Abstract

The putative features of the (endo)vascular photothermal response, characterized by laser-induced thermal denaturation of blood and vessel wall constituents, have been elucidated individually, but not simultaneously in dynamic, isolated in vivo systems. A hamster dorsal skin fold model in combination with brightfield/fluorescence intravital microscopy was used to examine the effect of laser pulse duration and blood flow velocity on the size of the thermal coagulum, its attachment behavior, and laser-mediated vasomotion. The size of the coagulum and the extent of vasoconstriction and latent vasodilation were proportional to the laser pulse duration, but pulse duration had no effect on coagulum attachment/dislodgement. Blood flow velocity exhibited no significant effect on the studied parameters. The (endo)vascular photothermal response is governed predominantly by laser energy deposition and to a marginal extent by blood flow velocity.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Mioc and M. A. Mycek, "Selected laser-based therapies in otolaryngology," Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 38,241-254 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Y. Kim, E. S. Gragroudas, and L. H. Young, "Future laser approaches in melanoma treatment," Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 46,27-39 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. M. Fried, "Therapeutic applications of lasers in urology: an update," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 3,81-94 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Babilas, G. Shafirstein, J. Baier, V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, M. Landthaler, W. Baumler, and C. Abels, "Photothermolysis of blood vessels using indocyanine green and pulsed diode laser irradiation in the dorsal skinfold chamber model," Laser Surg. Med. 39,341-352 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. A. Childers, W. Franco, J. S. Nelson, and G. Aguilar, "Laser surgery of port wine stains using local vacuum pressure: changes in skin morphology and optical properties (Part I)," Laser Surg. Med. 39,108-117 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Gilmour, "Lasers in ophthalmology," Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. 32,649-672 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. Petrovic and R. B. Bhisitkul, "Lasers and diabetic retinopathy: the art of gentle destruction," Diabetes Technol. Ther. 1,177-187 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, "Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation," Science 220,524-527 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Heger, J. F. Beek, N. I. Moldovan, C. M. van der Horst, and M. J. van Gemert, "Towards optimization of selective photothermolysis: prothrombotic pharmaceutical agents as potential adjuvants in laser treatment of port wine stains. A theoretical study," Thromb. Haemost. 93,242-256 (2005).
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  12. M. Heger, J. F. Beek, K. Stenback, D. J. Faber, C. Ince, and M. J. van Gemert, "Darkfield orthogonal polarized spectral imaging for studying endovascular laser-tissue interactions in vivo - a preliminary study," Opt. Express 13,702-715 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Suthamjariya, W. A. Farinelli, W. Koh, and R. R. Anderson, "Mechanisms of microvascular response to laser pulses," J. Invest. Dermatol. 122,518-525 (2004).
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  16. D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, "Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,028102 (2004).
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  17. M. Heger, Laser Center, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and I. I. Salles, R. Bezemer, S. R. Mordon, S. Bégu, H. Deckmyn, M. J..van Gemert, and J. F. Beek, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Thrombosis as an integral component of endovascular laser-tissue interactions."
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. S. Chen, N. T. Wright, and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: isothermal, isotonic shrinkage," J. Biomech. Eng. 120,382-388 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. S. Chen, N. T. Wright, and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: isothermal free shrinkage," J. Biomech. Eng. 119,372-378 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. S. Chen and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: pseudoelastic behaviour at 37 degrees C," J. Biomech. 31,211-216 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. PatrickJr, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, and B. Anvari, "Effects of cryogen spray cooling and high radiant exposures on selective vascular injury during laser irradiation of human skin," Arch. Dermatol. 139,743-750 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. U. Yang, A. N. Yaroslavsky, W. A. Farinelli, T. J. Flotte, F. Rius-Diaz, S. S. Tsao, and R. R. Anderson, "Long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment for port-wine stains," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52,480-490 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, and J. A. Parrish, "Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. A preliminary report," Arch. Dermatol. 122,1016-1022 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. P. L. San Biagio, V. Martorana, A. Emanuele, S. M. Vaiana, M. Manno, D. Bulone, M. B. Palma-Vittorelli, and M. U. Palma, "Interacting processes in protein coagulation," Proteins 37,116-120 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. C. J. Russel, T. E. Thorgeirsson, and Y. K. Shin, "Temperature dependence of polypeptide partitioning between water and phospholipid bilayers," Biochemistry 35,9526-9532 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. J. Russel, T. E. Thorgeirsson, and Y. K. Shin, "The membrane affinities of the alipathic amino acid side chains in an α-helical context are independent of membrane immersion depth," Biochemistry 38,337-346 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2007

P. Babilas, G. Shafirstein, J. Baier, V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, M. Landthaler, W. Baumler, and C. Abels, "Photothermolysis of blood vessels using indocyanine green and pulsed diode laser irradiation in the dorsal skinfold chamber model," Laser Surg. Med. 39,341-352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Childers, W. Franco, J. S. Nelson, and G. Aguilar, "Laser surgery of port wine stains using local vacuum pressure: changes in skin morphology and optical properties (Part I)," Laser Surg. Med. 39,108-117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. Y. Kim, E. S. Gragroudas, and L. H. Young, "Future laser approaches in melanoma treatment," Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 46,27-39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Fried, "Therapeutic applications of lasers in urology: an update," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 3,81-94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Astner and R. R. Anderson, "Treating vascular lesions," Dermatol. Ther. 18,267-281 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mioc and M. A. Mycek, "Selected laser-based therapies in otolaryngology," Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 38,241-254 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Heger, J. F. Beek, N. I. Moldovan, C. M. van der Horst, and M. J. van Gemert, "Towards optimization of selective photothermolysis: prothrombotic pharmaceutical agents as potential adjuvants in laser treatment of port wine stains. A theoretical study," Thromb. Haemost. 93,242-256 (2005).
[PubMed]

M. Heger, J. F. Beek, K. Stenback, D. J. Faber, C. Ince, and M. J. van Gemert, "Darkfield orthogonal polarized spectral imaging for studying endovascular laser-tissue interactions in vivo - a preliminary study," Opt. Express 13,702-715 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Black, N. Wade, and J. K. Barton, "Mechanistic comparison of blood undergoing laser photocoagulation at 532 and 1,064 nm," Lasers Surg. Med. 36,155-165 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. U. Yang, A. N. Yaroslavsky, W. A. Farinelli, T. J. Flotte, F. Rius-Diaz, S. S. Tsao, and R. R. Anderson, "Long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment for port-wine stains," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52,480-490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, "Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Black and J. K. Barton, "Chemical and structural changes in blood undergoing laser photocoagulation," Photochem. Photobiol. 80,89-97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suthamjariya, W. A. Farinelli, W. Koh, and R. R. Anderson, "Mechanisms of microvascular response to laser pulses," J. Invest. Dermatol. 122,518-525 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. H. Jun, J. L. Harris, J. D. Humphrey, and S. Rastegar, "Effect of thermal damage and biaxial loading on the optical properties of collagenous tissue," J. Biomech. Eng. 125,540-548 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. PatrickJr, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, and B. Anvari, "Effects of cryogen spray cooling and high radiant exposures on selective vascular injury during laser irradiation of human skin," Arch. Dermatol. 139,743-750 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. A. Gilmour, "Lasers in ophthalmology," Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. 32,649-672 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

W. Verkruysse, J. F. Beek, E. van Bavel, M. J. van Gemert, and J. A. Spaan, "Laser pulse impact on rat mesenteric blood vessels in relation to laser treatment of port wine stain," Lasers Surg. Med. 28,461-468 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Barton, D. Popok, and J. F. Black, "Thermal analysis of blood undergoing laser photocoagulation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 7,936-943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. V. Ross, J. R. McKinlay, and R. R. Anderson, "Why does carbon dioxide resurfacing work?" Arch. Dermatol. 135,444-454 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Russel, T. E. Thorgeirsson, and Y. K. Shin, "The membrane affinities of the alipathic amino acid side chains in an α-helical context are independent of membrane immersion depth," Biochemistry 38,337-346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. L. San Biagio, V. Martorana, A. Emanuele, S. M. Vaiana, M. Manno, D. Bulone, M. B. Palma-Vittorelli, and M. U. Palma, "Interacting processes in protein coagulation," Proteins 37,116-120 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Petrovic and R. B. Bhisitkul, "Lasers and diabetic retinopathy: the art of gentle destruction," Diabetes Technol. Ther. 1,177-187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. S. Chen and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: pseudoelastic behaviour at 37 degrees C," J. Biomech. 31,211-216 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Chen, N. T. Wright, and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: isothermal, isotonic shrinkage," J. Biomech. Eng. 120,382-388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kirsch, B. D. Zelickson, C. B. Zachery, and W. D. Tope, "Ultrastructure of collagen thermally denatured by microsecond domain pulsed carbon dioxide laser," Ach. Dermatol. 134,1255-1259 (1998)
[CrossRef]

1997

S. S. Chen, N. T. Wright, and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: isothermal free shrinkage," J. Biomech. Eng. 119,372-378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. J. Russel, T. E. Thorgeirsson, and Y. K. Shin, "Temperature dependence of polypeptide partitioning between water and phospholipid bilayers," Biochemistry 35,9526-9532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989

K. Takeda, A. Wada, and K. Yamamoto, "Conformational change of bovine serum albumin by heat treatment," J. Protein Chem. 8,653-659 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, and J. A. Parrish, "Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. A preliminary report," Arch. Dermatol. 122,1016-1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, "Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation," Science 220,524-527 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aalders, M. C.

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, "Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abels, C.

P. Babilas, G. Shafirstein, J. Baier, V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, M. Landthaler, W. Baumler, and C. Abels, "Photothermolysis of blood vessels using indocyanine green and pulsed diode laser irradiation in the dorsal skinfold chamber model," Laser Surg. Med. 39,341-352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aguilar, G.

M. A. Childers, W. Franco, J. S. Nelson, and G. Aguilar, "Laser surgery of port wine stains using local vacuum pressure: changes in skin morphology and optical properties (Part I)," Laser Surg. Med. 39,108-117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. R.

S. Astner and R. R. Anderson, "Treating vascular lesions," Dermatol. Ther. 18,267-281 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. U. Yang, A. N. Yaroslavsky, W. A. Farinelli, T. J. Flotte, F. Rius-Diaz, S. S. Tsao, and R. R. Anderson, "Long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment for port-wine stains," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52,480-490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suthamjariya, W. A. Farinelli, W. Koh, and R. R. Anderson, "Mechanisms of microvascular response to laser pulses," J. Invest. Dermatol. 122,518-525 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Ross, J. R. McKinlay, and R. R. Anderson, "Why does carbon dioxide resurfacing work?" Arch. Dermatol. 135,444-454 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, and J. A. Parrish, "Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. A preliminary report," Arch. Dermatol. 122,1016-1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, "Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation," Science 220,524-527 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anvari, B.

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. PatrickJr, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, and B. Anvari, "Effects of cryogen spray cooling and high radiant exposures on selective vascular injury during laser irradiation of human skin," Arch. Dermatol. 139,743-750 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astner, S.

S. Astner and R. R. Anderson, "Treating vascular lesions," Dermatol. Ther. 18,267-281 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babilas, P.

P. Babilas, G. Shafirstein, J. Baier, V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, M. Landthaler, W. Baumler, and C. Abels, "Photothermolysis of blood vessels using indocyanine green and pulsed diode laser irradiation in the dorsal skinfold chamber model," Laser Surg. Med. 39,341-352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baier, J.

P. Babilas, G. Shafirstein, J. Baier, V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, M. Landthaler, W. Baumler, and C. Abels, "Photothermolysis of blood vessels using indocyanine green and pulsed diode laser irradiation in the dorsal skinfold chamber model," Laser Surg. Med. 39,341-352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. K.

J. F. Black, N. Wade, and J. K. Barton, "Mechanistic comparison of blood undergoing laser photocoagulation at 532 and 1,064 nm," Lasers Surg. Med. 36,155-165 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Black and J. K. Barton, "Chemical and structural changes in blood undergoing laser photocoagulation," Photochem. Photobiol. 80,89-97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Barton, D. Popok, and J. F. Black, "Thermal analysis of blood undergoing laser photocoagulation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 7,936-943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baumler, W.

P. Babilas, G. Shafirstein, J. Baier, V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, M. Landthaler, W. Baumler, and C. Abels, "Photothermolysis of blood vessels using indocyanine green and pulsed diode laser irradiation in the dorsal skinfold chamber model," Laser Surg. Med. 39,341-352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beek, J. F.

M. Heger, J. F. Beek, K. Stenback, D. J. Faber, C. Ince, and M. J. van Gemert, "Darkfield orthogonal polarized spectral imaging for studying endovascular laser-tissue interactions in vivo - a preliminary study," Opt. Express 13,702-715 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Heger, J. F. Beek, N. I. Moldovan, C. M. van der Horst, and M. J. van Gemert, "Towards optimization of selective photothermolysis: prothrombotic pharmaceutical agents as potential adjuvants in laser treatment of port wine stains. A theoretical study," Thromb. Haemost. 93,242-256 (2005).
[PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, J. F. Beek, E. van Bavel, M. J. van Gemert, and J. A. Spaan, "Laser pulse impact on rat mesenteric blood vessels in relation to laser treatment of port wine stain," Lasers Surg. Med. 28,461-468 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhisitkul, R. B.

V. Petrovic and R. B. Bhisitkul, "Lasers and diabetic retinopathy: the art of gentle destruction," Diabetes Technol. Ther. 1,177-187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Black, J. F.

J. F. Black, N. Wade, and J. K. Barton, "Mechanistic comparison of blood undergoing laser photocoagulation at 532 and 1,064 nm," Lasers Surg. Med. 36,155-165 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Black and J. K. Barton, "Chemical and structural changes in blood undergoing laser photocoagulation," Photochem. Photobiol. 80,89-97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Barton, D. Popok, and J. F. Black, "Thermal analysis of blood undergoing laser photocoagulation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 7,936-943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boll, J.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, and J. A. Parrish, "Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. A preliminary report," Arch. Dermatol. 122,1016-1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulone, D.

P. L. San Biagio, V. Martorana, A. Emanuele, S. M. Vaiana, M. Manno, D. Bulone, M. B. Palma-Vittorelli, and M. U. Palma, "Interacting processes in protein coagulation," Proteins 37,116-120 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carney, J. M.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, and J. A. Parrish, "Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. A preliminary report," Arch. Dermatol. 122,1016-1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, D. W.

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. PatrickJr, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, and B. Anvari, "Effects of cryogen spray cooling and high radiant exposures on selective vascular injury during laser irradiation of human skin," Arch. Dermatol. 139,743-750 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. S.

S. S. Chen, N. T. Wright, and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: isothermal, isotonic shrinkage," J. Biomech. Eng. 120,382-388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Chen and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: pseudoelastic behaviour at 37 degrees C," J. Biomech. 31,211-216 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Chen, N. T. Wright, and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: isothermal free shrinkage," J. Biomech. Eng. 119,372-378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Childers, M. A.

M. A. Childers, W. Franco, J. S. Nelson, and G. Aguilar, "Laser surgery of port wine stains using local vacuum pressure: changes in skin morphology and optical properties (Part I)," Laser Surg. Med. 39,108-117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emanuele, A.

P. L. San Biagio, V. Martorana, A. Emanuele, S. M. Vaiana, M. Manno, D. Bulone, M. B. Palma-Vittorelli, and M. U. Palma, "Interacting processes in protein coagulation," Proteins 37,116-120 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faber, D. J.

M. Heger, J. F. Beek, K. Stenback, D. J. Faber, C. Ince, and M. J. van Gemert, "Darkfield orthogonal polarized spectral imaging for studying endovascular laser-tissue interactions in vivo - a preliminary study," Opt. Express 13,702-715 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, "Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farinelli, W. A.

M. U. Yang, A. N. Yaroslavsky, W. A. Farinelli, T. J. Flotte, F. Rius-Diaz, S. S. Tsao, and R. R. Anderson, "Long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment for port-wine stains," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52,480-490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suthamjariya, W. A. Farinelli, W. Koh, and R. R. Anderson, "Mechanisms of microvascular response to laser pulses," J. Invest. Dermatol. 122,518-525 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T. J.

M. U. Yang, A. N. Yaroslavsky, W. A. Farinelli, T. J. Flotte, F. Rius-Diaz, S. S. Tsao, and R. R. Anderson, "Long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment for port-wine stains," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52,480-490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franco, W.

M. A. Childers, W. Franco, J. S. Nelson, and G. Aguilar, "Laser surgery of port wine stains using local vacuum pressure: changes in skin morphology and optical properties (Part I)," Laser Surg. Med. 39,108-117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fried, N. M.

N. M. Fried, "Therapeutic applications of lasers in urology: an update," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 3,81-94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gilmour, M. A.

M. A. Gilmour, "Lasers in ophthalmology," Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. 32,649-672 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gragroudas, E. S.

R. Y. Kim, E. S. Gragroudas, and L. H. Young, "Future laser approaches in melanoma treatment," Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 46,27-39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. L.

J. H. Jun, J. L. Harris, J. D. Humphrey, and S. Rastegar, "Effect of thermal damage and biaxial loading on the optical properties of collagenous tissue," J. Biomech. Eng. 125,540-548 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heger, M.

M. Heger, J. F. Beek, N. I. Moldovan, C. M. van der Horst, and M. J. van Gemert, "Towards optimization of selective photothermolysis: prothrombotic pharmaceutical agents as potential adjuvants in laser treatment of port wine stains. A theoretical study," Thromb. Haemost. 93,242-256 (2005).
[PubMed]

M. Heger, J. F. Beek, K. Stenback, D. J. Faber, C. Ince, and M. J. van Gemert, "Darkfield orthogonal polarized spectral imaging for studying endovascular laser-tissue interactions in vivo - a preliminary study," Opt. Express 13,702-715 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooper, B. A.

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, "Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humphrey, J. D.

J. H. Jun, J. L. Harris, J. D. Humphrey, and S. Rastegar, "Effect of thermal damage and biaxial loading on the optical properties of collagenous tissue," J. Biomech. Eng. 125,540-548 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Chen, N. T. Wright, and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: isothermal, isotonic shrinkage," J. Biomech. Eng. 120,382-388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Chen and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: pseudoelastic behaviour at 37 degrees C," J. Biomech. 31,211-216 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Chen, N. T. Wright, and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: isothermal free shrinkage," J. Biomech. Eng. 119,372-378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ince, C.

Johnston, C.

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. PatrickJr, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, and B. Anvari, "Effects of cryogen spray cooling and high radiant exposures on selective vascular injury during laser irradiation of human skin," Arch. Dermatol. 139,743-750 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jun, J. H.

J. H. Jun, J. L. Harris, J. D. Humphrey, and S. Rastegar, "Effect of thermal damage and biaxial loading on the optical properties of collagenous tissue," J. Biomech. Eng. 125,540-548 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, R. Y.

R. Y. Kim, E. S. Gragroudas, and L. H. Young, "Future laser approaches in melanoma treatment," Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 46,27-39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, K. M.

K. M. Kirsch, B. D. Zelickson, C. B. Zachery, and W. D. Tope, "Ultrastructure of collagen thermally denatured by microsecond domain pulsed carbon dioxide laser," Ach. Dermatol. 134,1255-1259 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Koh, W.

K. Suthamjariya, W. A. Farinelli, W. Koh, and R. R. Anderson, "Mechanisms of microvascular response to laser pulses," J. Invest. Dermatol. 122,518-525 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landthaler, M.

P. Babilas, G. Shafirstein, J. Baier, V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, M. Landthaler, W. Baumler, and C. Abels, "Photothermolysis of blood vessels using indocyanine green and pulsed diode laser irradiation in the dorsal skinfold chamber model," Laser Surg. Med. 39,341-352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manno, M.

P. L. San Biagio, V. Martorana, A. Emanuele, S. M. Vaiana, M. Manno, D. Bulone, M. B. Palma-Vittorelli, and M. U. Palma, "Interacting processes in protein coagulation," Proteins 37,116-120 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margolis, R.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, and J. A. Parrish, "Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. A preliminary report," Arch. Dermatol. 122,1016-1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martorana, V.

P. L. San Biagio, V. Martorana, A. Emanuele, S. M. Vaiana, M. Manno, D. Bulone, M. B. Palma-Vittorelli, and M. U. Palma, "Interacting processes in protein coagulation," Proteins 37,116-120 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinlay, J. R.

E. V. Ross, J. R. McKinlay, and R. R. Anderson, "Why does carbon dioxide resurfacing work?" Arch. Dermatol. 135,444-454 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mik, E. G.

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, "Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, M. J.

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. PatrickJr, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, and B. Anvari, "Effects of cryogen spray cooling and high radiant exposures on selective vascular injury during laser irradiation of human skin," Arch. Dermatol. 139,743-750 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mioc, S.

S. Mioc and M. A. Mycek, "Selected laser-based therapies in otolaryngology," Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 38,241-254 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moldovan, N. I.

M. Heger, J. F. Beek, N. I. Moldovan, C. M. van der Horst, and M. J. van Gemert, "Towards optimization of selective photothermolysis: prothrombotic pharmaceutical agents as potential adjuvants in laser treatment of port wine stains. A theoretical study," Thromb. Haemost. 93,242-256 (2005).
[PubMed]

Mycek, M. A.

S. Mioc and M. A. Mycek, "Selected laser-based therapies in otolaryngology," Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 38,241-254 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

M. A. Childers, W. Franco, J. S. Nelson, and G. Aguilar, "Laser surgery of port wine stains using local vacuum pressure: changes in skin morphology and optical properties (Part I)," Laser Surg. Med. 39,108-117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palma, M. U.

P. L. San Biagio, V. Martorana, A. Emanuele, S. M. Vaiana, M. Manno, D. Bulone, M. B. Palma-Vittorelli, and M. U. Palma, "Interacting processes in protein coagulation," Proteins 37,116-120 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palma-Vittorelli, M. B.

P. L. San Biagio, V. Martorana, A. Emanuele, S. M. Vaiana, M. Manno, D. Bulone, M. B. Palma-Vittorelli, and M. U. Palma, "Interacting processes in protein coagulation," Proteins 37,116-120 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parrish, J. A.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, and J. A. Parrish, "Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. A preliminary report," Arch. Dermatol. 122,1016-1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, "Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation," Science 220,524-527 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patrick, C. W.

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. PatrickJr, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, and B. Anvari, "Effects of cryogen spray cooling and high radiant exposures on selective vascular injury during laser irradiation of human skin," Arch. Dermatol. 139,743-750 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrovic, V.

V. Petrovic and R. B. Bhisitkul, "Lasers and diabetic retinopathy: the art of gentle destruction," Diabetes Technol. Ther. 1,177-187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Popok, D.

J. K. Barton, D. Popok, and J. F. Black, "Thermal analysis of blood undergoing laser photocoagulation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 7,936-943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rastegar, S.

J. H. Jun, J. L. Harris, J. D. Humphrey, and S. Rastegar, "Effect of thermal damage and biaxial loading on the optical properties of collagenous tissue," J. Biomech. Eng. 125,540-548 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rius-Diaz, F.

M. U. Yang, A. N. Yaroslavsky, W. A. Farinelli, T. J. Flotte, F. Rius-Diaz, S. S. Tsao, and R. R. Anderson, "Long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment for port-wine stains," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52,480-490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, E. V.

E. V. Ross, J. R. McKinlay, and R. R. Anderson, "Why does carbon dioxide resurfacing work?" Arch. Dermatol. 135,444-454 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russel, C. J.

C. J. Russel, T. E. Thorgeirsson, and Y. K. Shin, "The membrane affinities of the alipathic amino acid side chains in an α-helical context are independent of membrane immersion depth," Biochemistry 38,337-346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Russel, T. E. Thorgeirsson, and Y. K. Shin, "Temperature dependence of polypeptide partitioning between water and phospholipid bilayers," Biochemistry 35,9526-9532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

San Biagio, P. L.

P. L. San Biagio, V. Martorana, A. Emanuele, S. M. Vaiana, M. Manno, D. Bulone, M. B. Palma-Vittorelli, and M. U. Palma, "Interacting processes in protein coagulation," Proteins 37,116-120 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schacht, V.

P. Babilas, G. Shafirstein, J. Baier, V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, M. Landthaler, W. Baumler, and C. Abels, "Photothermolysis of blood vessels using indocyanine green and pulsed diode laser irradiation in the dorsal skinfold chamber model," Laser Surg. Med. 39,341-352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seki, Y.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, and J. A. Parrish, "Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. A preliminary report," Arch. Dermatol. 122,1016-1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafirstein, G.

P. Babilas, G. Shafirstein, J. Baier, V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, M. Landthaler, W. Baumler, and C. Abels, "Photothermolysis of blood vessels using indocyanine green and pulsed diode laser irradiation in the dorsal skinfold chamber model," Laser Surg. Med. 39,341-352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shin, Y. K.

C. J. Russel, T. E. Thorgeirsson, and Y. K. Shin, "The membrane affinities of the alipathic amino acid side chains in an α-helical context are independent of membrane immersion depth," Biochemistry 38,337-346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Russel, T. E. Thorgeirsson, and Y. K. Shin, "Temperature dependence of polypeptide partitioning between water and phospholipid bilayers," Biochemistry 35,9526-9532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spaan, J. A.

W. Verkruysse, J. F. Beek, E. van Bavel, M. J. van Gemert, and J. A. Spaan, "Laser pulse impact on rat mesenteric blood vessels in relation to laser treatment of port wine stain," Lasers Surg. Med. 28,461-468 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenback, K.

Suthamjariya, K.

K. Suthamjariya, W. A. Farinelli, W. Koh, and R. R. Anderson, "Mechanisms of microvascular response to laser pulses," J. Invest. Dermatol. 122,518-525 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szeimies, R. M.

P. Babilas, G. Shafirstein, J. Baier, V. Schacht, R. M. Szeimies, M. Landthaler, W. Baumler, and C. Abels, "Photothermolysis of blood vessels using indocyanine green and pulsed diode laser irradiation in the dorsal skinfold chamber model," Laser Surg. Med. 39,341-352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, K.

K. Takeda, A. Wada, and K. Yamamoto, "Conformational change of bovine serum albumin by heat treatment," J. Protein Chem. 8,653-659 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, O. T.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, and J. A. Parrish, "Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. A preliminary report," Arch. Dermatol. 122,1016-1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S. L.

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. PatrickJr, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, and B. Anvari, "Effects of cryogen spray cooling and high radiant exposures on selective vascular injury during laser irradiation of human skin," Arch. Dermatol. 139,743-750 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorgeirsson, T. E.

C. J. Russel, T. E. Thorgeirsson, and Y. K. Shin, "The membrane affinities of the alipathic amino acid side chains in an α-helical context are independent of membrane immersion depth," Biochemistry 38,337-346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Russel, T. E. Thorgeirsson, and Y. K. Shin, "Temperature dependence of polypeptide partitioning between water and phospholipid bilayers," Biochemistry 35,9526-9532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tope, W. D.

K. M. Kirsch, B. D. Zelickson, C. B. Zachery, and W. D. Tope, "Ultrastructure of collagen thermally denatured by microsecond domain pulsed carbon dioxide laser," Ach. Dermatol. 134,1255-1259 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. H.

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. PatrickJr, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, and B. Anvari, "Effects of cryogen spray cooling and high radiant exposures on selective vascular injury during laser irradiation of human skin," Arch. Dermatol. 139,743-750 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsao, S. S.

M. U. Yang, A. N. Yaroslavsky, W. A. Farinelli, T. J. Flotte, F. Rius-Diaz, S. S. Tsao, and R. R. Anderson, "Long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment for port-wine stains," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52,480-490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnell, J. W.

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. PatrickJr, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, and B. Anvari, "Effects of cryogen spray cooling and high radiant exposures on selective vascular injury during laser irradiation of human skin," Arch. Dermatol. 139,743-750 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaiana, S. M.

P. L. San Biagio, V. Martorana, A. Emanuele, S. M. Vaiana, M. Manno, D. Bulone, M. B. Palma-Vittorelli, and M. U. Palma, "Interacting processes in protein coagulation," Proteins 37,116-120 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Bavel, E.

W. Verkruysse, J. F. Beek, E. van Bavel, M. J. van Gemert, and J. A. Spaan, "Laser pulse impact on rat mesenteric blood vessels in relation to laser treatment of port wine stain," Lasers Surg. Med. 28,461-468 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Horst, C. M.

M. Heger, J. F. Beek, N. I. Moldovan, C. M. van der Horst, and M. J. van Gemert, "Towards optimization of selective photothermolysis: prothrombotic pharmaceutical agents as potential adjuvants in laser treatment of port wine stains. A theoretical study," Thromb. Haemost. 93,242-256 (2005).
[PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J.

M. Heger, J. F. Beek, N. I. Moldovan, C. M. van der Horst, and M. J. van Gemert, "Towards optimization of selective photothermolysis: prothrombotic pharmaceutical agents as potential adjuvants in laser treatment of port wine stains. A theoretical study," Thromb. Haemost. 93,242-256 (2005).
[PubMed]

M. Heger, J. F. Beek, K. Stenback, D. J. Faber, C. Ince, and M. J. van Gemert, "Darkfield orthogonal polarized spectral imaging for studying endovascular laser-tissue interactions in vivo - a preliminary study," Opt. Express 13,702-715 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, "Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, J. F. Beek, E. van Bavel, M. J. van Gemert, and J. A. Spaan, "Laser pulse impact on rat mesenteric blood vessels in relation to laser treatment of port wine stain," Lasers Surg. Med. 28,461-468 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, "Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,028102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verkruysse, W.

W. Verkruysse, J. F. Beek, E. van Bavel, M. J. van Gemert, and J. A. Spaan, "Laser pulse impact on rat mesenteric blood vessels in relation to laser treatment of port wine stain," Lasers Surg. Med. 28,461-468 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, A.

K. Takeda, A. Wada, and K. Yamamoto, "Conformational change of bovine serum albumin by heat treatment," J. Protein Chem. 8,653-659 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wade, N.

J. F. Black, N. Wade, and J. K. Barton, "Mechanistic comparison of blood undergoing laser photocoagulation at 532 and 1,064 nm," Lasers Surg. Med. 36,155-165 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, N. T.

S. S. Chen, N. T. Wright, and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: isothermal, isotonic shrinkage," J. Biomech. Eng. 120,382-388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Chen, N. T. Wright, and J. D. Humphrey, "Heat-induced changes in the mechanics of collagenous tissue: isothermal free shrinkage," J. Biomech. Eng. 119,372-378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Takeda, A. Wada, and K. Yamamoto, "Conformational change of bovine serum albumin by heat treatment," J. Protein Chem. 8,653-659 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, M. U.

M. U. Yang, A. N. Yaroslavsky, W. A. Farinelli, T. J. Flotte, F. Rius-Diaz, S. S. Tsao, and R. R. Anderson, "Long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment for port-wine stains," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52,480-490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

M. U. Yang, A. N. Yaroslavsky, W. A. Farinelli, T. J. Flotte, F. Rius-Diaz, S. S. Tsao, and R. R. Anderson, "Long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment for port-wine stains," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52,480-490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, L. H.

R. Y. Kim, E. S. Gragroudas, and L. H. Young, "Future laser approaches in melanoma treatment," Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 46,27-39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zachery, C. B.

K. M. Kirsch, B. D. Zelickson, C. B. Zachery, and W. D. Tope, "Ultrastructure of collagen thermally denatured by microsecond domain pulsed carbon dioxide laser," Ach. Dermatol. 134,1255-1259 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Zelickson, B. D.

K. M. Kirsch, B. D. Zelickson, C. B. Zachery, and W. D. Tope, "Ultrastructure of collagen thermally denatured by microsecond domain pulsed carbon dioxide laser," Ach. Dermatol. 134,1255-1259 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Ach. Dermatol.

K. M. Kirsch, B. D. Zelickson, C. B. Zachery, and W. D. Tope, "Ultrastructure of collagen thermally denatured by microsecond domain pulsed carbon dioxide laser," Ach. Dermatol. 134,1255-1259 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Arch. Dermatol.

E. V. Ross, J. R. McKinlay, and R. R. Anderson, "Why does carbon dioxide resurfacing work?" Arch. Dermatol. 135,444-454 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, D. W. Chang, C. Johnston, J. H. Torres, C. W. PatrickJr, M. J. Miller, S. L. Thomsen, and B. Anvari, "Effects of cryogen spray cooling and high radiant exposures on selective vascular injury during laser irradiation of human skin," Arch. Dermatol. 139,743-750 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, and J. A. Parrish, "Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. A preliminary report," Arch. Dermatol. 122,1016-1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biochemistry

C. J. Russel, T. E. Thorgeirsson, and Y. K. Shin, "Temperature dependence of polypeptide partitioning between water and phospholipid bilayers," Biochemistry 35,9526-9532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Supplementary Material (10)

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» Media 9: MPG (14590 KB)     
» Media 10: MPG (2086 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup consisting of a modified intravital fluorescence microscope with mercury lamp epi- and transillumination. Labels (b) and (c) correspond to the respective panels. (b) Left-hand side: mercury lamp epi-illumination (blue beam) was filtered (λex = 560 ± 20 nm) and reflected towards the dorsal skin fold (yellow beam). The emitted light (orange beam) passed through a dichroic mirror (λcutoff = 595 nm) and emission filter (λem = 630 ± 25 nm) and was captured by the CCD video camera. Right-hand side: mercury lamp transillumination (blue beam) enhanced contrast as a result of differences in transmission spectra of thermal coagula, undamaged blood, and (peri)vascular tissue in the wavelength range of the emission filter. (c) The animal was secured to the microscope platform by the implanted optical chamber. The fiber guiding the light from the external mercury lamp was affixed in front of a reflective mirror that was mounted under the dorsal skin flap at a 45° angle with respect to the optical chamber. The 532 nm laser light was focused into the vessel lumen via a mirror in the probe.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Blood flow velocity (BFV) distribution of the irradiated venules, measured prior to laser irradiation. BFV category 0.1 corresponds to a BFV range of 0.05 ≤ BFV < 0.15 mm/s; BFV category 0.2 corresponds to a range of 0.15 ≤ BFV < 0.25 mm/s; etc. The color of the bars indicates the grouping of BFVs for the quantification of coagulum size, coagulum attachment/detachment, vasoconstriction, and latent vasodilation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Laser-induced coagulum size plotted as a function of blood flow velocity (BFV) and laser pulse duration (LPD). The mean coagulum sizes exhibit an increasing trend with longer LPDs, but seem to be independent of BFV.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(2.7 MB) Movie: Laser pulse duration-dependent thermal coagulum size (10.0 MB version). Thermal coagulum size induced by 30 ms irradiation (a) (4.6 × 103 μm2) was significantly smaller than the coagulum size induced by 150 ms irradiation (b) (10.4 × 103 μm2). Scale bar = 100 μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(2.8 MB) Movie: Randomness of coagulum attachment and dislodgement (13.6 MB version). In the first example (a) a coagulum (6.5 × 103 μm2) induced by a 30 ms laser pulse attaches at 0.5 mm/s blood flow velocity (BFV), whereas in (b) a coagulum (16.9 × 103 μm2) produced by a 120 ms pulse dislodges at a 0.2 mm/s BFV. Scale bar = 100 μm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Mean normalized vessel diameters before irradiation and at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min after irradiation for the 30 and 150 ms laser pulse duration (LPD) groups. Blood flow velocity (BFV) data is discounted since no correlation was found between vasoconstriction and latent vasodilation as a function of BFV. The normalized vessel diameters measured directly after irradiation decreased with longer LPDs. Within 5 min post-irradiation, vessel diameters expanded over time for each LPD group; the rate of expansion was positively correlated to the degree of laser-induced vasoconstriction (Fig. 9).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(2.9 MB) Movie: Laser-induced axial vasoconstriction (15.1 MB version). Two microspheres that are attached to the vessel wall ((a), arrow) are ‘pulled’ towards the irradiation site during the 150 ms laser pulse, demonstrating that vasoconstriction also occurs along the longitudinal axis ((b), arrows, indicating pre- (grey) and post-irradiation (black) microsphere positions). Scale bar = 100 μm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(2.9 MB) Movie: Laser-induced vasoconstriction and latent vasodilation (8.5 MB version). Vessel diameter measurements were performed prior to irradiation, directly after the laser pulse, and every min up to 5 min post-irradiation. During a 30 ms laser pulse, the vessel constricts from 150 μm to 51 μm ((a), arrow) and then dilates during a period of 5 min to a diameter of 62 μm ((b), arrow). Scale bar = 100 μm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Mean rate of latent vasodilation expressed as a percentage, plotted as a function of time (min) after laser irradiation. For the calculation of the mean latent vasodilation, the pulse durations (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 ms) were grouped per time interval. The rate of vasodilation was calculated as [(Ø t - Ø t-1 ) / Ø t ], where Ø is the vessel diameter and t is time (min) after laser irradiation, and expressed as a percentage.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(2.0 MB) Movie: Altered hemodynamics during laser irradiation (14.2 MB version). Microspheres flowing downstream of the irradiation site accelerate during the laser pulse ((a), arrow). Directly after laser irradiation, stasis of microspheres coincides with cessation of blood flow (b). After a few seconds, the attached coagulum dislodges and blood flow is restored. Scale bar = 100 μm.

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