Abstract

We report on two-photon quantum interference experiments in the standard telecommunication band. Two identical photons in the 1.5 μm wavelength band were generated in spatially separated modes by a type-I spontaneous parametric down-conversion process, and injected into a fiber-optic Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. Two-photon interference patterns of dip and spatial beating in the coincidence counting rate were observed by varying the difference in optical path lengths. The visibilities obtained in the net coincidences were close to the theoretical value of 100%. The raw visibilities were also well above the classical limit.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1995).
  2. L. Mandel, "Quantum effects in one-photon and two-photon interference," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S274-S282 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Zeilinger, "Experiment and the foundations of quantum physics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S288-S297 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert, and A. Zeilinger, eds., The Physics of Quantum Information (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000).
  6. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46-52 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135-174 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. Landry, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Quantum teleportation over the Swisscom telecommunication network," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 398-403 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources," Phys. Rev. A 71, 050302(R) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 042335 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, "Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths," Nature 421, 509-513 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, "Observation of spatial quantum beating with separated photodetectors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 54-57 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T.-G. Noh, H. Kim, C. J. Youn, S.-B. Cho, J. Hong, T. Zyung, and J. Kim, "Noncollinear correlated photon pair source in the 1550 nm telecommunication band," Opt. Express 14, 2805-2810 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Note that the effects of accidental coincidences can be reduced by decreasing the pump power (Ref. [15]).
  17. J. Chen, K. F. Lee, and P. Kumar, "Generation of telecom-band indistinguishable photon pairs in dispersionshifted fiber," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2007), paper QTul4; H. Takesue, "1.5-μm band Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment using photon pairs generated in two independent optical fibers," ibid., paper JTuA5.

2007 (2)

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Landry, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Quantum teleportation over the Swisscom telecommunication network," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 398-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 042335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, "Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths," Nature 421, 509-513 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

L. Mandel, "Quantum effects in one-photon and two-photon interference," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S274-S282 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Zeilinger, "Experiment and the foundations of quantum physics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S288-S297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, "Observation of spatial quantum beating with separated photodetectors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 54-57 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beveratos, A.

O. Landry, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Quantum teleportation over the Swisscom telecommunication network," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 398-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 042335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-B.

Collins, D.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, "Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Riedmatten, H.

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 042335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, "Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths," Nature 421, 509-513 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dowling, J. P.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

O. Landry, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Quantum teleportation over the Swisscom telecommunication network," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 398-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 042335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, "Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths," Nature 421, 509-513 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Halder, M.

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 042335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. K.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, J.

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

Knill, E.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kok, P.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laflamme, R.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landry, O.

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel, "Quantum effects in one-photon and two-photon interference," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S274-S282 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, "Observation of spatial quantum beating with separated photodetectors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 54-57 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcikic, I.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, "Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths," Nature 421, 509-513 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milburn, G. J.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, W. J.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, K.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noh, T.-G.

Ou, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, "Observation of spatial quantum beating with separated photodetectors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 54-57 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralph, T. C.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanzilli, S.

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 042335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, "Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths," Nature 421, 509-513 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Houwelingen, J. A. W.

Youn, C. J.

Zbinden, H.

O. Landry, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Quantum teleportation over the Swisscom telecommunication network," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 398-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 042335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, "Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths," Nature 421, 509-513 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Zeilinger, "Experiment and the foundations of quantum physics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S288-S297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zyung, T.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (2)

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths," Nature 421, 509-513 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 042335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, "Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, "Observation of spatial quantum beating with separated photodetectors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 54-57 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (3)

L. Mandel, "Quantum effects in one-photon and two-photon interference," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S274-S282 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Zeilinger, "Experiment and the foundations of quantum physics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S288-S297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev.Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1995).

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources," Phys. Rev. A 71, 050302(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert, and A. Zeilinger, eds., The Physics of Quantum Information (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000).

Note that the effects of accidental coincidences can be reduced by decreasing the pump power (Ref. [15]).

J. Chen, K. F. Lee, and P. Kumar, "Generation of telecom-band indistinguishable photon pairs in dispersionshifted fiber," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2007), paper QTul4; H. Takesue, "1.5-μm band Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment using photon pairs generated in two independent optical fibers," ibid., paper JTuA5.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup. M, mirror; FC, fiber-optic collimator; SMF, single-mode fiber; ODL1 and ODL2, optical delay lines; PC, fiber-optic polarization controller; BS, 50/50 fiber-optic beam splitter; F1 and F2, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) filter sets; D1 and D2, InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode modules.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Two-photon quantum interference patterns measured as a function of the optical delay line position or the optical time delay δτ. The best-fit curves are based on Eq. (1). (a) ω 1 = ω 2. (b) ω 1 and ω 2 do not overlap.

Equations (1)

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P A [ 1 V e σ 2 δ τ 2 2 cos { ( ω 1 ω 2 ) δ τ } ] ,

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