Abstract

We describe a class of modulator design involving slot waveguides and electro-optic polymer claddings. Such geometries enable massive enhancement of index tuning when compared to more conventional geometries. We present a semi-analytic method of predicting the index tuning achievable for a given geometry and electro-optic material. Based on these studies, as well as previous experimental results, we show designs for slot waveguide modulators that, when realized in a Mach-Zehnder configuration, will allow for modulation voltages that are orders of magnitude lower than the state of the art. We also discuss experimental results for nano-slot waveguides.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Bloembergen, P. S. Pershan, and L. R. Wilcox, “Microwave modulation of light in paramagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. 120, 2014–2023 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Yamabayashi and M. Nakazawa, “Terabit transmission technology,” NTT. Rev. 11, 23–32 (1999).
  3. Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. O. Mitomi, K. Noguchi, and H. Miyazawa, “Broadband and low driving-voltage LiNbO3 optical modulators,” IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 135, 360–364 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Rutledge, “Filters,” in The Electronics of Radio (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).
  6. M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon - Challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4222–4238 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, and Y. Kondo, “Very-low-driving-voltage electroabsorption modulators operating at 40 Gb/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2219–2224 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. J. Whelehan, “Low-noise amplifiers- then and now,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory Techniques 50, 806–813 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Tazawa, Y. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Fetterman, and W. Steier, “Ring resonator based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514–3519 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Letters 29, 1209–1211 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. X. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 13, 5216–5226 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Larry R. Dalton, Chemistry Department, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, WA, 98195 (personal communication 2006).
  18. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346–3347 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Yariv, “The Modulation of Optical Radiation,” in Quantum Electronics (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1989).
  20. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, and A. Scherer, “Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4215”4221 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, C. Walker, J. Witzens, L. C. Gunn, and A. Scherer, “Segmented waveguides in thin silicon-on-insulator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1493–1497 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  22. G. Wang, M. Hochberg, and T. Baehr-Jones are preparing a manuscript to be called “Design and Fabrication of Segmented, Slotted Waveguides for Electro-Optic Modulation.”
  23. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 81101–81104 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, R. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nature Photon. 6, 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

H. Tazawa, Y. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Fetterman, and W. Steier, “Ring resonator based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514–3519 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, and Y. Kondo, “Very-low-driving-voltage electroabsorption modulators operating at 40 Gb/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2219–2224 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (6)

2004 (3)

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346–3347 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Letters 29, 1209–1211 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. J. Whelehan, “Low-noise amplifiers- then and now,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory Techniques 50, 806–813 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Y. Yamabayashi and M. Nakazawa, “Terabit transmission technology,” NTT. Rev. 11, 23–32 (1999).

1998 (1)

O. Mitomi, K. Noguchi, and H. Miyazawa, “Broadband and low driving-voltage LiNbO3 optical modulators,” IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 135, 360–364 (1998).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

N. Bloembergen, P. S. Pershan, and L. R. Wilcox, “Microwave modulation of light in paramagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. 120, 2014–2023 (1960).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Letters 29, 1209–1211 (2004).
[Crossref]

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, and A. Scherer, “Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4215”4221 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 81101–81104 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, C. Walker, J. Witzens, L. C. Gunn, and A. Scherer, “Segmented waveguides in thin silicon-on-insulator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1493–1497 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. X. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 13, 5216–5226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346–3347 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, M. Hochberg, and T. Baehr-Jones are preparing a manuscript to be called “Design and Fabrication of Segmented, Slotted Waveguides for Electro-Optic Modulation.”

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Letters 29, 1209–1211 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, P. S. Pershan, and L. R. Wilcox, “Microwave modulation of light in paramagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. 120, 2014–2023 (1960).
[Crossref]

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chan, E.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, and A. Scherer, “Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4215”4221 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalton, L.

Dalton, L. R.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dalton, Larry R.

Larry R. Dalton, Chemistry Department, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, WA, 98195 (personal communication 2006).

de Lima, M. M.

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3 (2006).
[Crossref]

Derose, C. T.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, R. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nature Photon. 6, 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dunayevskiy, I.

H. Tazawa, Y. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Fetterman, and W. Steier, “Ring resonator based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514–3519 (2006).
[Crossref]

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, R. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nature Photon. 6, 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fetterman, H.

H. Tazawa, Y. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Fetterman, and W. Steier, “Ring resonator based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514–3519 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fukano, H.

Greenlee, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, R. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nature Photon. 6, 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gunn, L. C.

Hallameier, P. F.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hey, R.

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 81101–81104 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, C. Walker, J. Witzens, L. C. Gunn, and A. Scherer, “Segmented waveguides in thin silicon-on-insulator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1493–1497 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, and A. Scherer, “Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4215”4221 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. X. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 13, 5216–5226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346–3347 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, M. Hochberg, and T. Baehr-Jones are preparing a manuscript to be called “Design and Fabrication of Segmented, Slotted Waveguides for Electro-Optic Modulation.”

Jen, A. K. Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, R. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nature Photon. 6, 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Tazawa, Y. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Fetterman, and W. Steier, “Ring resonator based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514–3519 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. X. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 13, 5216–5226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, R.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, R. D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, R. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nature Photon. 6, 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kissa, K. M.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kondo, Y.

Koshinz, D.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, and A. Scherer, “Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4215”4221 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.

H. Tazawa, Y. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Fetterman, and W. Steier, “Ring resonator based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514–3519 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lafaw, D. A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lawson, R.

Lee, J. B.

Liao, L.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, Y.

Lipson, M.

M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon - Challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4222–4238 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Letters 29, 1209–1211 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, A. S.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, R. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nature Photon. 6, 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, R. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nature Photon. 6, 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Tazawa, Y. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Fetterman, and W. Steier, “Ring resonator based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514–3519 (2006).
[Crossref]

Maack, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, R. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nature Photon. 6, 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

McBrien, G. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mitomi, O.

O. Mitomi, K. Noguchi, and H. Miyazawa, “Broadband and low driving-voltage LiNbO3 optical modulators,” IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 135, 360–364 (1998).
[Crossref]

Miyazawa, H.

O. Mitomi, K. Noguchi, and H. Miyazawa, “Broadband and low driving-voltage LiNbO3 optical modulators,” IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 135, 360–364 (1998).
[Crossref]

Murphy, E. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nakazawa, M.

Y. Yamabayashi and M. Nakazawa, “Terabit transmission technology,” NTT. Rev. 11, 23–32 (1999).

Nicolaescu, R.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noguchi, K.

O. Mitomi, K. Noguchi, and H. Miyazawa, “Broadband and low driving-voltage LiNbO3 optical modulators,” IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 135, 360–364 (1998).
[Crossref]

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, R. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nature Photon. 6, 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pershan, P. S.

N. Bloembergen, P. S. Pershan, and L. R. Wilcox, “Microwave modulation of light in paramagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. 120, 2014–2023 (1960).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, R. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nature Photon. 6, 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Robinson, B. H.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rubin, D.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rutledge, D.

D. Rutledge, “Filters,” in The Electronics of Radio (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santos, P. V.

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3 (2006).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. X. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 13, 5216–5226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, and A. Scherer, “Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4215”4221 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 81101–81104 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, C. Walker, J. Witzens, L. C. Gunn, and A. Scherer, “Segmented waveguides in thin silicon-on-insulator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1493–1497 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346–3347 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Steier, W.

H. Tazawa, Y. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Fetterman, and W. Steier, “Ring resonator based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514–3519 (2006).
[Crossref]

Steier, W. H.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, P. A.

Tamura, M.

Tazawa, H.

H. Tazawa, Y. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Fetterman, and W. Steier, “Ring resonator based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514–3519 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, R. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nature Photon. 6, 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tinker, M. T.

Walker, C.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, C. Walker, J. Witzens, L. C. Gunn, and A. Scherer, “Segmented waveguides in thin silicon-on-insulator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1493–1497 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 81101–81104 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, and A. Scherer, “Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4215”4221 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346–3347 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, M. Hochberg, and T. Baehr-Jones are preparing a manuscript to be called “Design and Fabrication of Segmented, Slotted Waveguides for Electro-Optic Modulation.”

Wang, G. X.

Whelehan, J. J.

J. J. Whelehan, “Low-noise amplifiers- then and now,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory Techniques 50, 806–813 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wilcox, L. R.

N. Bloembergen, P. S. Pershan, and L. R. Wilcox, “Microwave modulation of light in paramagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. 120, 2014–2023 (1960).
[Crossref]

Witzens, J.

Wooten, E. L.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q. F.

V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Letters 29, 1209–1211 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yamabayashi, Y.

Y. Yamabayashi and M. Nakazawa, “Terabit transmission technology,” NTT. Rev. 11, 23–32 (1999).

Yamanaka, T.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “The Modulation of Optical Radiation,” in Quantum Electronics (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1989).

Yi-Yan, A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346–3347 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 81101–81104 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, E. Chan, D. Koshinz, and A. Scherer, “Analysis of the tuning sensitivity of silicon-on-insulator optical ring resonators,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4215”4221 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Tazawa, Y. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Fetterman, and W. Steier, “Ring resonator based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514–3519 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallameier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

O. Mitomi, K. Noguchi, and H. Miyazawa, “Broadband and low driving-voltage LiNbO3 optical modulators,” IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 135, 360–364 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory Techniques (1)

J. J. Whelehan, “Low-noise amplifiers- then and now,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory Techniques 50, 806–813 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (1)

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, R. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nature Photon. 6, 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

NTT. Rev. (1)

Y. Yamabayashi and M. Nakazawa, “Terabit transmission technology,” NTT. Rev. 11, 23–32 (1999).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Letters (1)

V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Letters 29, 1209–1211 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

N. Bloembergen, P. S. Pershan, and L. R. Wilcox, “Microwave modulation of light in paramagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. 120, 2014–2023 (1960).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

D. Rutledge, “Filters,” in The Electronics of Radio (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).

Larry R. Dalton, Chemistry Department, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, WA, 98195 (personal communication 2006).

G. Wang, M. Hochberg, and T. Baehr-Jones are preparing a manuscript to be called “Design and Fabrication of Segmented, Slotted Waveguides for Electro-Optic Modulation.”

A. Yariv, “The Modulation of Optical Radiation,” in Quantum Electronics (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1989).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Panel A: Isometric three dimensional schematic of a conventional Mach-Zehnder polymer interferometer, showing top contact, waveguide, and bottom contact layers. Panel B: Top-down layout of a slot-waveguide based optical modulator. C: Three dimensional, isometric schematic of a slot-waveguide modulator, showing the slot waveguide, segmentation region and metal contacts. The device functions by maintaining the two arms of the slot waveguide at differing voltages, creating a strong electric field in the slot.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A plot of various susceptibilities as shown in table 1 for differing gap sizes. Making the gap smaller leads to substantial improvements in the figure of merit.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Panels A and B show a conventional electrode geometry for a nonlinear polymer waveguide with the configuration used by Tazawa et al. Panel A shows the optical mode with ∣E∣ plotted in increments of 10%, for a mode with propagating power of 1 Watt. Panel B shows a contour plot of the static electric field, with the field of view slightly enlarged. Panels C and D show analogous data for the most optimal slot waveguide geometry. In the slot waveguide, the Silicon provides both the optical guiding layer and the electrical contacts.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Panel A shows a transmission spectra of an electroded slot waveguide resonator with a gap of 70 nm. Fiber to fiber insertion loss is plotted in dB, against the test laser wavelength in nm. Panel B shows an SEM image of a portion of a typical slot waveguide with a sub-100 nm slot. The cursor width is 57 nm in this image.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 shows the results of a design study involving a number of different slot waveguide configurations. We show what figures of merit will be for waveguides involving wider and narrower slots, higher arms, and those with more than one slot.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 ( n + δn ) 2 1 n 2 = r 33 E dc
δε = E dc ( n 4 r 33 )
δ n eff = E dc E opt x 2 dA 2 Re ( Ex opt * H y opt Ey opt * H y opt ) dA 1 Z 0 ( n 4 r 33 )
γ = ( E dc V ) E opt x 2 dA 2 Re ( Ex opt * Hy opt Ey opt * H x opt ) dA 1 Z 0
n eff V = γ ( n 4 r 33 )
γ = 1 ( 2 ng )
V π L = π 2 k 0 ( n V )
f V = c λ n V ( n λ n λ )

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