Abstract

In this work the formation of optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals by either proton or carbon implantation is reported. The channel waveguides were obtained by a single implantation process through an electroformed mask of nickel-cobalt alloy. Experimental measurements of the optical properties of these waveguides are presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation, (Cambridge University Press, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. D. Townsend, "An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguides profiles," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Rev. B 46, 18-25 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. A. Arutunyan and S. Kh. Galoyan, "Determination of refractive index profile in optical waveguides formed by ion implantation," Opt. Commun. 56, 399-402 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express. 11, 1291-1296 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Flores-Romero, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, "Planar waveguide lasers by proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Express 12, 2264-2269 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "CW laser action at λ = 1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110-4112 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3 um in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. http://www.srim.org/
  15. J. F. Bourhis, "Fibre to waveguide connection," in Glass integrated optics and optical fiber devices of the critical reviews of optical science and technology, CR53, 335-366 (1994).
  16. E. Flores-Romero, "Study of optical waveguides obtained by using proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," (CICESE, M. Sc. Thesis, Mexico, 2003).

2007 (1)

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3 um in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "CW laser action at λ = 1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110-4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express. 11, 1291-1296 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. D. Townsend, "An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguides profiles," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Rev. B 46, 18-25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

E. A. Arutunyan and S. Kh. Galoyan, "Determination of refractive index profile in optical waveguides formed by ion implantation," Opt. Commun. 56, 399-402 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Arutunyan, E. A.

E. A. Arutunyan and S. Kh. Galoyan, "Determination of refractive index profile in optical waveguides formed by ion implantation," Opt. Commun. 56, 399-402 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cantelar, E.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3 um in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "CW laser action at λ = 1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110-4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express. 11, 1291-1296 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandler, P. J.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Couchaud, M.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Domenech, M.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3 um in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "CW laser action at λ = 1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110-4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express. 11, 1291-1296 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrand, B.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Field, S. J.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Flores-Romero, E.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3 um in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Flores-Romero, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, "Planar waveguide lasers by proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Express 12, 2264-2269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galoyan, S. Kh.

E. A. Arutunyan and S. Kh. Galoyan, "Determination of refractive index profile in optical waveguides formed by ion implantation," Opt. Commun. 56, 399-402 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jacquier, B.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, M. F.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaczkan, M.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Large, A. C.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lifante, G.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3 um in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "CW laser action at λ = 1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110-4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express. 11, 1291-1296 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malinowskii, M.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Márquez, H.

E. Flores-Romero, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, "Planar waveguide lasers by proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Express 12, 2264-2269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

Rickards, J.

E. Flores-Romero, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, "Planar waveguide lasers by proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Express 12, 2264-2269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express. 11, 1291-1296 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Samecki, J.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Szachowicz, M.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tascu, S.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, "An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguides profiles," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Rev. B 46, 18-25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Trejo-Luna, R.

Tropper, A. C.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez, G. V.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3 um in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Flores-Romero, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, "Planar waveguide lasers by proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Express 12, 2264-2269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express. 11, 1291-1296 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "CW laser action at λ = 1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110-4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "CW laser action at λ = 1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110-4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3 um in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. D. Townsend, "An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguides profiles," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Rev. B 46, 18-25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

E. A. Arutunyan and S. Kh. Galoyan, "Determination of refractive index profile in optical waveguides formed by ion implantation," Opt. Commun. 56, 399-402 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Express. (1)

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express. 11, 1291-1296 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. (1)

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

http://www.srim.org/

J. F. Bourhis, "Fibre to waveguide connection," in Glass integrated optics and optical fiber devices of the critical reviews of optical science and technology, CR53, 335-366 (1994).

E. Flores-Romero, "Study of optical waveguides obtained by using proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," (CICESE, M. Sc. Thesis, Mexico, 2003).

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation, (Cambridge University Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Image constructed from waveguide end-face microphotographs of channels fabricated by carbon implantation, the arrows indicate the location of channels. (a) 10 micron waveguides, (b) 15 micron waveguides, (c) 20 micron waveguides.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity distribution of the beam propagated along channel waveguides. The central numbers indicate the nominal waveguide widths.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission measurements in channel waveguides by proton or carbon implantation. The waveguide number 12 represents the average transmission of the group.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Typical emission spectrum from proton-implanted channel waveguides for transition 4F3/24I3/2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Typical emission spectrum from carbon-implanted channel waveguides for transition 4F3/24I3/2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Average induced broadening in waveguide spectra due to proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Average induced broadening in waveguide spectra due to carbon implantation in Nd:YAG crystals.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Implantation parameters used to fabricate channel waveguides.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Optical transmission measurements and launch efficiency estimations in channel waveguides.

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