Abstract

A sinusoidal silver grating is used to create a six-fold enhancement of the SPR response compared to a flat surface. The grating parameters are chosen to create a surface plasmon bandgap and it is shown that the enhancement of the sensitivity to bulk sample index occurs when operating near the bandgap. The Kretschmann configuration is considered and the Boundary Element Method is used to generate the dispersion curves.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. D. Boardman, Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley-Interscience, Toronto 1982).
  2. J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, C. F. Carlstrom, and A. Larsson, "Multifunctional grating couplers for bidirectional incoupling into planar waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 314-316 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  5. M. J. Jory, P. S. Vukusic, and J. R. Sambles, "Development of a prototype gas sensor using surface plasmon resonance on gratings," Sens. Actuators B B17, 203-209 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U. Schroter and D. Heitmann, "Grating couplers for surface plasmons excited on thin metal films in the Kretschmann-Raether configuration," Phys. Rev. B 60, 4992-4999 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Masale, "The theory of attenuated total reflection by surface polaritons on one-sided corrugated thin films," Physica B 325, 385-393 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Zhaoming and T. G. Brown, "Nonperturbative analysis of cross coupling in corrugated metal films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1798-1806 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, "Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings," Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227-6244 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, G. W. Bradberry, and J. R. Sambles, "Surface profile dependence of surface plasmon band gaps on metallic gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7383-7385 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison," Sens. Actuators B 54, 16-24 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, "Surface plasmon resonance: instrumental resolution using photodiode arrays," Meas. Sci. Tech. 11, 1630-1638 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. A. Kolomenskii, P. D. Gershon, and H. A. Schuessler, "Sensitivity and detection limit of concentration and adsorption measurements by laser-induced surface-plasmon resonance," Appl. Opt. 36, 6539-6547 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2004

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, M. Nishihara, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated waveguide gratings for wavelength-demultiplexing of free space waves from guided waves," Opt. Express 12, 3072-3078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. Masale, "The theory of attenuated total reflection by surface polaritons on one-sided corrugated thin films," Physica B 325, 385-393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvan, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, "Bend loss in surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076-1078 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Z. Zhaoming and T. G. Brown, "Nonperturbative analysis of cross coupling in corrugated metal films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1798-1806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, C. F. Carlstrom, and A. Larsson, "Multifunctional grating couplers for bidirectional incoupling into planar waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 314-316 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, "Surface plasmon resonance: instrumental resolution using photodiode arrays," Meas. Sci. Tech. 11, 1630-1638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

U. Schroter and D. Heitmann, "Grating couplers for surface plasmons excited on thin metal films in the Kretschmann-Raether configuration," Phys. Rev. B 60, 4992-4999 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, "Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings," Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227-6244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, "Full photonic band gap for surface modes in the visible," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670-2673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, G. W. Bradberry, and J. R. Sambles, "Surface profile dependence of surface plasmon band gaps on metallic gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7383-7385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987

D. Heitmann, N. Kroo, C. Schulz, and Z. Szentirmay, "Dispersion anomalies of surface plasmons on corrugated metal-insulator interfaces," Phys. Rev B 35, 2660-2666 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, II, M. R. Philpott, A. Brillante, I. Pockrand, and R. Santo, "Plasmon surface polariton dispersion by direct optical observation," Am. J. Phys. 48, 669-672 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys.

J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, II, M. R. Philpott, A. Brillante, I. Pockrand, and R. Santo, "Plasmon surface polariton dispersion by direct optical observation," Am. J. Phys. 48, 669-672 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, "Bend loss in surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076-1078 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, C. F. Carlstrom, and A. Larsson, "Multifunctional grating couplers for bidirectional incoupling into planar waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 314-316 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, G. W. Bradberry, and J. R. Sambles, "Surface profile dependence of surface plasmon band gaps on metallic gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7383-7385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Langmuir

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Tech.

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, "Surface plasmon resonance: instrumental resolution using photodiode arrays," Meas. Sci. Tech. 11, 1630-1638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev B

D. Heitmann, N. Kroo, C. Schulz, and Z. Szentirmay, "Dispersion anomalies of surface plasmons on corrugated metal-insulator interfaces," Phys. Rev B 35, 2660-2666 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, "Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings," Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227-6244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Schroter and D. Heitmann, "Grating couplers for surface plasmons excited on thin metal films in the Kretschmann-Raether configuration," Phys. Rev. B 60, 4992-4999 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvan, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, "Full photonic band gap for surface modes in the visible," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670-2673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica B

M. Masale, "The theory of attenuated total reflection by surface polaritons on one-sided corrugated thin films," Physica B 325, 385-393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

H Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, New York 1983).

M. J. Jory, P. S. Vukusic, and J. R. Sambles, "Development of a prototype gas sensor using surface plasmon resonance on gratings," Sens. Actuators B B17, 203-209 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Boardman, Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley-Interscience, Toronto 1982).

D. Maystre, "Rigorous vector theories of diffraction gratings" in Progress in Optics. (North-Holland, 1984) Vol. 21.

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, "High sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase detection," Sens. Actuators B B35, 187-191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Korchergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B 54, 43-50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Alleyne, A. G. Kirk, R. C McPhedran, N.-A. Nicorovici, and D. Maystre, "Enhanced sensitivity for SPR biosensors using periodic structures" presented at the 19th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS '06), Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Oct.26, 2006.

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison," Sens. Actuators B 54, 16-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (95 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Three configurations to couple light to surface plasmons: a) Conventional ATR coupled SPR with a prism and a thin flat metal layer, b) Conventional grating coupled SPR where light is directly incident on the corrugated interface, c) Combined ATR and indirect grating coupled SPR. Due to the additional momentum from the grating, the indirect grating coupling requires a shallower incidence angle (yellow arrow).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Surface grating structure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dispersion curve for a flat silver surface with sample index of n=1.3. The colour bar shows reflectance with white representing high reflectivity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dispersion curve for a 20nm grating with sample index of n=1.3 overlapped with the curves calculated from Eq. (1) (blue diamond studded lines). [Media 1]

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(95KB) Movie of the dispersion curve shift with t=50nm and h=40nm as the sample index varies from n=1.3 to n=1.4 with increments of Δn=0.01.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Reflectivity dips for a flat surface and two gratings (both with t=50nm) with sample index values from 1.33 to 1.34. The asterisks show the curve minima.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Sensitivity vs. sample index for a flat surface (solid black line) and various gratings. The red curves represent gratings with h=20nm and the blue curves represent h=40nm. The period required to keep the bandedge near λ=850nm is also noted.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k sp = k o ε mr ε D ε mr + ε D ,
Λ B = λ sp 2 = λ o 2 ε mr + ε D ε mr ε D .

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