Abstract

We report on the switching of an all-optical flip-flop consisting of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a distributed feedback laser diode (DFB), bidirectionally coupled to each other. Both simulation and experimental results are presented. Switching times as low as 50ps, minimal required switch pulse energies below 1pJ and a repetition rate of 1.25GHz have been measured. Contrast ratios over 25dB have been obtained. The dependence on the pulse length and CW input power of the minimal required switch energy is investigated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. V. Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, "From IP over WDM to all-optical packet switching: economical view," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1638-1646 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Dorren, M. Hill, Y. Liu, N. Calabretta, A. Srivatsa, F. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, and G. Khoe, "Optical packet switching and buffering by using all-optical signal processing methods," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2-12 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokis, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, I. T. Monroy, A. Koonen, M. Hill, Y. Liu, H. Dorren, R. V. Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, "Ist-lasagne: Towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logical gates and optical flip-flops," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993-3011 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Takenaka, K. Takeda, Y. Kanema, Y. Nakano, M. Raburn, and T. Miyahara, "All-optical switching of 40 gb/s packets by mmi-bld optical label memory," Opt. Express 14, 10785-10789 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical flip-flop based on coupled laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 405-413 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, T. de Vries, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Coupled mach-zehnder interferometer memory element," Opt. Lett. 30, 1710-1712 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. D’Oosterlinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and T. Erneux, "Optical bistability in a traveling-wave soa connected to a dfb laser diode: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 739-746 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. D’Oosterlinck, G. Morthier, T. Erneux, and R. Baets, "Simulation of the switching of an all-optical flip-flop based on a soa/dfb-laser diode optical feedback scheme," 2006 Int. Conference on Photonics in Switching, 33-35 (2006).
  10. W. D’Oosterlinck, J. Buron, F. ¨Ohman, G.Morthier, and R. Baets, "All-Optical Flip-Flop Based on an SOA/DFBLaser Diode Optical Feedback Scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 489-491 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. "VPItransmissionmaker & VPIcomponentmaker," VPIsystems. Inc.

2007 (1)

W. D’Oosterlinck, J. Buron, F. ¨Ohman, G.Morthier, and R. Baets, "All-Optical Flip-Flop Based on an SOA/DFBLaser Diode Optical Feedback Scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 489-491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. D’Oosterlinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and T. Erneux, "Optical bistability in a traveling-wave soa connected to a dfb laser diode: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 739-746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, "From IP over WDM to all-optical packet switching: economical view," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1638-1646 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical flip-flop based on coupled laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 405-413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Avramopoulos, H.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokis, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, I. T. Monroy, A. Koonen, M. Hill, Y. Liu, H. Dorren, R. V. Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, "Ist-lasagne: Towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logical gates and optical flip-flops," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993-3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

W. D’Oosterlinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and T. Erneux, "Optical bistability in a traveling-wave soa connected to a dfb laser diode: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 739-746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Binsma, J. J. M.

Buron, J.

W. D’Oosterlinck, J. Buron, F. ¨Ohman, G.Morthier, and R. Baets, "All-Optical Flip-Flop Based on an SOA/DFBLaser Diode Optical Feedback Scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 489-491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caenegem, R. V.

Calabretta, N.

Chi, N.

Clavero, R.

Colle, D.

D’Oosterlinck, W.

W. D’Oosterlinck, J. Buron, F. ¨Ohman, G.Morthier, and R. Baets, "All-Optical Flip-Flop Based on an SOA/DFBLaser Diode Optical Feedback Scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 489-491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. D’Oosterlinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and T. Erneux, "Optical bistability in a traveling-wave soa connected to a dfb laser diode: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 739-746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, T.

de Waardt, H.

Demeester, P.

den Besten, J. H.

Dorren, H.

Dorren, H. J. S.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, T. de Vries, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Coupled mach-zehnder interferometer memory element," Opt. Lett. 30, 1710-1712 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical flip-flop based on coupled laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 405-413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Erneux, T.

W. D’Oosterlinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and T. Erneux, "Optical bistability in a traveling-wave soa connected to a dfb laser diode: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 739-746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herrera, J.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M.

Hill, M. T.

Holm-Nielsen, P.

Holm-Nielsen, P. V.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huijskens, F.

Jeppesen, P.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokis, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, I. T. Monroy, A. Koonen, M. Hill, Y. Liu, H. Dorren, R. V. Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, "Ist-lasagne: Towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logical gates and optical flip-flops," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993-3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kehayas, E.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokis, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, I. T. Monroy, A. Koonen, M. Hill, Y. Liu, H. Dorren, R. V. Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, "Ist-lasagne: Towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logical gates and optical flip-flops," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993-3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G.

Khoe, G. D.

Koonen, A.

Leijtens, X. J. M.

Liu, Y.

Marti, J.

Martinez, J.

Martinez, J. M.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, G.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McDougall, R.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, I. T.

Morthier, G.

W. D’Oosterlinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and T. Erneux, "Optical bistability in a traveling-wave soa connected to a dfb laser diode: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 739-746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y. S.

Pickavet, M.

Ramos, F.

Riposati, B.

Seoane, J.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, E.

Smit, M. K.

Srivatsa, A.

Stampoulidis, L.

Tsiokis, D.

van Zantvoort, J. H. C.

Yan, N.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, S.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical flip-flop based on coupled laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 405-413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. D’Oosterlinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and T. Erneux, "Optical bistability in a traveling-wave soa connected to a dfb laser diode: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 739-746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated soa-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. D’Oosterlinck, J. Buron, F. ¨Ohman, G.Morthier, and R. Baets, "All-Optical Flip-Flop Based on an SOA/DFBLaser Diode Optical Feedback Scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 489-491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

"VPItransmissionmaker & VPIcomponentmaker," VPIsystems. Inc.

W. D’Oosterlinck, G. Morthier, T. Erneux, and R. Baets, "Simulation of the switching of an all-optical flip-flop based on a soa/dfb-laser diode optical feedback scheme," 2006 Int. Conference on Photonics in Switching, 33-35 (2006).

M. Takenaka, K. Takeda, Y. Kanema, Y. Nakano, M. Raburn, and T. Miyahara, "All-optical switching of 40 gb/s packets by mmi-bld optical label memory," Opt. Express 14, 10785-10789 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a SOA bi-directionally coupled to a laser diode

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic setup used for the simulations

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Static bistable transfer function of the all-optical flip-flop

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

All-optical flip-flop operation of the device for 50ps set and reset pulses with a respective pulse energy of 870fJ and 1.7pJ.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Minimal required set (left) and reset (right) pulse energies for all-optical flip-flop operation as a function of pulse length and CW input power.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental setup used for the measurements of the SOA/DFB laser diode based AOFF.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Laser output power as a function of input power into the SOA for different wavelengths of the input signal

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Pulse train of 100ps wide pulses with a pulse spacing of 1.6ns

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Dynamic flip-flop operation for 150ps set and reset pulses and a CW input power of 6.4dBm (1ns/div).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Set and reset switch times for 150ps set and reset pulses and a CW input power of 6.4dBm (100ps/div).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Minimal required set (left) and reset (right) pulse energies for all-optical flip-flop operation as a function of pulse length and CW input power for a CW input power and pulse wavelength of 1555nm.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Contrast ratio between the ON and OFF state of the AOFF as a function of pulse length and CW input power for a CW input power and pulse wavelength of 1555nm.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Dynamic AOFF operation with set and reset pulses of 50ps long and a CW input power of 4.5dBm (200ps/div).

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Dynamic AOFF operation with set and reset pulses of 50ps long and a CW input power of 4.5dBm (100ps/div).

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Dynamic AOFF operation with set and reset pulses of 100ps long and a CW input power of 3.5dBm (500ps/div).

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