Abstract

A novel all-optical modulation format conversion from non-return-to-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK) to return-to-zero quadrature-phase-shift-keying (RZ-QPSK) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed format conversion scheme is based on parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometric (MZI) OOK/binary-PSK (BPSK) converters, consisting of integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). We experimentally demonstrate that in both decoded channels of the converted RZ-QPSK signal bit error rate (BER) curves show almost the same receiver sensitivity at a symbol-rate of 10.7 Gsymbol/s. In addition, a reasonable dispersion tolerance of the converted signal up to +295 ps/nm is observed. The numerical simulation based upon carrier rate equation verifies the experimental results.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, and F. Seguineau, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightwave Technol.  21, 2779-2790 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, and K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightwave Technol.  21, 1933-1943 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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  9. G. Charlet, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan,M. Lefrancois, T. Fauconnier, F. Jorge, and S. Bigo, "151×43Gb/s transmission over 4,080km based on return-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift-keying," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2005, PD Th.4.1.3.
  10. C. G. Lee, Y. J. Kim, ChulS. Park, H. J. Lee, and Chang -S. Park, "Experimental demonstration of 10-Gb/s data format conversion between NRZ and RZ using SOA-Loop-Mirror," J. Lightwave Technol.  23, 834-841 (2005).
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  12. W. Li, M. Chen, Y. Dong, and S. Xie, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to CSRZ and between RZ and CSRZ using SOA-based fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 203-205 (2004).
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  19. T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, R. J. S. Pedersen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical data wavelength conversion by SOA’s in a Mach-Zehnder configuration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 53-55 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Hatta, T. Miyahara, Y. Miyazaki, K. Takagi, K. Matsumoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Mishina, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, "40 Gbit/s NRZ wavelength converter with narrow active waveguides and inverted operation," in Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (SSDM), 2006, B-8-1.
  21. J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, J. Klreissl, S. Bauer, M. Biletzke, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, "Bit rate and wavelength transparent all-optical clock recovery scheme for NRZ-coded PRBS signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 844-846 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Mao, Y. Li, M. Al-Mumim, and G. Li, "All-optical clock recovery for both RZ and NRZ data," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  14, 873-875 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Song, R. Motaghian, S. Havstad, and A. Willner, "Monitoring chromatic dispersion and PMD impairments in optical differential phase-shift-keyed (DPSK) systems," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2003, WP1.
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2006 (3)

G. Charlet, "Progress in optical modulation formats for high-bit rate WDM transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 469-483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, J. Klreissl, S. Bauer, M. Biletzke, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, "Bit rate and wavelength transparent all-optical clock recovery scheme for NRZ-coded PRBS signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 844-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Mishina, A. Maruta, S. Mitani, T. Miyahara, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Hatta, K. Motoshima, and K. Kitayama, "NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation-format conversion using SOA-MZI wavelength converter," J. Lightwave Technol.  24, 3751-3758 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

W. Li, M. Chen, Y. Dong, and S. Xie, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to CSRZ and between RZ and CSRZ using SOA-based fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 203-205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, and K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightwave Technol.  21, 1933-1943 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, and F. Seguineau, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightwave Technol.  21, 2779-2790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on aMach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 308-310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, and E. Burrows, "25×40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12×100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 467-469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

W. Mao, Y. Li, M. Al-Mumim, and G. Li, "All-optical clock recovery for both RZ and NRZ data," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  14, 873-875 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Asghari, I. H. White, and R. V. Penty, "Wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightwave Technol.  15, 1181-1190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, R. J. S. Pedersen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical data wavelength conversion by SOA’s in a Mach-Zehnder configuration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 53-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

H. Kawaguchi, "Absorptive and dispersive bistability in semiconductor injection laser," Opt. Quantum Electron.  19, S1-S36 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abe, J.

Al-Mumim, M.

W. Mao, Y. Li, M. Al-Mumim, and G. Li, "All-optical clock recovery for both RZ and NRZ data," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  14, 873-875 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

M. Asghari, I. H. White, and R. V. Penty, "Wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightwave Technol.  15, 1181-1190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baby, V.

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on aMach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 308-310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balmefrezol, E.

Bauer, S.

J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, J. Klreissl, S. Bauer, M. Biletzke, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, "Bit rate and wavelength transparent all-optical clock recovery scheme for NRZ-coded PRBS signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 844-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biletzke, M.

J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, J. Klreissl, S. Bauer, M. Biletzke, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, "Bit rate and wavelength transparent all-optical clock recovery scheme for NRZ-coded PRBS signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 844-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bornholdt, C.

J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, J. Klreissl, S. Bauer, M. Biletzke, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, "Bit rate and wavelength transparent all-optical clock recovery scheme for NRZ-coded PRBS signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 844-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brindel, P.

Burrows, E.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, and E. Burrows, "25×40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12×100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 467-469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, and E. Burrows, "25×40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12×100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 467-469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Charlet, G.

G. Charlet, "Progress in optical modulation formats for high-bit rate WDM transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 469-483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

W. Li, M. Chen, Y. Dong, and S. Xie, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to CSRZ and between RZ and CSRZ using SOA-based fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 203-205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chul, Y. J.

Doerr, C.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, and E. Burrows, "25×40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12×100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 467-469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

W. Li, M. Chen, Y. Dong, and S. Xie, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to CSRZ and between RZ and CSRZ using SOA-based fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 203-205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durhuus, T.

T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, R. J. S. Pedersen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical data wavelength conversion by SOA’s in a Mach-Zehnder configuration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 53-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Glesk, I.

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on aMach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 308-310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol.  23, 115- 130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, and E. Burrows, "25×40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12×100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 467-469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hatta, T.

Ishida, K.

Joergensen, C.

T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, R. J. S. Pedersen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical data wavelength conversion by SOA’s in a Mach-Zehnder configuration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 53-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kasahara, K.

Kawaguchi, H.

H. Kawaguchi, "Absorptive and dispersive bistability in semiconductor injection laser," Opt. Quantum Electron.  19, S1-S36 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

Kinjo, K.

Kitayama, K.

Klreissl, J.

J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, J. Klreissl, S. Bauer, M. Biletzke, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, "Bit rate and wavelength transparent all-optical clock recovery scheme for NRZ-coded PRBS signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 844-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Lavigne, B.

Leclerc, O.

Lee, C. G.

Leuthold, J.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, and E. Burrows, "25×40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12×100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 467-469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

W. Mao, Y. Li, M. Al-Mumim, and G. Li, "All-optical clock recovery for both RZ and NRZ data," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  14, 873-875 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

W. Li, M. Chen, Y. Dong, and S. Xie, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to CSRZ and between RZ and CSRZ using SOA-based fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 203-205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

W. Mao, Y. Li, M. Al-Mumim, and G. Li, "All-optical clock recovery for both RZ and NRZ data," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  14, 873-875 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mao, W.

W. Mao, Y. Li, M. Al-Mumim, and G. Li, "All-optical clock recovery for both RZ and NRZ data," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  14, 873-875 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maruta, A.

Mikkelsen, B.

T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, R. J. S. Pedersen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical data wavelength conversion by SOA’s in a Mach-Zehnder configuration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 53-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, K.

Mitani, S.

Miyahara, T.

Mizuochi, T.

Motoshima, K.

Pedersen, R. J. S.

T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, R. J. S. Pedersen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical data wavelength conversion by SOA’s in a Mach-Zehnder configuration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 53-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Penty, R. V.

M. Asghari, I. H. White, and R. V. Penty, "Wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightwave Technol.  15, 1181-1190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pierre, L.

Prucnal, P. R.

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on aMach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 308-310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, and E. Burrows, "25×40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12×100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 467-469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rouvillain, D.

Sartorius, B.

J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, J. Klreissl, S. Bauer, M. Biletzke, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, "Bit rate and wavelength transparent all-optical clock recovery scheme for NRZ-coded PRBS signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 844-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schlak, M.

J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, J. Klreissl, S. Bauer, M. Biletzke, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, "Bit rate and wavelength transparent all-optical clock recovery scheme for NRZ-coded PRBS signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 844-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seguineau, F.

Shimizu, K.

Slovak, J.

J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, J. Klreissl, S. Bauer, M. Biletzke, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, "Bit rate and wavelength transparent all-optical clock recovery scheme for NRZ-coded PRBS signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 844-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stubkjaer, K. E.

T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, R. J. S. Pedersen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical data wavelength conversion by SOA’s in a Mach-Zehnder configuration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 53-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, and E. Burrows, "25×40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12×100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 467-469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B. C.

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on aMach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 308-310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

M. Asghari, I. H. White, and R. V. Penty, "Wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightwave Technol.  15, 1181-1190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Xie, S.

W. Li, M. Chen, Y. Dong, and S. Xie, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to CSRZ and between RZ and CSRZ using SOA-based fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 203-205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on aMach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 308-310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Charlet, "Progress in optical modulation formats for high-bit rate WDM transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 469-483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, and E. Burrows, "25×40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12×100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 467-469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, J. Klreissl, S. Bauer, M. Biletzke, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, "Bit rate and wavelength transparent all-optical clock recovery scheme for NRZ-coded PRBS signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 844-846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Mao, Y. Li, M. Al-Mumim, and G. Li, "All-optical clock recovery for both RZ and NRZ data," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  14, 873-875 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, R. J. S. Pedersen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical data wavelength conversion by SOA’s in a Mach-Zehnder configuration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 53-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on aMach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  15, 308-310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, M. Chen, Y. Dong, and S. Xie, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to CSRZ and between RZ and CSRZ using SOA-based fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 203-205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Kawaguchi, "Absorptive and dispersive bistability in semiconductor injection laser," Opt. Quantum Electron.  19, S1-S36 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

M. J. Connelly, Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands 2002).

J. Leuthold, J. Jaques, and S. Cabot, "All-optical wavelength conversion and regeneration," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2004, WN1.

P. J. Winzer and R. -J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2003, Th2.6.1.

R. A. Griffin, R. I. Johnstone, R. G. Walker, J. Hall, S. D. Wadsworth, K. Berry, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, J. Hughes, P. A. Jerram, and N. J. Parsons, "10 Gb/s optical differential quadrature phase shift key (DQPSK) transmission using GaAs/AlGaAs integration," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2002, FD6.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

All-optical modulation format conversion at the gateway node between MAN and WAN. (a) Networks, (b) OOK to DQPSK format conversion in the gateway node.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the proposed format conversion.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Numerical model using the rate equation of the carrier density.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Eye diagrams of the probe pulse after passing through SOA-MZI#1: (a) Waveform; (b) Phase.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Eye diagrams of the probe pulse after passing through NRZ-OOK/RZ-QPSK modulation format converter: (a) Waveform; (b) Phase.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Eye diagram and spectrum of converted signal before 1-bit delay interferometer: (a) Eye diagram; (b) Spectra.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Eye diagrams of converted signal after 1-bit delay interferometer: (a) Channel 1 -constructive output; (b) Channel 1 - destructive output; (c) Channel 2 - constructive output; (d) Channel 2 - destructive output.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Eye diagrams after the balanced receiver: (a) Channel 1; (b) Channel 2.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Measured BER.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Received eye diagrams after transmission in the SMFs of (a) 20 km, (b) 30 km, and (c) 50 km.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Power penalty as a function of the imposed dispersion.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Power penalty as a function of the timing mismatch.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. List of parameter values.

Equations (8)

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dN i dt = J qd N i τ i x = c , p , a g m i ( x ) I i ( x ) E ( x ) g m ( ASE ) S t i
I a v i ( x ) = I i ( x ) exp ( g i Δ L ) 1 g i Δ L ,
g i = Γ g m i α
g m i = a 1 ( N i N 0 ) a 2 ( λ λ pi ) 2 ,
λ pi = λ 0 a 3 ( N i N p ) ,
I i + 1 ( x ) ( t ) = G i ( x ) ( N i ( t 1 ) , λ ( x ) ) I i ( x ) ( t 1 )
G i ( x ) ( N i , λ ( x ) ) = exp ( g ( N i , λ ( x ) ) ∙Δ L ) I i ( x ) ( t 1 )
ϕ i = π Δ L Γ gm i 2 a 1 λ ( x ) Δ n ¯ N ,

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