Abstract

A novel combination of adaptive optics with a simultaneous en-face OCT/SLO system for high resolution imaging of the in-vivo human retina is presented. Pairs of retinal images are shown and performance of the system is evaluated with and without dynamic wavefront correction. The adaptive optics closed loop system operates at a frame rate of 9 Hz and incorporates a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based on a highly sensitive Andor camera and a 37 actuator OKO membrane deformable mirror to correct for ocular aberrations. The system produces C-scan pairs of images at a frame rate of 2 Hz. The correction of aberrations produced by the adaptive optics closed-loop system increased the signal-to-noise ratio in images obtained from volunteer eyes by up to 6 dB in the OCT channel and up to 9 dB in the SLO channel. A slight improvement in the lateral resolution was also obtained, from 6.5 μm before to 5 μm after closing the adaptive optics loop.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2005 (4)

2004 (3)

A. Gh.Podoleanu, G. M.Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, RWeitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, A. Boxer, "Combined Multiplanar Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Scanning Ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9,86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fern´andez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler "Adaptive-optics ultrahighresolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," PNAS 101,8461-8466 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, B. Baraibar "Investigating sources of variablity of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across the eye," Vision Res. 41,3861-3871 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Arag´on, D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye’s aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18,497-506 (2001)
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low-coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998)
[CrossRef]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. A. Jackson, "En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation," Opt. Lett. 23,147-149 (1998)
[CrossRef]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. A. Jackson, "Combined Optical Coherence Tomograph and Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," Electron. Lett. 34, 1088-1090 (1998)
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte. K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G Fujimoto "Optical coherence tomography,"Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

1980 (1)

Akkin, T.

Arag´on, J. L.

Artal, P.

Baraibar, B.

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, B. Baraibar "Investigating sources of variablity of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across the eye," Vision Res. 41,3861-3871 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bower, B.

Burns, S. A.

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, B. Baraibar "Investigating sources of variablity of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across the eye," Vision Res. 41,3861-3871 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, M. C. W.

Carr, S.

Carroll, J.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," PNAS 101,8461-8466 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chan, R.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte. K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G Fujimoto "Optical coherence tomography,"Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Choi, S.

Dainty, C.

Dalimier, E.

Davies, D. E. N.

de Boer, J.

Delori, F. C.

Donelly, W. J.

Donnelly, W. J.

Drexler, W.

Fercher, A. F.

Fern´andez, E. J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte. K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G Fujimoto "Optical coherence tomography,"Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gh, A.

A. Gh.Podoleanu, G. M.Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, RWeitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, A. Boxer, "Combined Multiplanar Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Scanning Ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9,86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. A. Jackson, "Noise Analysis of a Combined Optical Coherence Tomograph and a Confocal Scanning Ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 38,2116 - 2127 (1999)
[CrossRef]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low-coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998)
[CrossRef]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. A. Jackson, "En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation," Opt. Lett. 23,147-149 (1998)
[CrossRef]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. A. Jackson, "Combined Optical Coherence Tomograph and Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," Electron. Lett. 34, 1088-1090 (1998)
[CrossRef]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, "Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function," Opt. Lett. 21,1789-1971 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte. K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G Fujimoto "Optical coherence tomography,"Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herbert, T. J.

Hermann, B.

Hofer, H.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," PNAS 101,8461-8466 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Arag´on, D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye’s aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18,497-506 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte. K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G Fujimoto "Optical coherence tomography,"Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, G. W.

Hughes, G.W.

Izatt, J.

Jones, S.

Jonnal, R. S.

Joo, C.

Laut, S.

Liang, J.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte. K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G Fujimoto "Optical coherence tomography,"Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, B. Baraibar "Investigating sources of variablity of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across the eye," Vision Res. 41,3861-3871 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Mujat, M.

Navarro, R.

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, B. Baraibar "Investigating sources of variablity of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across the eye," Vision Res. 41,3861-3871 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, J.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," PNAS 101,8461-8466 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," PNAS 101,8461-8466 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S.

Park, B.

Pomerantzeff, O.

Prieto, P. M.

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, B. Baraibar "Investigating sources of variablity of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across the eye," Vision Res. 41,3861-3871 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queener, H.

Rha, J.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Sattmann, H.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte. K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G Fujimoto "Optical coherence tomography,"Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singer, B.

Stinson, W.G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte. K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G Fujimoto "Optical coherence tomography,"Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte. K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G Fujimoto "Optical coherence tomography,"Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

Webb, R. H.

Werner, J.

Williams, D. R.

Youngquist, R. C.

Zawadzki, R.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Gh. Podoleanu, D. A. Jackson, "Combined Optical Coherence Tomograph and Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," Electron. Lett. 34, 1088-1090 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

A. Gh.Podoleanu, G. M.Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, RWeitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, A. Boxer, "Combined Multiplanar Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Scanning Ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9,86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low-coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

PNAS (1)

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," PNAS 101,8461-8466 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte. K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G Fujimoto "Optical coherence tomography,"Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, P. M. Prieto, R. Navarro, B. Baraibar "Investigating sources of variablity of monochromatic and transverse chromatic aberrations across the eye," Vision Res. 41,3861-3871 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

S. A. Al-Chalabi, B. Culshaw and D. E. N. Davies, "Partially coherent sources in interferometric sensors," First International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, (1983)

P.L. Kaufman, A. Alm, "Adler’s Physiology of the Eye," Mosby (2003)

A. Gh.Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, D. A. Jackson, "OCT en-face images from the retina with adjustable depth resolution in real time," IEEE J. Sel. Top. in Quantum Electron., 5, 1176-1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Roddier, "Adaptive Optics in Astronomy," Cambridge University Press (1999)

The European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization,"Safety of Laser Products" (2003)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

AO-OCT/SLO system; SLD: Superluminescent diode; BS: beam splitter; DM: deformable mirror; BDC: Badal defocus corrector; XS: X scanner; YS: Y scanner; WS: wavefront sensor; LA: lenslet array; DC: directional coupler.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The graph on the left shows the temporal evolution of the reconstructed RMS before and immediately after the AO closed-loop system is turned on. On the right, the PSF and reconstructed wavefront without adaptive optics correction (top) and with adaptive optics correction (bottom) are shown.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Longitudinal OCT images obtained from the right eye of the volunteer (AB) before and after applying adaptive optics correction. The images are from a patch of the retina at 5 deg from the subject’s fovea in the nasal direction. On the right, the average of the grey levels performed along the x axis shows an improvement in the signal strength due to correction.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

En-face OCT and SLO images obtained from the same area of the DM’s retina, before and after applying adaptive correction. The size of the retinal patch imaged is 330×500 μm, and the pixel size is 1×1 μm. The depth selected is at the photoreceptor level.

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