Abstract

We have experimentally investigated the impact of codirectional Raman gains on the performance of distributed fiber Raman amplified systems. The effects of various noise sources, such as optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) degradation, fiber nonlinearities and surviving channel gain variation in different Raman pumping schemes, were evaluated as a function of input power into a fiber span. For measurements, distributed Raman gain was generated by pumping the fiber span with different combinations of Raman pump power between co- and counterdirections. From the results, we found that a large counterdirectional Raman gain assisted by a small codirectional gain could improve the overall static and dynamic performance of distributed Raman amplified systems.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Broamage, "Raman amplification for fiber communications systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 79-93 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. M. Krummrich, R. E. Neuhauser, H. Bock, W. Fischler, and C. Glingener, "System performance improvements by codirectional Raman pumping of the transmission fiber," in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication 2001.
  3. J. Bromage, J.-C. Bouteiller, H. J. Thiele, K. Brar, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, C. Headley, R. Boncek, J. Kim, A. Klein, G. Baynham, L. V. Jorgensen, L. Gruner-Nielson, R. L. LingleJr., and D. J. DiGiovanni, "WDM transmission over multiple long spans with bidirectional Raman pumping," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 225-232 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, J. Bromage, and C. H. Kim, "Design of bidirectionally pumped fiber amplifiers generating double Rayleigh backscattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 914-916 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. L. Wang, B. C. Hwang, and L. M. Yang, "Gain transients in copumped and counterpumped Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 664-666 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Kim and N. Park, "Semianalytic dynamic gain-clamping method for the fiber Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 768-770 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, H. J. Lee, and K. Kim, "Suppression of transient phenomena in hybrid Raman/EDF amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1004-1006 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005

P. Kim and N. Park, "Semianalytic dynamic gain-clamping method for the fiber Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 768-770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, H. J. Lee, and K. Kim, "Suppression of transient phenomena in hybrid Raman/EDF amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1004-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

L. L. Wang, B. C. Hwang, and L. M. Yang, "Gain transients in copumped and counterpumped Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 664-666 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, J. Bromage, and C. H. Kim, "Design of bidirectionally pumped fiber amplifiers generating double Rayleigh backscattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 914-916 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baynham, G.

Boncek, R.

Bouteiller, J.-C.

Brar, K.

Broamage, J.

Bromage, J.

Cabot, S.

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. H.

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, H. J. Lee, and K. Kim, "Suppression of transient phenomena in hybrid Raman/EDF amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1004-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. -J.

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chung, H. S.

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, H. J. Lee, and K. Kim, "Suppression of transient phenomena in hybrid Raman/EDF amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1004-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Essiambre, R.-J.

R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, J. Bromage, and C. H. Kim, "Design of bidirectionally pumped fiber amplifiers generating double Rayleigh backscattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 914-916 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gassner, M.J.

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gruner-Nielson, L.

Headley, C.

Ho, M.-C.

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, B. C.

L. L. Wang, B. C. Hwang, and L. M. Yang, "Gain transients in copumped and counterpumped Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 664-666 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, L. V.

Kim, C. H.

R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, J. Bromage, and C. H. Kim, "Design of bidirectionally pumped fiber amplifiers generating double Rayleigh backscattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 914-916 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, K.

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, H. J. Lee, and K. Kim, "Suppression of transient phenomena in hybrid Raman/EDF amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1004-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P.

P. Kim and N. Park, "Semianalytic dynamic gain-clamping method for the fiber Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 768-770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klein, A.

Lee, H. J.

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, H. J. Lee, and K. Kim, "Suppression of transient phenomena in hybrid Raman/EDF amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1004-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. K.

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lingle, R. L.

Lu, Y.-W.

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L. E.

Park, N.

P. Kim and N. Park, "Semianalytic dynamic gain-clamping method for the fiber Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 768-770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pease, J. S.

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, W. S.

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, S.

Sun, Y.

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thiele, H. J.

Tsai, H.-S.

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. L.

L. L. Wang, B. C. Hwang, and L. M. Yang, "Gain transients in copumped and counterpumped Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 664-666 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P.

R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, J. Bromage, and C. H. Kim, "Design of bidirectionally pumped fiber amplifiers generating double Rayleigh backscattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 914-916 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L. M.

L. L. Wang, B. C. Hwang, and L. M. Yang, "Gain transients in copumped and counterpumped Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 664-666 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

C. -J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Song, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M.J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. Kim and N. Park, "Semianalytic dynamic gain-clamping method for the fiber Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 768-770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, H. J. Lee, and K. Kim, "Suppression of transient phenomena in hybrid Raman/EDF amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1004-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, J. Bromage, and C. H. Kim, "Design of bidirectionally pumped fiber amplifiers generating double Rayleigh backscattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 914-916 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Wang, B. C. Hwang, and L. M. Yang, "Gain transients in copumped and counterpumped Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 664-666 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

P. M. Krummrich, R. E. Neuhauser, H. Bock, W. Fischler, and C. Glingener, "System performance improvements by codirectional Raman pumping of the transmission fiber," in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication 2001.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Apparatus used for performance measurement in different distributed Raman amplifiers. Acronyms are acousto-optic modulator, AOM; variable attenuator, ATT; arrayed-waveguide grating, AWG; optical band-pass filter, OBPF, optical spectrum analyzer, OSA; receiver, Rx; and bit-error-rate test sets, BERTS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman on/off gains as a function of input power into fiber span. The co-pumping ratio was varied from 0% to 100%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Receiver sensitivity penalties (BER = 10-9) of NRZ signal in various Raman pumping schemes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ratio of output SNRs (in dB) in a 40-spans distributed Raman amplified system by taking into account the effect of ASE and double Rayleigh backscattering..

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gain variation of (a) CH17 and (b) CH1 during the add/drop multiplexing of 31 out of 32 WDM channels in four different Raman amplifiers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Receiver sensitivity penalties (@BER = 10-9) of CH17 for four different Raman amplifiers.

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