Abstract

In this work we present a detailed analysis of the infrared to visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped KPb2Br5 low phonon crystal by using both steady-state and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Efficient blue, green, orange, and red emissions have been observed under excitation into the 4F5/2 and 4F3/2 states. The low phonon energy of this crystal leads to a significant reduction of the multiphonon relaxation rates which allows most of the excited states to relax radiatively. To investigate the nature of the upconversion processes, emission spectroscopy and lifetime measurements for the visible fluorescence, performed by using one photon excitation, have been compared to the upconverted emissions and lifetimes obtained under infrared pulsed excitation. The analysis of the experimental results indicates that the upconverted emissions occur via energy-transfer upconversion.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  12. R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+/Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 68,1651011-16510172003.
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2005 (4)

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, "Origin of the infrared to visible upconversion mechanisms in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal," Opt. Mater 27, 1704-1710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. García-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hömmerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+-doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 1651161-16511611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Cascales, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, "Investigation of site-selective symmetries of Eu3+ ions in KPb2Cl5 by using optical spectroscopy," Opt. Express 13, 2141-2152 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rademaker, E. Heumann, G. Huber, S. A. Payne, W. Krupke, L.I. Isaenko, and A. Burger, "Laser activity at 1.18, 1.07, and 0.97 μm in the low-phonon-energy hosts KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 doped with Nd3+," Opt. Lett. 30, 729-731 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Petermann, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Optical properties of Nd3+ and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2117-2129 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Auzel, "Upconversion and anti-stokes processes with f and d Ions in Solids," Chem. Rev. (Washington D.C.) 104, 139-174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Balda, A. J. Garcia-Adeva, M. Voda, and J. Fernández, "Upconversion processes in Er3+-doped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 69, 2052031-2052038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+/Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 68,1651011-16510172003.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 64,14410111-1441018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S.A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko," Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm," OSA TOPS 26, 441-449, 1999.

1998 (1)

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+," OSA TOPS 19, 524-528, 1998.

1996 (1)

T. Chuang and H. R. Verdún, "Energy-transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd-YLF crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79-91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, "Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19," Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, and M. Bouazaoui, "Excited-state absorption in BaY2F8:Nd3+," Phys. Rev. B 4711001-11006 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. J. Weber, "Science and technology of laser glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123, 208-222 (1990)
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. M. McFarlane, F. Fong, A. J. Silversmith, and W. Lenth, "Violet cw neodymium upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 521300-1302 (1988)
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. P. Beck, G. Clicqué, and H. Nau, "A Study on AB2X5 Compounds (A: K, In, Tl; B: Sr, Sn, Pb; X: Cl, Br, I)," Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem 536, 35-44 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

F. Auzel, "Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer," Proc. IEEE 61,758-7861973.
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 64,14410111-1441018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Al-Saleh, M.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, "Origin of the infrared to visible upconversion mechanisms in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal," Opt. Mater 27, 1704-1710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+/Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 68,1651011-16510172003.
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, "Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer," Proc. IEEE 61,758-7861973.
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F. E.

F. E. Auzel, "Upconversion and anti-stokes processes with f and d Ions in Solids," Chem. Rev. (Washington D.C.) 104, 139-174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balda, R.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, "Origin of the infrared to visible upconversion mechanisms in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal," Opt. Mater 27, 1704-1710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. García-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hömmerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+-doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 1651161-16511611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Cascales, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, "Investigation of site-selective symmetries of Eu3+ ions in KPb2Cl5 by using optical spectroscopy," Opt. Express 13, 2141-2152 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Balda, A. J. Garcia-Adeva, M. Voda, and J. Fernández, "Upconversion processes in Er3+-doped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 69, 2052031-2052038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+/Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 68,1651011-16510172003.
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 64,14410111-1441018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beck, H. P.

H. P. Beck, G. Clicqué, and H. Nau, "A Study on AB2X5 Compounds (A: K, In, Tl; B: Sr, Sn, Pb; X: Cl, Br, I)," Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem 536, 35-44 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bon, M.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, "Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19," Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bouazaoui, M.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, and M. Bouazaoui, "Excited-state absorption in BaY2F8:Nd3+," Phys. Rev. B 4711001-11006 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burger, A.

Cascales, C.

Chuang, T.

T. Chuang and H. R. Verdún, "Energy-transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd-YLF crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79-91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clicqué, G.

H. P. Beck, G. Clicqué, and H. Nau, "A Study on AB2X5 Compounds (A: K, In, Tl; B: Sr, Sn, Pb; X: Cl, Br, I)," Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem 536, 35-44 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Descroix, E.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, "Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19," Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, J.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, "Origin of the infrared to visible upconversion mechanisms in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal," Opt. Mater 27, 1704-1710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Cascales, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, "Investigation of site-selective symmetries of Eu3+ ions in KPb2Cl5 by using optical spectroscopy," Opt. Express 13, 2141-2152 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. García-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hömmerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+-doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 1651161-16511611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, A. J. Garcia-Adeva, M. Voda, and J. Fernández, "Upconversion processes in Er3+-doped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 69, 2052031-2052038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+/Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 68,1651011-16510172003.
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 64,14410111-1441018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fong, F.

R. M. McFarlane, F. Fong, A. J. Silversmith, and W. Lenth, "Violet cw neodymium upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 521300-1302 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Adeva, A. J.

R. Balda, A. J. Garcia-Adeva, M. Voda, and J. Fernández, "Upconversion processes in Er3+-doped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 69, 2052031-2052038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

García-Adeva, A. J.

A. J. García-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hömmerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+-doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 1651161-16511611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garnier, N.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, "Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19," Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Griscom, L. S.

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 64,14410111-1441018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guy, S.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, and M. Bouazaoui, "Excited-state absorption in BaY2F8:Nd3+," Phys. Rev. B 4711001-11006 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, "Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19," Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heumann, E.

Hömmerich, U.

A. J. García-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hömmerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+-doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 1651161-16511611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Isaenko, L. I.

K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Petermann, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Optical properties of Nd3+ and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2117-2129 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S.A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko," Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm," OSA TOPS 26, 441-449, 1999.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+," OSA TOPS 19, 524-528, 1998.

Isaenko, L.I.

Jacquier, B.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, and M. Bouazaoui, "Excited-state absorption in BaY2F8:Nd3+," Phys. Rev. B 4711001-11006 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, M. F.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, and M. Bouazaoui, "Excited-state absorption in BaY2F8:Nd3+," Phys. Rev. B 4711001-11006 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W.

Krupke, W. F.

K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Petermann, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Optical properties of Nd3+ and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2117-2129 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S.A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko," Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm," OSA TOPS 26, 441-449, 1999.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+," OSA TOPS 19, 524-528, 1998.

Laporte, P.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, "Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19," Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

R. M. McFarlane, F. Fong, A. J. Silversmith, and W. Lenth, "Violet cw neodymium upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 521300-1302 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Manaa, H.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, "Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19," Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mandal, K. C.

McFarlane, R. M.

R. M. McFarlane, F. Fong, A. J. Silversmith, and W. Lenth, "Violet cw neodymium upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 521300-1302 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Mendioroz, A.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, "Origin of the infrared to visible upconversion mechanisms in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal," Opt. Mater 27, 1704-1710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+/Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 68,1651011-16510172003.
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 64,14410111-1441018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moncorgé, R.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, "Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19," Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nau, H.

H. P. Beck, G. Clicqué, and H. Nau, "A Study on AB2X5 Compounds (A: K, In, Tl; B: Sr, Sn, Pb; X: Cl, Br, I)," Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem 536, 35-44 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nitsch, K.

Nostrand, M. C.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S.A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko," Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm," OSA TOPS 26, 441-449, 1999.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+," OSA TOPS 19, 524-528, 1998.

Nyein, E. E.

A. J. García-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hömmerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+-doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 1651161-16511611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Page, R. H.

K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Petermann, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Optical properties of Nd3+ and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2117-2129 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S.A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko," Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm," OSA TOPS 26, 441-449, 1999.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+," OSA TOPS 19, 524-528, 1998.

Payne, S. A.

Payne, S.A.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S.A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko," Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm," OSA TOPS 26, 441-449, 1999.

Petermann, K.

Rademaker, K.

Rivoire, J. Y.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, "Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19," Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roy, U. N.

Sanz, M.

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 64,14410111-1441018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schunemann, P. G.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S.A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko," Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm," OSA TOPS 26, 441-449, 1999.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+," OSA TOPS 19, 524-528, 1998.

Silversmith, A. J.

R. M. McFarlane, F. Fong, A. J. Silversmith, and W. Lenth, "Violet cw neodymium upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 521300-1302 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Verdún, H. R.

T. Chuang and H. R. Verdún, "Energy-transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd-YLF crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79-91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Voda, M.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, "Origin of the infrared to visible upconversion mechanisms in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal," Opt. Mater 27, 1704-1710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, A. J. Garcia-Adeva, M. Voda, and J. Fernández, "Upconversion processes in Er3+-doped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 69, 2052031-2052038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+/Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 68,1651011-16510172003.
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, "Science and technology of laser glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123, 208-222 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Yelisseyev, A. P.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. M. McFarlane, F. Fong, A. J. Silversmith, and W. Lenth, "Violet cw neodymium upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 521300-1302 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (Washington D.C.) (1)

F. E. Auzel, "Upconversion and anti-stokes processes with f and d Ions in Solids," Chem. Rev. (Washington D.C.) 104, 139-174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Chuang and H. R. Verdún, "Energy-transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd-YLF crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79-91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

M. J. Weber, "Science and technology of laser glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123, 208-222 (1990)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater (1)

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, "Origin of the infrared to visible upconversion mechanisms in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal," Opt. Mater 27, 1704-1710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

OSA TOPS (2)

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S.A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko," Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 and 4.31 μm and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 μm," OSA TOPS 26, 441-449, 1999.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5: Dy3+," OSA TOPS 19, 524-528, 1998.

Phys. Rev. B (6)

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 64,14410111-1441018 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, and M. Bouazaoui, "Excited-state absorption in BaY2F8:Nd3+," Phys. Rev. B 4711001-11006 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, "Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19," Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+/Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 68,1651011-16510172003.
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, A. J. Garcia-Adeva, M. Voda, and J. Fernández, "Upconversion processes in Er3+-doped KPb2Cl5," Phys. Rev. B 69, 2052031-2052038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. García-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hömmerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+-doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 1651161-16511611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

F. Auzel, "Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer," Proc. IEEE 61,758-7861973.
[CrossRef]

Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem (1)

H. P. Beck, G. Clicqué, and H. Nau, "A Study on AB2X5 Compounds (A: K, In, Tl; B: Sr, Sn, Pb; X: Cl, Br, I)," Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem 536, 35-44 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. C. Wright, "Up-conversion and excited state energy transfer in rare earth doped materials," in Radiationless processes in molecules and condensed phases, F. K. Fong, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1976), pp. 239-295.

A. A. Kaminskii, in Laser Crystals, 2nd ed., D. L. MacAdam, ed. Springer series in Optical Sciences Vol. 14 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990).

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Nadolinny, V. I. Pashkov, M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, and R. Solarz, "Spectroscopic investigation of rare-earth doped chloride single crystals for telecommunication amplifiers," in Solid State Lasers VII, R. Scheps, ed, Proc. SPIE 3265, 242-249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Upconverted emission spectra by exciting at 813 and 886 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Energy level diagram of Nd3+ in KPB crystal. Visible emissions from high energy levels are indicated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Emission spectra obtained under excitation at (a) 479 nm, (b) 532 nm, (c) 592 nm, and (d) 813 nm at 295 K.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Emission spectra obtained under excitation at (a) 479 nm, (b) 532 nm, (c) 592 nm, and (d) 813 nm at 77 K.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Room temperature green emission spectra obtained under excitation at 479 (2G9/2), 532 (4G7/2), and 813 nm (4F5/2).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Excitation spectra of the upconverted emissions at 436 nm and 598 nm,. The squared ground state absorption spectrum is also included for comparison.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Excitation spectra of the upconverted emissions at 77 K.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Temporal behavior of the blue emission from 2P1/2 level obtained (a) under OP excitation at 429 nm and (b) under infrared excitation at 813 nm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Temporal behavior of the (a) orange emission monitored at 598 nm and (b) green emission monitored at 535 nm obtained under infrared excitation at 813 nm.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Energy level diagram of Nd3+ in KPB crystal obtained from the room temperature absorption spectrum and possible upconversion mechanisms. At the right hand side the lifetimes of the involved excited state levels are shown.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Room temperature upconversion emission in KPB:Nd3+ crystal obtained under excitation at 813 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Rise (τr) and decay times (τs and τl) of the green, orange, and red emissions obtained under excitation at 813 and 870 nm at 295 K and 77K.

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