Abstract

We demonstrate the generation of fifth-harmonic pulses at 161 nm, with an energy of up to 600 nJ and 160 fs pulse duration from a Ti:sapphire laser at 1 kHz repetition rate by four-wave difference-frequency mixing in argon-filled waveguides. The efficiency is greatly improved by coupling to higher-order transverse modes, as well as by coating the inner surface of the waveguide. A numerical model of the process yields an understanding of the main effects influencing the harmonic generation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. V. Hertel and W. Radloff, "Ultrafast dynamics in isolated molecules and molecular clusters," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 1897-2003 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, F. Noack, J. Ringling, O. Kittelmann, and R. Komatsu, "Frequency conversion of Ti:sapphire-based femtosecond laser systems to the 200-nm spectral region using nonlinear optical crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1532-1542 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Wittmann, M. T. Wick, O. Steinkellner, P. Farmanara, V. Stert, W. Radloff, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Generation of femtosecond VUV pulses and their application to time resolved spectroscopy in the gas phase," Opt. Commun. 173, 323-331 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Wellegehausen, K. Mossavi, A. Egbert, B. N. Chichkov, and H. Welling, "Short-pulse high-intensity excimer lasers - A powerful tool for the generation of coherent VUV and XUV radiation," Appl. Phys. B 63, 451-461 (1996).
  5. C. G. DurfeeIII, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 24, 697-699 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. E. Jailaubekov and S. E. Bradforth, "Tunable 30-femtosecond pulses across the deep ultraviolet," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Wojtkiewicz, K. Hudek, and C. G. Durfee, "Chirped-pulse frequency conversion of ultrafast pulses to the deep-UV," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (IEEE, 2005) paper CMK5.
  8. P. Tzankov and O. Steinkellner, "High-energy Ti:sapphire laser system at 1 kHz optimised for efficient frequency conversion," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, (IEEE, 2005) paper CA8-1-TUE.
  9. P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, and G. Ulm, "Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range," Metrologia 35, 355-362 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Tzankov, O. Steinkellner, J. Zheng, A. Husakou, J. Herrmann, W. Freyer, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, "Generation and compression of femtosecond pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet by chirped-pulse four-wave difference-frequency mixing," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (IEEE, 2006) paper CMEE4.
  11. E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).
  12. G. C. Bjorklund, "Effect of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 287-296 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Matsuura and M. Miyagi, "Aluminum-coated hollow glass fibers for ArF-excimer laser light fabricated by metallorganic chemical-vapor deposition," Appl. Opt. 38, 2458-2462 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D.-S. Guo and G. W. F. Drake, "Stationary solutions for an electron in an intense laser field. II. Multimode case," J. Phys. A 25, 5377-5394 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

I. V. Hertel and W. Radloff, "Ultrafast dynamics in isolated molecules and molecular clusters," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 1897-2003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. E. Jailaubekov and S. E. Bradforth, "Tunable 30-femtosecond pulses across the deep ultraviolet," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Wittmann, M. T. Wick, O. Steinkellner, P. Farmanara, V. Stert, W. Radloff, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Generation of femtosecond VUV pulses and their application to time resolved spectroscopy in the gas phase," Opt. Commun. 173, 323-331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, F. Noack, J. Ringling, O. Kittelmann, and R. Komatsu, "Frequency conversion of Ti:sapphire-based femtosecond laser systems to the 200-nm spectral region using nonlinear optical crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1532-1542 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. G. DurfeeIII, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 24, 697-699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura and M. Miyagi, "Aluminum-coated hollow glass fibers for ArF-excimer laser light fabricated by metallorganic chemical-vapor deposition," Appl. Opt. 38, 2458-2462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, and G. Ulm, "Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range," Metrologia 35, 355-362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Wellegehausen, K. Mossavi, A. Egbert, B. N. Chichkov, and H. Welling, "Short-pulse high-intensity excimer lasers - A powerful tool for the generation of coherent VUV and XUV radiation," Appl. Phys. B 63, 451-461 (1996).

1992 (1)

D.-S. Guo and G. W. F. Drake, "Stationary solutions for an electron in an intense laser field. II. Multimode case," J. Phys. A 25, 5377-5394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, "Effect of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 287-296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

Backus, S.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. DurfeeIII, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 24, 697-699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, "Effect of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 287-296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bradforth, S. E.

A. E. Jailaubekov and S. E. Bradforth, "Tunable 30-femtosecond pulses across the deep ultraviolet," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

B. Wellegehausen, K. Mossavi, A. Egbert, B. N. Chichkov, and H. Welling, "Short-pulse high-intensity excimer lasers - A powerful tool for the generation of coherent VUV and XUV radiation," Appl. Phys. B 63, 451-461 (1996).

Drake, G. W. F.

D.-S. Guo and G. W. F. Drake, "Stationary solutions for an electron in an intense laser field. II. Multimode case," J. Phys. A 25, 5377-5394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. DurfeeIII, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 24, 697-699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Egbert, A.

B. Wellegehausen, K. Mossavi, A. Egbert, B. N. Chichkov, and H. Welling, "Short-pulse high-intensity excimer lasers - A powerful tool for the generation of coherent VUV and XUV radiation," Appl. Phys. B 63, 451-461 (1996).

Farmanara, P.

M. Wittmann, M. T. Wick, O. Steinkellner, P. Farmanara, V. Stert, W. Radloff, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Generation of femtosecond VUV pulses and their application to time resolved spectroscopy in the gas phase," Opt. Commun. 173, 323-331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, D.-S.

D.-S. Guo and G. W. F. Drake, "Stationary solutions for an electron in an intense laser field. II. Multimode case," J. Phys. A 25, 5377-5394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertel, I. V.

I. V. Hertel and W. Radloff, "Ultrafast dynamics in isolated molecules and molecular clusters," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 1897-2003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wittmann, M. T. Wick, O. Steinkellner, P. Farmanara, V. Stert, W. Radloff, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Generation of femtosecond VUV pulses and their application to time resolved spectroscopy in the gas phase," Opt. Commun. 173, 323-331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Husakou, A. V.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jailaubekov, A. E.

A. E. Jailaubekov and S. E. Bradforth, "Tunable 30-femtosecond pulses across the deep ultraviolet," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. DurfeeIII, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 24, 697-699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kittelmann, O.

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, F. Noack, J. Ringling, O. Kittelmann, and R. Komatsu, "Frequency conversion of Ti:sapphire-based femtosecond laser systems to the 200-nm spectral region using nonlinear optical crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1532-1542 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, R.

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, F. Noack, J. Ringling, O. Kittelmann, and R. Komatsu, "Frequency conversion of Ti:sapphire-based femtosecond laser systems to the 200-nm spectral region using nonlinear optical crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1532-1542 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

M. Wittmann, M. T. Wick, O. Steinkellner, P. Farmanara, V. Stert, W. Radloff, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Generation of femtosecond VUV pulses and their application to time resolved spectroscopy in the gas phase," Opt. Commun. 173, 323-331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuschnerus, P.

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, and G. Ulm, "Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range," Metrologia 35, 355-362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

Matsuura, Y.

Misoguti, L.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyagi, M.

Mossavi, K.

B. Wellegehausen, K. Mossavi, A. Egbert, B. N. Chichkov, and H. Welling, "Short-pulse high-intensity excimer lasers - A powerful tool for the generation of coherent VUV and XUV radiation," Appl. Phys. B 63, 451-461 (1996).

Murnane, M. M.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. DurfeeIII, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 24, 697-699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noack, F.

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, F. Noack, J. Ringling, O. Kittelmann, and R. Komatsu, "Frequency conversion of Ti:sapphire-based femtosecond laser systems to the 200-nm spectral region using nonlinear optical crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1532-1542 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, F. Noack, J. Ringling, O. Kittelmann, and R. Komatsu, "Frequency conversion of Ti:sapphire-based femtosecond laser systems to the 200-nm spectral region using nonlinear optical crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1532-1542 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rabus, H.

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, and G. Ulm, "Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range," Metrologia 35, 355-362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Radloff, W.

I. V. Hertel and W. Radloff, "Ultrafast dynamics in isolated molecules and molecular clusters," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 1897-2003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wittmann, M. T. Wick, O. Steinkellner, P. Farmanara, V. Stert, W. Radloff, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Generation of femtosecond VUV pulses and their application to time resolved spectroscopy in the gas phase," Opt. Commun. 173, 323-331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richter, M.

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, and G. Ulm, "Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range," Metrologia 35, 355-362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ringling, J.

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, F. Noack, J. Ringling, O. Kittelmann, and R. Komatsu, "Frequency conversion of Ti:sapphire-based femtosecond laser systems to the 200-nm spectral region using nonlinear optical crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1532-1542 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rotermund, F.

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, F. Noack, J. Ringling, O. Kittelmann, and R. Komatsu, "Frequency conversion of Ti:sapphire-based femtosecond laser systems to the 200-nm spectral region using nonlinear optical crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1532-1542 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

Scholze, F.

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, and G. Ulm, "Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range," Metrologia 35, 355-362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steinkellner, O.

M. Wittmann, M. T. Wick, O. Steinkellner, P. Farmanara, V. Stert, W. Radloff, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Generation of femtosecond VUV pulses and their application to time resolved spectroscopy in the gas phase," Opt. Commun. 173, 323-331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stert, V.

M. Wittmann, M. T. Wick, O. Steinkellner, P. Farmanara, V. Stert, W. Radloff, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Generation of femtosecond VUV pulses and their application to time resolved spectroscopy in the gas phase," Opt. Commun. 173, 323-331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, and G. Ulm, "Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range," Metrologia 35, 355-362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wellegehausen, B.

B. Wellegehausen, K. Mossavi, A. Egbert, B. N. Chichkov, and H. Welling, "Short-pulse high-intensity excimer lasers - A powerful tool for the generation of coherent VUV and XUV radiation," Appl. Phys. B 63, 451-461 (1996).

Welling, H.

B. Wellegehausen, K. Mossavi, A. Egbert, B. N. Chichkov, and H. Welling, "Short-pulse high-intensity excimer lasers - A powerful tool for the generation of coherent VUV and XUV radiation," Appl. Phys. B 63, 451-461 (1996).

Werner, L.

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, and G. Ulm, "Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range," Metrologia 35, 355-362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wick, M. T.

M. Wittmann, M. T. Wick, O. Steinkellner, P. Farmanara, V. Stert, W. Radloff, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Generation of femtosecond VUV pulses and their application to time resolved spectroscopy in the gas phase," Opt. Commun. 173, 323-331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, M.

M. Wittmann, M. T. Wick, O. Steinkellner, P. Farmanara, V. Stert, W. Radloff, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Generation of femtosecond VUV pulses and their application to time resolved spectroscopy in the gas phase," Opt. Commun. 173, 323-331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. Wellegehausen, K. Mossavi, A. Egbert, B. N. Chichkov, and H. Welling, "Short-pulse high-intensity excimer lasers - A powerful tool for the generation of coherent VUV and XUV radiation," Appl. Phys. B 63, 451-461 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. E. Jailaubekov and S. E. Bradforth, "Tunable 30-femtosecond pulses across the deep ultraviolet," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, "Effect of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 287-296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, F. Noack, J. Ringling, O. Kittelmann, and R. Komatsu, "Frequency conversion of Ti:sapphire-based femtosecond laser systems to the 200-nm spectral region using nonlinear optical crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1532-1542 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. A (1)

D.-S. Guo and G. W. F. Drake, "Stationary solutions for an electron in an intense laser field. II. Multimode case," J. Phys. A 25, 5377-5394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

P. Kuschnerus, H. Rabus, M. Richter, F. Scholze, L. Werner, and G. Ulm, "Characterization of photodiodes as transfer detector standards in the 120 nm to 600 nm spectral range," Metrologia 35, 355-362 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Wittmann, M. T. Wick, O. Steinkellner, P. Farmanara, V. Stert, W. Radloff, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Generation of femtosecond VUV pulses and their application to time resolved spectroscopy in the gas phase," Opt. Commun. 173, 323-331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

I. V. Hertel and W. Radloff, "Ultrafast dynamics in isolated molecules and molecular clusters," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 1897-2003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. Tzankov, O. Steinkellner, J. Zheng, A. Husakou, J. Herrmann, W. Freyer, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, "Generation and compression of femtosecond pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet by chirped-pulse four-wave difference-frequency mixing," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (IEEE, 2006) paper CMEE4.

J. Wojtkiewicz, K. Hudek, and C. G. Durfee, "Chirped-pulse frequency conversion of ultrafast pulses to the deep-UV," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (IEEE, 2005) paper CMK5.

P. Tzankov and O. Steinkellner, "High-energy Ti:sapphire laser system at 1 kHz optimised for efficient frequency conversion," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, (IEEE, 2005) paper CA8-1-TUE.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup. THG: third-harmonic generation, D1: delay stage to temporally overlap the pump and the idler pulses, D2: delay stage for autocorrelator, CaF2: 1-mm thick calcium fluoride plate, VUV Det.: VUV energy meter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pressure dependence of the fifth harmonic pulse energy with EH11 modes excitation: the length of the hollow waveguide is 25 cm and the diameter 100 μm. The dotted curve with squares is the experimental data, and the solid curve is the result of the theoretical calculations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Pressure dependence of the fifth harmonic pulse energy when three waves are optimized for higher transverse modes: (a) for the uncoated and (b) for the coated hollow waveguide with the length 25 cm and diameter 100 μm. The black curves with circles are the experimental data, and the red curves with triangles are the theoretical calculations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The measured (black curve with circles) and calculated (red curve) spectra at 115 Torr. The calculated spectral phase is given by the dotted blue curve.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental autocorrelation trace using non-resonant two-photon absorption in 1-mm CaF2 plate (dots) and the corresponding fit (solid curves) assuming a Gaussian pulse shape.

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