Abstract

Single-mode surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers operating around 2.9 THz are developed in metal-metal waveguides. A combination of techniques including precise control of phase of reflection at the facets, and use of metal on the sidewalls to eliminate higher-order lateral modes allow robust single-mode operation over a range of approximately 0.35 THz. Single-lobed far-field radiation pattern is obtained using a π phase-shift in center of the second-order Bragg grating. A grating device operating at 2.93 THz lased up to 149 K in pulsed mode and a temperature tuning of 19.7 GHz was observed from 5 K to 147 K. The same device lased up to 78 K in continuous-wave (cw) mode emitting more than 6 mW of cw power at 5 K. In general, maximum temperature of pulsed operation for grating devices was within a few Kelvin of that of multi-mode Fabry-Perot ridge lasers

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (7)

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 m)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert and F. Rana, "Analysis of Terahertz Surface Emitting Quantum-Cascade Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-Time Imaging Using a 4.3-THz Quantum Cascade Laser and a 320 x 240 Microbolometer Focal-Plane Array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosinuas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331 (2005),
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Li, G. Witjaksono, S. Macomber, and D. Botez, "Analysis of surface-emitting second-order distributed feedback lasers with central grating phaseshift," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1153 (2003).

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at ⌊ ≈ 100 m using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. K. Gunde and M. Maček, "Infrared Optical Constants and Dielectric Response Functions of Silicon Nitride and Oxynitride Films," Phys. Stat. Sol.(a) 183, 439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. Finger, W. Schrenk, and E. Gornik, "Analysis of TM-polarized DFB laser structures with metal surface gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 m quantum cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. J. Noll and S. H. Macomber, "Analysis of grating surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Adam, A. J. L.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alexander-Jr, R.W.

Austerer, M.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baryshev, A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baselmans, J. J. A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 m quantum cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

Bell, R. J.

Beltram, F.

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosinuas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335 (2006)
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Botez, D.

S. Li, G. Witjaksono, S. Macomber, and D. Botez, "Analysis of surface-emitting second-order distributed feedback lasers with central grating phaseshift," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1153 (2003).

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at ⌊ ≈ 100 m using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cockburn, J. W.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Demichel, O.

Faist, J.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 m quantum cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Finger, N.

N. Finger, W. Schrenk, and E. Gornik, "Analysis of TM-polarized DFB laser structures with metal surface gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Golka, S.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gornik, E.

N. Finger, W. Schrenk, and E. Gornik, "Analysis of TM-polarized DFB laser structures with metal surface gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Green, , R. P.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Green, R.

Gunde, M. K.

M. K. Gunde and M. Maček, "Infrared Optical Constants and Dielectric Response Functions of Silicon Nitride and Oxynitride Films," Phys. Stat. Sol.(a) 183, 439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hajenius, M.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 m quantum cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. N.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 m)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-Time Imaging Using a 4.3-THz Quantum Cascade Laser and a 320 x 240 Microbolometer Focal-Plane Array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331 (2005),
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at ⌊ ≈ 100 m using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hübers, H.-W.

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaalynas, I.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klaassen, T. O.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klapwijk, T. M.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kohen, S.

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krysa, A. B.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

A. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-Time Imaging Using a 4.3-THz Quantum Cascade Laser and a 320 x 240 Microbolometer Focal-Plane Array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 m)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331 (2005),
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at ⌊ ≈ 100 m using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A.

A. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 m)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-Time Imaging Using a 4.3-THz Quantum Cascade Laser and a 320 x 240 Microbolometer Focal-Plane Array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

S. Li, G. Witjaksono, S. Macomber, and D. Botez, "Analysis of surface-emitting second-order distributed feedback lasers with central grating phaseshift," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1153 (2003).

Linfield, E. H.

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Losco, T.

Macek, M.

M. K. Gunde and M. Maček, "Infrared Optical Constants and Dielectric Response Functions of Silicon Nitride and Oxynitride Films," Phys. Stat. Sol.(a) 183, 439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Macomber, S.

S. Li, G. Witjaksono, S. Macomber, and D. Botez, "Analysis of surface-emitting second-order distributed feedback lasers with central grating phaseshift," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1153 (2003).

Macomber, S. H.

R. J. Noll and S. H. Macomber, "Analysis of grating surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mahler, L.

Mauro, C.

Noll, R. J.

R. J. Noll and S. H. Macomber, "Analysis of grating surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Oesterle, U.

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 m quantum cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Orlova, E. E.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, S. G.

Pflügl, C.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Q.

A. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 m)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rana, F.

M. Schubert and F. Rana, "Analysis of Terahertz Surface Emitting Quantum-Cascade Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

A. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-Time Imaging Using a 4.3-THz Quantum Cascade Laser and a 320 x 240 Microbolometer Focal-Plane Array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 m)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331 (2005),
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at ⌊ ≈ 100 m using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

Roberts, J. S.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schrenk, W.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Finger, W. Schrenk, and E. Gornik, "Analysis of TM-polarized DFB laser structures with metal surface gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

M. Schubert and F. Rana, "Analysis of Terahertz Surface Emitting Quantum-Cascade Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A. D.

Strasser, G.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamosinuas, V.

Tredicucci, A.

Walther, C.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

A. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-Time Imaging Using a 4.3-THz Quantum Cascade Laser and a 320 x 240 Microbolometer Focal-Plane Array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 m)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331 (2005),
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at ⌊ ≈ 100 m using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, L. R.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Witjaksono, G.

S. Li, G. Witjaksono, S. Macomber, and D. Botez, "Analysis of surface-emitting second-order distributed feedback lasers with central grating phaseshift," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1153 (2003).

Xu, J.

Yang, Z. Q.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 m)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 m quantum cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at ⌊ ≈ 100 m using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

R. J. Noll and S. H. Macomber, "Analysis of grating surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Finger, W. Schrenk, and E. Gornik, "Analysis of TM-polarized DFB laser structures with metal surface gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert and F. Rana, "Analysis of Terahertz Surface Emitting Quantum-Cascade Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Li, G. Witjaksono, S. Macomber, and D. Botez, "Analysis of surface-emitting second-order distributed feedback lasers with central grating phaseshift," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1153 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-Time Imaging Using a 4.3-THz Quantum Cascade Laser and a 320 x 240 Microbolometer Focal-Plane Array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Stat. Sol. (1)

M. K. Gunde and M. Maček, "Infrared Optical Constants and Dielectric Response Functions of Silicon Nitride and Oxynitride Films," Phys. Stat. Sol.(a) 183, 439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "First-order edge-emitting and second-order surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade lasers," presented at the 8th International Conference on Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 11-16 Sept. 2005.

J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-IEEE Press, 2002).

R. Williams, Modern GaAs processing methods, chapter 5, p. 97, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 1990).

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