Abstract

We report on the fabrication of the Au nanoparticles/Er3+ codoped germano-silicate fibers by modified chemical vapor deposition and solution doping processes. Absorption and luminescence characteristics of the Er3+-doped germano-silicate fibers incorporated with Au nanoparticles in the core of the fibers were investigated. The Au nanoparticles were found to be effective absorbents for hydroxyl groups to enhance the luminescence of Er3+ ions upon pumping with the 980nm laser diode.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Song and M. Premaratne, “Effects of SPM, XPM, and Four-Wave-Mixing in L-band EDFAs on fiberoptic signal transmission,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 12, 1630–1632 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, and R. G. Smart, “Four wave mixing in EDFAs,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2130–2131 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janaka, “Very short Er-doped silica glass fiber for L-band amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 376–377.
  5. P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear effects in rare-earth-doped fibers and waveguides,” in Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (LEOS’97 10th Annual Meeting, Academic, San Francisco, CA Technical meeting, 1997), pp. 371–372.
  6. R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiato, Y. L. Xue, and P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear refractive index in Erbium doped optical fiber: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 27, 908–913 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. W. Arkwright, P. Elango, and G. R. Atkins, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the resonant nonlinearity in ytterbium-doped fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 798–806 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Dislich, “Sol-gel 1984→2004,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 73, 599–612 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kozuka and S. Sakka, “Preparation of gold colloid-dispersed silica-coating films by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater. 5, 222–228 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Coutier, W. Meffer, P. Jenouvrier, J. Fick, M. Audier, R. Rimet, B. Jacquier, and M. Langlet, “The effects of phosphorus on the crystallisation and photoluminescence behavior of aerosol-gel deposited SiO2-TiO2-Er2O3-P2O5 thin films,” Thin Solid Flims 392, 40–49 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Strohhöfer and A. Polman, “Silver as a sensitizer for erbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1414–1419 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Fukushima, N. Managaki, M. Fujii, H. Yanagi, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of 1.54-μm emission from Er-doped sol-gel SiO2 films by Au nanoparticles doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 024316-1~4 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Lin, D. H. Son, I. H. Ahn, G. H. Song, and W. -T. Han, “Visible to infrared photoluminescence from gold nanoparticles embedded in germano-silicate glass fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 6374–6379 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Lin, B. H. Kim, S. Ju, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and third-order optical nonlinearity of germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with Au nanoparticles,” Proc. SPIE 6481, 64810M1–7 (2007). http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet filetype=pdf&id=PSISDG00648100000164810M00000 1&idtype=cvips&prog=normal
  16. G. Baysinger, T. F. Koetzle, L. I. Berger, K. Kuchitsu, N. C. Craig, C. C. Lin, R. N. Goldberg, and A. L. Smith, “Section 4: Physical constants of inorganic compounds,” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D. R. Lide ed., (CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, 2000), paper 4–61.
  17. W. Yan, B. Chen, S. M. Mahurin, E. W. Hagaman, S. Dai, and S. H. Overbury, “Surface sol-gel modification of mesoporous silica materials with TiO2 for the assembly of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 2793–2796 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Puech and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of the optical nonlinearity in nanometric gold particles,” J. Nanopart. Res. 3, 13–21 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, S. Ju, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and third-order optical nonlinearity of germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with Au nanoparticles,” Proc. SPIE 6481, 64810M1–7 (2007). http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet filetype=pdf&id=PSISDG00648100000164810M00000 1&idtype=cvips&prog=normal

A. Lin, D. H. Son, I. H. Ahn, G. H. Song, and W. -T. Han, “Visible to infrared photoluminescence from gold nanoparticles embedded in germano-silicate glass fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 6374–6379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Fukushima, N. Managaki, M. Fujii, H. Yanagi, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of 1.54-μm emission from Er-doped sol-gel SiO2 films by Au nanoparticles doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 024316-1~4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

W. Yan, B. Chen, S. M. Mahurin, E. W. Hagaman, S. Dai, and S. H. Overbury, “Surface sol-gel modification of mesoporous silica materials with TiO2 for the assembly of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 2793–2796 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Strohhöfer and A. Polman, “Silver as a sensitizer for erbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1414–1419 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Coutier, W. Meffer, P. Jenouvrier, J. Fick, M. Audier, R. Rimet, B. Jacquier, and M. Langlet, “The effects of phosphorus on the crystallisation and photoluminescence behavior of aerosol-gel deposited SiO2-TiO2-Er2O3-P2O5 thin films,” Thin Solid Flims 392, 40–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Puech and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of the optical nonlinearity in nanometric gold particles,” J. Nanopart. Res. 3, 13–21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Song and M. Premaratne, “Effects of SPM, XPM, and Four-Wave-Mixing in L-band EDFAs on fiberoptic signal transmission,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 12, 1630–1632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, and R. G. Smart, “Four wave mixing in EDFAs,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2130–2131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Kozuka and S. Sakka, “Preparation of gold colloid-dispersed silica-coating films by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater. 5, 222–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiato, Y. L. Xue, and P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear refractive index in Erbium doped optical fiber: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 27, 908–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

H. Dislich, “Sol-gel 1984→2004,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 73, 599–612 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, I. H.

Arkwright, J. W.

Atkins, G. R.

Audier, M.

C. Coutier, W. Meffer, P. Jenouvrier, J. Fick, M. Audier, R. Rimet, B. Jacquier, and M. Langlet, “The effects of phosphorus on the crystallisation and photoluminescence behavior of aerosol-gel deposited SiO2-TiO2-Er2O3-P2O5 thin films,” Thin Solid Flims 392, 40–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baysinger, G.

G. Baysinger, T. F. Koetzle, L. I. Berger, K. Kuchitsu, N. C. Craig, C. C. Lin, R. N. Goldberg, and A. L. Smith, “Section 4: Physical constants of inorganic compounds,” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D. R. Lide ed., (CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, 2000), paper 4–61.

Berger, L. I.

G. Baysinger, T. F. Koetzle, L. I. Berger, K. Kuchitsu, N. C. Craig, C. C. Lin, R. N. Goldberg, and A. L. Smith, “Section 4: Physical constants of inorganic compounds,” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D. R. Lide ed., (CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, 2000), paper 4–61.

Betts, R. A.

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiato, Y. L. Xue, and P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear refractive index in Erbium doped optical fiber: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 27, 908–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

K. Puech and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of the optical nonlinearity in nanometric gold particles,” J. Nanopart. Res. 3, 13–21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boo, S.

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burtsev, S.

Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, and R. G. Smart, “Four wave mixing in EDFAs,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2130–2131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

W. Yan, B. Chen, S. M. Mahurin, E. W. Hagaman, S. Dai, and S. H. Overbury, “Surface sol-gel modification of mesoporous silica materials with TiO2 for the assembly of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 2793–2796 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiato, Y. L. Xue, and P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear refractive index in Erbium doped optical fiber: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 27, 908–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear effects in rare-earth-doped fibers and waveguides,” in Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (LEOS’97 10th Annual Meeting, Academic, San Francisco, CA Technical meeting, 1997), pp. 371–372.

Coutier, C.

C. Coutier, W. Meffer, P. Jenouvrier, J. Fick, M. Audier, R. Rimet, B. Jacquier, and M. Langlet, “The effects of phosphorus on the crystallisation and photoluminescence behavior of aerosol-gel deposited SiO2-TiO2-Er2O3-P2O5 thin films,” Thin Solid Flims 392, 40–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Craig, N. C.

G. Baysinger, T. F. Koetzle, L. I. Berger, K. Kuchitsu, N. C. Craig, C. C. Lin, R. N. Goldberg, and A. L. Smith, “Section 4: Physical constants of inorganic compounds,” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D. R. Lide ed., (CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, 2000), paper 4–61.

Dai, S.

W. Yan, B. Chen, S. M. Mahurin, E. W. Hagaman, S. Dai, and S. H. Overbury, “Surface sol-gel modification of mesoporous silica materials with TiO2 for the assembly of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 2793–2796 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dislich, H.

H. Dislich, “Sol-gel 1984→2004,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 73, 599–612 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Elango, P.

Espindola, R. P.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fick, J.

C. Coutier, W. Meffer, P. Jenouvrier, J. Fick, M. Audier, R. Rimet, B. Jacquier, and M. Langlet, “The effects of phosphorus on the crystallisation and photoluminescence behavior of aerosol-gel deposited SiO2-TiO2-Er2O3-P2O5 thin films,” Thin Solid Flims 392, 40–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

M. Fukushima, N. Managaki, M. Fujii, H. Yanagi, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of 1.54-μm emission from Er-doped sol-gel SiO2 films by Au nanoparticles doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 024316-1~4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, M.

M. Fukushima, N. Managaki, M. Fujii, H. Yanagi, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of 1.54-μm emission from Er-doped sol-gel SiO2 films by Au nanoparticles doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 024316-1~4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, R. N.

G. Baysinger, T. F. Koetzle, L. I. Berger, K. Kuchitsu, N. C. Craig, C. C. Lin, R. N. Goldberg, and A. L. Smith, “Section 4: Physical constants of inorganic compounds,” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D. R. Lide ed., (CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, 2000), paper 4–61.

Hache, F.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hagaman, E. W.

W. Yan, B. Chen, S. M. Mahurin, E. W. Hagaman, S. Dai, and S. H. Overbury, “Surface sol-gel modification of mesoporous silica materials with TiO2 for the assembly of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 2793–2796 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, W. -T.

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, S. Ju, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and third-order optical nonlinearity of germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with Au nanoparticles,” Proc. SPIE 6481, 64810M1–7 (2007). http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet filetype=pdf&id=PSISDG00648100000164810M00000 1&idtype=cvips&prog=normal

A. Lin, D. H. Son, I. H. Ahn, G. H. Song, and W. -T. Han, “Visible to infrared photoluminescence from gold nanoparticles embedded in germano-silicate glass fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 6374–6379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

M. Fukushima, N. Managaki, M. Fujii, H. Yanagi, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of 1.54-μm emission from Er-doped sol-gel SiO2 films by Au nanoparticles doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 024316-1~4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hegarty, S.

Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, and R. G. Smart, “Four wave mixing in EDFAs,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2130–2131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hempstead, M.

Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, and R. G. Smart, “Four wave mixing in EDFAs,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2130–2131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hotoleanu, M.

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janaka, “Very short Er-doped silica glass fiber for L-band amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 376–377.

Jacquier, B.

C. Coutier, W. Meffer, P. Jenouvrier, J. Fick, M. Audier, R. Rimet, B. Jacquier, and M. Langlet, “The effects of phosphorus on the crystallisation and photoluminescence behavior of aerosol-gel deposited SiO2-TiO2-Er2O3-P2O5 thin films,” Thin Solid Flims 392, 40–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Janaka, K.

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janaka, “Very short Er-doped silica glass fiber for L-band amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 376–377.

Jenouvrier, P.

C. Coutier, W. Meffer, P. Jenouvrier, J. Fick, M. Audier, R. Rimet, B. Jacquier, and M. Langlet, “The effects of phosphorus on the crystallisation and photoluminescence behavior of aerosol-gel deposited SiO2-TiO2-Er2O3-P2O5 thin films,” Thin Solid Flims 392, 40–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, C.

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ju, S.

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, S. Ju, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and third-order optical nonlinearity of germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with Au nanoparticles,” Proc. SPIE 6481, 64810M1–7 (2007). http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet filetype=pdf&id=PSISDG00648100000164810M00000 1&idtype=cvips&prog=normal

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kiiveri, P.

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janaka, “Very short Er-doped silica glass fiber for L-band amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 376–377.

Kim, B. H.

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, S. Ju, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and third-order optical nonlinearity of germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with Au nanoparticles,” Proc. SPIE 6481, 64810M1–7 (2007). http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet filetype=pdf&id=PSISDG00648100000164810M00000 1&idtype=cvips&prog=normal

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. J.

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koetzle, T. F.

G. Baysinger, T. F. Koetzle, L. I. Berger, K. Kuchitsu, N. C. Craig, C. C. Lin, R. N. Goldberg, and A. L. Smith, “Section 4: Physical constants of inorganic compounds,” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D. R. Lide ed., (CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, 2000), paper 4–61.

Kozuka, H.

H. Kozuka and S. Sakka, “Preparation of gold colloid-dispersed silica-coating films by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater. 5, 222–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kuchitsu, K.

G. Baysinger, T. F. Koetzle, L. I. Berger, K. Kuchitsu, N. C. Craig, C. C. Lin, R. N. Goldberg, and A. L. Smith, “Section 4: Physical constants of inorganic compounds,” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D. R. Lide ed., (CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, 2000), paper 4–61.

Langlet, M.

C. Coutier, W. Meffer, P. Jenouvrier, J. Fick, M. Audier, R. Rimet, B. Jacquier, and M. Langlet, “The effects of phosphorus on the crystallisation and photoluminescence behavior of aerosol-gel deposited SiO2-TiO2-Er2O3-P2O5 thin films,” Thin Solid Flims 392, 40–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, A.

A. Lin, D. H. Son, I. H. Ahn, G. H. Song, and W. -T. Han, “Visible to infrared photoluminescence from gold nanoparticles embedded in germano-silicate glass fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 6374–6379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, S. Ju, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and third-order optical nonlinearity of germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with Au nanoparticles,” Proc. SPIE 6481, 64810M1–7 (2007). http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet filetype=pdf&id=PSISDG00648100000164810M00000 1&idtype=cvips&prog=normal

Lin, C. C.

G. Baysinger, T. F. Koetzle, L. I. Berger, K. Kuchitsu, N. C. Craig, C. C. Lin, R. N. Goldberg, and A. L. Smith, “Section 4: Physical constants of inorganic compounds,” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D. R. Lide ed., (CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, 2000), paper 4–61.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, and R. G. Smart, “Four wave mixing in EDFAs,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2130–2131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luther, G. G.

Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, and R. G. Smart, “Four wave mixing in EDFAs,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2130–2131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mahurin, S. M.

W. Yan, B. Chen, S. M. Mahurin, E. W. Hagaman, S. Dai, and S. H. Overbury, “Surface sol-gel modification of mesoporous silica materials with TiO2 for the assembly of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 2793–2796 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Managaki, N.

M. Fukushima, N. Managaki, M. Fujii, H. Yanagi, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of 1.54-μm emission from Er-doped sol-gel SiO2 films by Au nanoparticles doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 024316-1~4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meffer, W.

C. Coutier, W. Meffer, P. Jenouvrier, J. Fick, M. Audier, R. Rimet, B. Jacquier, and M. Langlet, “The effects of phosphorus on the crystallisation and photoluminescence behavior of aerosol-gel deposited SiO2-TiO2-Er2O3-P2O5 thin films,” Thin Solid Flims 392, 40–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mozdy, R. S.

Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, and R. G. Smart, “Four wave mixing in EDFAs,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2130–2131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. L.

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Overbury, S. H.

W. Yan, B. Chen, S. M. Mahurin, E. W. Hagaman, S. Dai, and S. H. Overbury, “Surface sol-gel modification of mesoporous silica materials with TiO2 for the assembly of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 2793–2796 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

C. Strohhöfer and A. Polman, “Silver as a sensitizer for erbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1414–1419 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Premaratne, M.

K. Song and M. Premaratne, “Effects of SPM, XPM, and Four-Wave-Mixing in L-band EDFAs on fiberoptic signal transmission,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 12, 1630–1632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Puech, K.

K. Puech and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of the optical nonlinearity in nanometric gold particles,” J. Nanopart. Res. 3, 13–21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ricard, D.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rimet, R.

C. Coutier, W. Meffer, P. Jenouvrier, J. Fick, M. Audier, R. Rimet, B. Jacquier, and M. Langlet, “The effects of phosphorus on the crystallisation and photoluminescence behavior of aerosol-gel deposited SiO2-TiO2-Er2O3-P2O5 thin films,” Thin Solid Flims 392, 40–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakka, S.

H. Kozuka and S. Sakka, “Preparation of gold colloid-dispersed silica-coating films by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater. 5, 222–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sarkilahti, S.

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janaka, “Very short Er-doped silica glass fiber for L-band amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 376–377.

Smart, R. G.

Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, and R. G. Smart, “Four wave mixing in EDFAs,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2130–2131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. L.

G. Baysinger, T. F. Koetzle, L. I. Berger, K. Kuchitsu, N. C. Craig, C. C. Lin, R. N. Goldberg, and A. L. Smith, “Section 4: Physical constants of inorganic compounds,” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D. R. Lide ed., (CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, 2000), paper 4–61.

Son, D. H.

Song, G. H.

Song, K.

K. Song and M. Premaratne, “Effects of SPM, XPM, and Four-Wave-Mixing in L-band EDFAs on fiberoptic signal transmission,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 12, 1630–1632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A. K.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strohhöfer, C.

C. Strohhöfer and A. Polman, “Silver as a sensitizer for erbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1414–1419 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tammela, S.

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janaka, “Very short Er-doped silica glass fiber for L-band amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 376–377.

Tjugiato, T.

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiato, Y. L. Xue, and P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear refractive index in Erbium doped optical fiber: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 27, 908–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Valkonen, H.

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janaka, “Very short Er-doped silica glass fiber for L-band amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 376–377.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watekar, P. R.

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, C.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xue, Y. L.

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiato, Y. L. Xue, and P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear refractive index in Erbium doped optical fiber: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 27, 908–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.

W. Yan, B. Chen, S. M. Mahurin, E. W. Hagaman, S. Dai, and S. H. Overbury, “Surface sol-gel modification of mesoporous silica materials with TiO2 for the assembly of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 2793–2796 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yanagi, H.

M. Fukushima, N. Managaki, M. Fujii, H. Yanagi, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of 1.54-μm emission from Er-doped sol-gel SiO2 films by Au nanoparticles doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 024316-1~4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Strohhöfer and A. Polman, “Silver as a sensitizer for erbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1414–1419 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

H. Kozuka and S. Sakka, “Preparation of gold colloid-dispersed silica-coating films by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater. 5, 222–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “80nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1966 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, and R. G. Smart, “Four wave mixing in EDFAs,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2130–2131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. (1)

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiato, Y. L. Xue, and P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear refractive index in Erbium doped optical fiber: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 27, 908–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

K. Song and M. Premaratne, “Effects of SPM, XPM, and Four-Wave-Mixing in L-band EDFAs on fiberoptic signal transmission,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 12, 1630–1632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Fukushima, N. Managaki, M. Fujii, H. Yanagi, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of 1.54-μm emission from Er-doped sol-gel SiO2 films by Au nanoparticles doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 024316-1~4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Nanopart. Res. (1)

K. Puech and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of the optical nonlinearity in nanometric gold particles,” J. Nanopart. Res. 3, 13–21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

H. Dislich, “Sol-gel 1984→2004,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 73, 599–612 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

W. Yan, B. Chen, S. M. Mahurin, E. W. Hagaman, S. Dai, and S. H. Overbury, “Surface sol-gel modification of mesoporous silica materials with TiO2 for the assembly of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 2793–2796 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, S. Ju, and W. -T. Han, “Fabrication and third-order optical nonlinearity of germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with Au nanoparticles,” Proc. SPIE 6481, 64810M1–7 (2007). http://spiedl.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet filetype=pdf&id=PSISDG00648100000164810M00000 1&idtype=cvips&prog=normal

Thin Solid Flims (1)

C. Coutier, W. Meffer, P. Jenouvrier, J. Fick, M. Audier, R. Rimet, B. Jacquier, and M. Langlet, “The effects of phosphorus on the crystallisation and photoluminescence behavior of aerosol-gel deposited SiO2-TiO2-Er2O3-P2O5 thin films,” Thin Solid Flims 392, 40–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janaka, “Very short Er-doped silica glass fiber for L-band amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 376–377.

P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear effects in rare-earth-doped fibers and waveguides,” in Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (LEOS’97 10th Annual Meeting, Academic, San Francisco, CA Technical meeting, 1997), pp. 371–372.

G. Baysinger, T. F. Koetzle, L. I. Berger, K. Kuchitsu, N. C. Craig, C. C. Lin, R. N. Goldberg, and A. L. Smith, “Section 4: Physical constants of inorganic compounds,” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D. R. Lide ed., (CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, 2000), paper 4–61.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experiment setup for absorption and emission measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption spectra of the EDF, the Au_EDF, the Au_Fiber and the Ref. Fiber: (a) at 460nm ~ 560nm (b) at 1300nm ~1650nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the luminescence of the EDF and the Au_EDF pumped (a) with the 488nm Argon-ion laser and (b) with the 980nm laser diode

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic energy level diagram of Au atoms15

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I. Characteristics of the germano-silicate fibers doped with Er3+ and/or Au particles

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