ticknor, R. S. Lytel, and G. F. Lipscomb, "Complementary optical tap fabricated in an electro-optic polymer waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1588-1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. H.

C. H. Lin, Z. H. Zhu, Y. Qian, and Y. H. Lo, "Cascade self-induced holography: a new grating fabrication technology for DFB/DBR lasers and WDM laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 32, 1752-1759 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lotters, J. C.

J. C. Lotters, W. Olthuis, P. H. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, "The mechanical properties of the rubber elastic polymer polydimethylsiloxane for sensor applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 7, 145-147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lytel, R. S.

T. E. Van Eck, A. J. Ticknor, R. S. Lytel, and G. F. Lipscomb, "Complementary optical tap fabricated in an electro-optic polymer waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1588-1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marciniak, M.

S. Aramaki, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, and M. Marciniak, "Realization of integrated Bragg reflectors in DANs-polymer waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 189-195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maruo, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, and T. Tamamura, "Embedded channel polyimide waveguide fabrication by direct electron beam writing method," J. Lightwave Technol 13, 1718-1723 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maxfield, M.

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, M. Maxfield, D. Pant, G. Boudoughian, C. Poga, and R. A Norwood, "Thermooptic planar polymer Bragg grating OADM’s with broad tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 448-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, M. Maxfield, D. Pant, G. Boudoughian, C. Poga, and R. A Norwood, "Thermooptic planar polymer Bragg grating OADM’s with broad tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 448-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichannel OADMS using polymer Bragg grating MZIS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nussbaum, P.

P. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, A. Huser, and H. P. Herzig, "Simple technique for replication of micro-optical elements," Opt. Eng. 37, 1804-1808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oku, S.

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and T. Tamamura, "Effect of sidelobe on demultiplexing characteristics of a grating-folded directional coupler demultiplexer," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 87-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olthuis, W.

J. C. Lotters, W. Olthuis, P. H. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, "The mechanical properties of the rubber elastic polymer polydimethylsiloxane for sensor applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 7, 145-147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pant, D.

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, M. Maxfield, D. Pant, G. Boudoughian, C. Poga, and R. A Norwood, "Thermooptic planar polymer Bragg grating OADM’s with broad tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 448-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paul, K. E.

K. E. Paul, T. L. Breen, J. Aizenberg, and G. M. Whitesides, "Maskless Photolithography: embossed photoresist as its own optical element," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2893-2895 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Philipoussis, I.

P. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, A. Huser, and H. P. Herzig, "Simple technique for replication of micro-optical elements," Opt. Eng. 37, 1804-1808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poga, C.

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, M. Maxfield, D. Pant, G. Boudoughian, C. Poga, and R. A Norwood, "Thermooptic planar polymer Bragg grating OADM’s with broad tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 448-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichannel OADMS using polymer Bragg grating MZIS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qian, Y.

C. H. Lin, Z. H. Zhu, Y. Qian, and Y. H. Lo, "Cascade self-induced holography: a new grating fabrication technology for DFB/DBR lasers and WDM laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 32, 1752-1759 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

A. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, "Effect of grating heights on highly efficient unibond SOI waveguide grating couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 59-61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, D.

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, "Narrow spectral bandwidths with grating waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4154-4156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Routley, P. R.

A. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, "Effect of grating heights on highly efficient unibond SOI waveguide grating couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 59-61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, S.

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, and T. Tamamura, "Embedded channel polyimide waveguide fabrication by direct electron beam writing method," J. Lightwave Technol 13, 1718-1723 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shacklette, L. W.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 6, 54-68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, and J. T. Yardley,"Laser-fabricated low loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sharon, A.

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, "Narrow spectral bandwidths with grating waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4154-4156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, Y.

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and T. Tamamura, "Effect of sidelobe on demultiplexing characteristics of a grating-folded directional coupler demultiplexer," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 87-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shuto, Y.

M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, M. Amano, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, and H. Kozawaguchi, "Optical intensity modulation in a vertically stacked coupler incorporating electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1161-1163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

S. Aramaki, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, and M. Marciniak, "Realization of integrated Bragg reflectors in DANs-polymer waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 189-195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stengel, K. M. T.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, and J. T. Yardley,"Laser-fabricated low loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tamamura, T.

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and T. Tamamura, "Effect of sidelobe on demultiplexing characteristics of a grating-folded directional coupler demultiplexer," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 87-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, and T. Tamamura, "Embedded channel polyimide waveguide fabrication by direct electron beam writing method," J. Lightwave Technol 13, 1718-1723 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ticknor, A. J.

T. E. Van Eck, A. J. Ticknor, R. S. Lytel, and G. F. Lipscomb, "Complementary optical tap fabricated in an electro-optic polymer waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1588-1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tomaru, S.

M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, M. Amano, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, and H. Kozawaguchi, "Optical intensity modulation in a vertically stacked coupler incorporating electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1161-1163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchimori, M.

O. Watanabe and M. Tsuchimori, "Improvement in linear and nonlinear optical-properties by blending poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) with an electro-optic polymer," Polymer 42, 6447-6451 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Eck, T. E.

T. E. Van Eck, A. J. Ticknor, R. S. Lytel, and G. F. Lipscomb, "Complementary optical tap fabricated in an electro-optic polymer waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1588-1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Veltink, P. H.

J. C. Lotters, W. Olthuis, P. H. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, "The mechanical properties of the rubber elastic polymer polydimethylsiloxane for sensor applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 7, 145-147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vonsovici, A.

A. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, "Effect of grating heights on highly efficient unibond SOI waveguide grating couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 59-61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, D. Chen, and H. R. Fetterman, "Travelling wave electro-optic phase modulator using cross-linked nonlinear optical polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 929-931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. C.

Watanabe, O.

O. Watanabe and M. Tsuchimori, "Improvement in linear and nonlinear optical-properties by blending poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) with an electro-optic polymer," Polymer 42, 6447-6451 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

K. E. Paul, T. L. Breen, J. Aizenberg, and G. M. Whitesides, "Maskless Photolithography: embossed photoresist as its own optical element," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2893-2895 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, and S. Wu, "Optical monitoring for plasma-etching depth process," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 894-896 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, and J. T. Yardley,"Laser-fabricated low loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, and J. T. Yardley,"Laser-fabricated low loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yin, S.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichannel OADMS using polymer Bragg grating MZIS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, and S. Wu, "Optical monitoring for plasma-etching depth process," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 894-896 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J.

J. W. Kang, M. J. Kim, J. P. Kim, S. J. Yoo, J. S. Lee, D. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, "Polymeric wavelength filters fabricated using holographic surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3823-3825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, R.

M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, M. Amano, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, and H. Kozawaguchi, "Optical intensity modulation in a vertically stacked coupler incorporating electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1161-1163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. T. S.

S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, and S. Wu, "Optical monitoring for plasma-etching depth process," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 894-896 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.-M.

X.-M. Zhao, S. P-Smith, S. J. Waldman, G. M. Whitesides, and M. Prentiss, "Demonstration of waveguide couplers fabricated using microtransfer molding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1017-1019 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H. L.

H. Hillmer, A. Grabmaier, H. L. Zhu, S. Hansmann, and H. Burkhard, "Continuously chirped DFB gratings by specially bent waveguides for tunable lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1905-1912 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

Zhu, Z. H.

C. H. Lin, Z. H. Zhu, Y. Qian, and Y. H. Lo, "Cascade self-induced holography: a new grating fabrication technology for DFB/DBR lasers and WDM laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 32, 1752-1759 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlit, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of surface relief grating on azo-hybrid gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, "Narrow spectral bandwidths with grating waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4154-4156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kang, M. J. Kim, J. P. Kim, S. J. Yoo, J. S. Lee, D. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, "Polymeric wavelength filters fabricated using holographic surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3823-3825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Van Eck, A. J. Ticknor, R. S. Lytel, and G. F. Lipscomb, "Complementary optical tap fabricated in an electro-optic polymer waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1588-1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Hikita, Y. Shuto, M. Amano, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, and H. Kozawaguchi, "Optical intensity modulation in a vertically stacked coupler incorporating electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1161-1163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, D. Chen, and H. R. Fetterman, "Travelling wave electro-optic phase modulator using cross-linked nonlinear optical polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 929-931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Paul, T. L. Breen, J. Aizenberg, and G. M. Whitesides, "Maskless Photolithography: embossed photoresist as its own optical element," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2893-2895 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X.-M. Zhao, S. P-Smith, S. J. Waldman, G. M. Whitesides, and M. Prentiss, "Demonstration of waveguide couplers fabricated using microtransfer molding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1017-1019 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, "Tunable polymeric Bragg grating filter using nanoimprint technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

C. H. Lin, Z. H. Zhu, Y. Qian, and Y. H. Lo, "Cascade self-induced holography: a new grating fabrication technology for DFB/DBR lasers and WDM laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 32, 1752-1759 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 6, 54-68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, "Effect of grating heights on highly efficient unibond SOI waveguide grating couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 59-61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Wook Kang, J.-J. Kim, J. Kim, X. Li, and M.-H. Lee, "Low-loss and thermally stable TE-mode selective polymer waveguide using photosensitive fluorinated polyimide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1297-1299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, M. Maxfield, D. Pant, G. Boudoughian, C. Poga, and R. A Norwood, "Thermooptic planar polymer Bragg grating OADM’s with broad tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 448-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, and S. Wu, "Optical monitoring for plasma-etching depth process," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 894-896 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and T. Tamamura, "Effect of sidelobe on demultiplexing characteristics of a grating-folded directional coupler demultiplexer," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 87-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE, Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichannel OADMS using polymer Bragg grating MZIS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol (1)

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki, and T. Tamamura, "Embedded channel polyimide waveguide fabrication by direct electron beam writing method," J. Lightwave Technol 13, 1718-1723 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

B. L. Booth, "Low loss channel waveguides in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445-1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, and J. T. Yardley,"Laser-fabricated low loss single-mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Imoto, "An analysis for contradirectional-coupler-type optical grating filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 895-900 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Hillmer, A. Grabmaier, H. L. Zhu, S. Hansmann, and H. Burkhard, "Continuously chirped DFB gratings by specially bent waveguides for tunable lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1905-1912 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Aramaki, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, and M. Marciniak, "Realization of integrated Bragg reflectors in DANs-polymer waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 189-195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

J. C. Lotters, W. Olthuis, P. H. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, "The mechanical properties of the rubber elastic polymer polydimethylsiloxane for sensor applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 7, 145-147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Erdogan, "Optical add-drop multiplexer based on an asymmetric Bragg coupler," Opt. Commun. 157, 249-264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, A. Huser, and H. P. Herzig, "Simple technique for replication of micro-optical elements," Opt. Eng. 37, 1804-1808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Polymer (1)

O. Watanabe and M. Tsuchimori, "Improvement in linear and nonlinear optical-properties by blending poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) with an electro-optic polymer," Polymer 42, 6447-6451 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

H. Becker and W. Dietz, "Microfluidic devices for TAS applications fabricated by polymer hot embossing," in Microfluid Devices and Systems, A. B. Frazier and C. H. Ahn, eds., Proc. SPIE 3515, 177-181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Ferm and L. W. Shacklette, "High volume manufacturing of polymer waveguides via UV- Embossing," in Linear,Nonlinear, and Power-Limiting Organics, E. Manfred, et al., eds., Proc. SPIE 4106, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Rossi, H. Rudmanr, B. Marty, and A. Maciossek, "Wafer-scale micro-optics replication technology," in Lithographic and Micromaching Techniques for Optical Component Fabrication II, E.-B. Kley and H. P. Herzid, eds., Proc. SPIE 5183, 148-154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Yarin, Introduction to Optical Electronics, 3rd edition, (H. Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1984).

H. Nishihara, Y. Handa, T. Suhara, and J. Koyama, "Electron-beam directly written micro gratings for integrated optical circuits," in Photo- and Electro-Optics in Range Instrumentation, J. Water, et al., eds., Proc. SPIE, 134, 152-159 (1980).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

AFM and SEM micrographs of gratings on UV polymer (a) AFM (b) SEM (503 nm grating period and 397 nm grating depth)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabrication process of buried gratings in polymeric waveguide filter structures, a) UV polymer with gratings was deposited on the glass, b) UV light exposure of photoresist, c) photoresist mold, d) PDMS is poured into the photoresist mold, e) PDMS mold, f) A spacer with a thickness of 400μm is positioned, g) OG146 precure epoxy is injected into the space, h) hardened epoxy forms the cladding layer of polymeric waveguide filter, i) forming a rectangular channel, j) Mixed OG epoxy is injected into the channel, k) The epoxy in the channel was then cured by exposing with UV light, and the cover glass and the PDMS layer are removed from the sample, l) A spacer with a thickness of 9400μm was positioned, m) OG146 epoxy is injected into the channel, n) final polymeric waveguide filter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM micrograph of the waveguide pattern on photoresist, which showed the intact grating pattern inside the groove , and SEM was tilted 55° degree (the dimension is 8.7μm × 6μm, the length is 5cm, and the grating period is 503nm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM micrograph of the PDMS waveguide with gratings, and SEM was tilted 35° Degree (the dimension is 8.7μm × 6μm, the length is 5 cm, and the grating period is 502nm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SEM micrograph of the OG146 rectangular groove, which showed the intact grating pattern inside the groove, and SEM was tilted 5° degree (the dimension is 8.7μm × 6μm, the length is 5cm, and the grating period is 503nm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic diagram of the mode field measurement system

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The mode field of the waveguide

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Transmission spectrum of the polymeric wavelength filter with 0.5cm-long grating length.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

SEM micrograph of the PDMS mold of ABC waveguide filter (the dimensions of the two asymmetric coupled waveguide are 7.8μm × 6μm ,11μm × 6μm , the length is 4cm, and the gap is about 4μm).

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