Abstract

We propose a new technique of realizing a symmetric 3×3 optical coupler, which is based on evanescent-field coupling among three identical parallel long-period fiber gratings placed side-by-side. Using three 32-mm-long over-coupled long-period fiber gratings embedded in a medium with a proper refractive index, we achieved equal power outputs from the three fibers at the resonance wavelength of the gratings with a total loss of about 1.4 dB when light was launched into any one of the fibers.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Culshaw, "The optical fibre Sagnac interferometer: an overview of its principles and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1-R16 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Yuan and J. Yang, "Scheme of a fiber-optic multiplexing sensor array based on 3 × 3 star coupler," Opt. Lett. 30, 961-963 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. C. Tomic, J. M. Elazar, and A. V. Djinovic, "Low-coherence interferometric method for measurement of displacement based on a 3 × 3 fibre-optic directional coupler," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S381-S386 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. A. Johnson, M. D. Todd, B. L. Althouse, and C. C. Chang, "Fiber Bragg grating interrogation and multiplexing with a 3 × 3 coupler and a scanning filter," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1101-1105 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. A. Birks, "Effect of twist in 3 × 3 fused tapered couplers," Appl. Opt. 31, 3004-3014 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. See www.acphotonics.com/products/product_files/coupler_single_1x3_3x3_fusion.html
  7. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan, and M. N. Ng, "Analysis of two parallel long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 22,1358-1366 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Liu and K. S. Chiang, "Broadband optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 229-231 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. N. Ng and K. S. Chiang, "Thermal effects on the transmission spectra of long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Comm. 208, 321-327 (2002).Q1
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Zou, K. W. Beeson, and L. W. Shacklette, "Tunable planar polymer Bragg gratings having exceptionally low polarization sensitivity," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1083-1088 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. Culshaw, "The optical fibre Sagnac interferometer: an overview of its principles and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1-R16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and K. S. Chiang, "Broadband optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 229-231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

M. C. Tomic, J. M. Elazar, and A. V. Djinovic, "Low-coherence interferometric method for measurement of displacement based on a 3 × 3 fibre-optic directional coupler," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S381-S386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Ng and K. S. Chiang, "Thermal effects on the transmission spectra of long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Comm. 208, 321-327 (2002).Q1
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Johnson, M. D. Todd, B. L. Althouse, and C. C. Chang, "Fiber Bragg grating interrogation and multiplexing with a 3 × 3 coupler and a scanning filter," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1101-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Althouse, B. L.

Beeson, K. W.

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Chan, F. Y. M.

Chang, C. C.

Chiang, K. S.

Y. Liu and K. S. Chiang, "Broadband optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 229-231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan, and M. N. Ng, "Analysis of two parallel long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 22,1358-1366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Ng and K. S. Chiang, "Thermal effects on the transmission spectra of long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Comm. 208, 321-327 (2002).Q1
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw, "The optical fibre Sagnac interferometer: an overview of its principles and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1-R16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Djinovic, A. V.

M. C. Tomic, J. M. Elazar, and A. V. Djinovic, "Low-coherence interferometric method for measurement of displacement based on a 3 × 3 fibre-optic directional coupler," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S381-S386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Elazar, J. M.

M. C. Tomic, J. M. Elazar, and A. V. Djinovic, "Low-coherence interferometric method for measurement of displacement based on a 3 × 3 fibre-optic directional coupler," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S381-S386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, G. A.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu and K. S. Chiang, "Broadband optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 229-231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M. N.

K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan, and M. N. Ng, "Analysis of two parallel long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 22,1358-1366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Ng and K. S. Chiang, "Thermal effects on the transmission spectra of long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Comm. 208, 321-327 (2002).Q1
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shacklette, L. W.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Todd, M. D.

Tomic, M. C.

M. C. Tomic, J. M. Elazar, and A. V. Djinovic, "Low-coherence interferometric method for measurement of displacement based on a 3 × 3 fibre-optic directional coupler," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S381-S386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yuan, L.

Zou, H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu and K. S. Chiang, "Broadband optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 229-231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. C. Tomic, J. M. Elazar, and A. V. Djinovic, "Low-coherence interferometric method for measurement of displacement based on a 3 × 3 fibre-optic directional coupler," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S381-S386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Culshaw, "The optical fibre Sagnac interferometer: an overview of its principles and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1-R16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comm. (1)

M. N. Ng and K. S. Chiang, "Thermal effects on the transmission spectra of long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Comm. 208, 321-327 (2002).Q1
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Realization of a 3 × 3 coupler with three parallel identical LPFGs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Evolution of the transmission spectra of the LPFG measured at 200 (green), 600 (blue), 1200 (red), and 2100 (black) UV pulses, respectively. (b) Transmission spectra of the three fabricated LPFGs measured in air, showing low contrasts at the resonance wavelength λ 0.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dependence of the ratio of the output power to the input power with the surrounding refractive index measured at the resonance wavelength for the three fibers: (엯) Fiber 1 (input fiber), (◻) Fiber 2, and (▵) Fiber 3. Simulation results for two values of fiber separation d are shown for comparison.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized output spectra from the three fibers measured with a surrounding index of 1.448, when broadband light was launched into (a) Fiber 1, (b) Fiber 2, and (c) Fiber 3, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Normalized contrasts of the three gratings measured at the resonance wavelength with different surrounding refractive indices.

Equations (3)

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dA i dz = i B i e jδz
i = 1,2,3
dB i dz = i A i e jδz jC n = 1 , n i 3 B n

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