Abstract

We present a physical model describing the radiance acquired by an infrared sensor over a rugged heterogeneous surface. This model predicts the radiance seen over complex landscapes like urban areas and provides an accurate analysis of the signal, as each component is available at ground and sensor level. Plus, it allows data comparison from different instruments. Two representative cases (natural and urban) are analysed to show the composition and the construction of the sensor signal and to highlight the importance of having a 3D model, especially for rugged surfaces where environment weights in the overall spectral domain.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, “AATSR: global-change and surface-temperature measurements from ENVISAT,” ESA bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265) 105, 11–21 (2001).
  2. A. Monti Guarnieri, D. Daria, C. Cafforio, P. Guccione, P. Pasquali, D. Nüetsch, D. Small, E. Meier, and Y. L. Desnos, “ENVISAT interferometry for mapping and monitoring: preliminary results,” inProceedings of the FRINGE 2003 workshop (ESA SP - 550), ESA /ESRIN, Italy, 1-5 December 2003.
  3. J. Okkonen, T. Hyvarinen, and E. Herrala, “AISA Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-on its way from hyperspectral research to operative use,” in International airborne remote sensing conference and exhibition - Development, integration, applications and operations, 3rd, Copenhagen, Denmark,1997; United States, July 7-10 1997, pp I-189- I-196.7
  4. ONERA, Timbre-Poste : http://www.onera.fr/visiononera/2005-02/faits-marquants.html#3 .
  5. K. D. Bishop and M. J. Diestel, “Airborne remote earth sensing program: an operational airborne MWIR imaging spectrometer and applications,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Applications, S. S. Shen, ed., Proc. SPIE2821, 183–194 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. A Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Thermal remote sensing of urban climates,” Remote Sens. Environ. 86, 370–384 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, J. Salmond, J. P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. R. Oke, and C. Lac, “The canopy and aerosol particles interaction in Toulouse urban layer (CAPITOUL) experiment: first results,” in Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment, AMS, 2004.
  8. J. P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J. M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airborne experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas : case study of Marseille (France),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 93, 443–462 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “Modtran4,” (1999).
  10. C. Miesch, L. Poutier, V. Achard, X. Briottet, X. Lenot, and Y. Boucher, “Direct and inverse radiative transfer solutions for visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 1552–1562 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. P. Guillevic, “Modélisation des bilans radiatifs et énergétiques des couverts végétaux,” M. S. thesis (P. Sabatier University, 1999).
  12. NASA/JHU, ASTER thermo-optical database, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ .
  13. A. Malaplate, F. Nerry, M. P. Stoll, B. Guillame, and X. Briottet, “Combined field [3–5μm] and [8–14μm] infrared imaging: approaches to extracting target’s bi-directional reflectivity and emissivity,”.in 8st Inter. Symposium on remote sensing, SPIE-EOS-NASA-CNES, Sept. 17–21, Toulouse, France 2001.

2005 (1)

C. Miesch, L. Poutier, V. Achard, X. Briottet, X. Lenot, and Y. Boucher, “Direct and inverse radiative transfer solutions for visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 1552–1562 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J. M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airborne experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas : case study of Marseille (France),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 93, 443–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. A Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Thermal remote sensing of urban climates,” Remote Sens. Environ. 86, 370–384 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, “AATSR: global-change and surface-temperature measurements from ENVISAT,” ESA bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265) 105, 11–21 (2001).

A. Malaplate, F. Nerry, M. P. Stoll, B. Guillame, and X. Briottet, “Combined field [3–5μm] and [8–14μm] infrared imaging: approaches to extracting target’s bi-directional reflectivity and emissivity,”.in 8st Inter. Symposium on remote sensing, SPIE-EOS-NASA-CNES, Sept. 17–21, Toulouse, France 2001.

Achard, V.

C. Miesch, L. Poutier, V. Achard, X. Briottet, X. Lenot, and Y. Boucher, “Direct and inverse radiative transfer solutions for visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 1552–1562 (2005).
[Crossref]

Acharya, P. K.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “Modtran4,” (1999).

Adler-Golden, S. M.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “Modtran4,” (1999).

Anderson, G. P.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “Modtran4,” (1999).

Barton, I. J.

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, “AATSR: global-change and surface-temperature measurements from ENVISAT,” ESA bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265) 105, 11–21 (2001).

Berk, A.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “Modtran4,” (1999).

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “Modtran4,” (1999).

Birks, A. R.

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, “AATSR: global-change and surface-temperature measurements from ENVISAT,” ESA bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265) 105, 11–21 (2001).

Bishop, K. D.

K. D. Bishop and M. J. Diestel, “Airborne remote earth sensing program: an operational airborne MWIR imaging spectrometer and applications,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Applications, S. S. Shen, ed., Proc. SPIE2821, 183–194 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bonnefond, J. M.

J. P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J. M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airborne experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas : case study of Marseille (France),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 93, 443–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boucher, Y.

C. Miesch, L. Poutier, V. Achard, X. Briottet, X. Lenot, and Y. Boucher, “Direct and inverse radiative transfer solutions for visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 1552–1562 (2005).
[Crossref]

Briottet, X.

C. Miesch, L. Poutier, V. Achard, X. Briottet, X. Lenot, and Y. Boucher, “Direct and inverse radiative transfer solutions for visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 1552–1562 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Malaplate, F. Nerry, M. P. Stoll, B. Guillame, and X. Briottet, “Combined field [3–5μm] and [8–14μm] infrared imaging: approaches to extracting target’s bi-directional reflectivity and emissivity,”.in 8st Inter. Symposium on remote sensing, SPIE-EOS-NASA-CNES, Sept. 17–21, Toulouse, France 2001.

Cafforio, C.

A. Monti Guarnieri, D. Daria, C. Cafforio, P. Guccione, P. Pasquali, D. Nüetsch, D. Small, E. Meier, and Y. L. Desnos, “ENVISAT interferometry for mapping and monitoring: preliminary results,” inProceedings of the FRINGE 2003 workshop (ESA SP - 550), ESA /ESRIN, Italy, 1-5 December 2003.

Chetwynd, J. H.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “Modtran4,” (1999).

Daria, D.

A. Monti Guarnieri, D. Daria, C. Cafforio, P. Guccione, P. Pasquali, D. Nüetsch, D. Small, E. Meier, and Y. L. Desnos, “ENVISAT interferometry for mapping and monitoring: preliminary results,” inProceedings of the FRINGE 2003 workshop (ESA SP - 550), ESA /ESRIN, Italy, 1-5 December 2003.

Desnos, Y. L.

A. Monti Guarnieri, D. Daria, C. Cafforio, P. Guccione, P. Pasquali, D. Nüetsch, D. Small, E. Meier, and Y. L. Desnos, “ENVISAT interferometry for mapping and monitoring: preliminary results,” inProceedings of the FRINGE 2003 workshop (ESA SP - 550), ESA /ESRIN, Italy, 1-5 December 2003.

Diestel, M. J.

K. D. Bishop and M. J. Diestel, “Airborne remote earth sensing program: an operational airborne MWIR imaging spectrometer and applications,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Applications, S. S. Shen, ed., Proc. SPIE2821, 183–194 (1996).
[Crossref]

Durand, P.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, J. Salmond, J. P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. R. Oke, and C. Lac, “The canopy and aerosol particles interaction in Toulouse urban layer (CAPITOUL) experiment: first results,” in Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment, AMS, 2004.

Edwards, M. C.

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, “AATSR: global-change and surface-temperature measurements from ENVISAT,” ESA bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265) 105, 11–21 (2001).

Gomes, L.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, J. Salmond, J. P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. R. Oke, and C. Lac, “The canopy and aerosol particles interaction in Toulouse urban layer (CAPITOUL) experiment: first results,” in Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment, AMS, 2004.

Guccione, P.

A. Monti Guarnieri, D. Daria, C. Cafforio, P. Guccione, P. Pasquali, D. Nüetsch, D. Small, E. Meier, and Y. L. Desnos, “ENVISAT interferometry for mapping and monitoring: preliminary results,” inProceedings of the FRINGE 2003 workshop (ESA SP - 550), ESA /ESRIN, Italy, 1-5 December 2003.

Guillame, B.

A. Malaplate, F. Nerry, M. P. Stoll, B. Guillame, and X. Briottet, “Combined field [3–5μm] and [8–14μm] infrared imaging: approaches to extracting target’s bi-directional reflectivity and emissivity,”.in 8st Inter. Symposium on remote sensing, SPIE-EOS-NASA-CNES, Sept. 17–21, Toulouse, France 2001.

Guillevic, P.

P. Guillevic, “Modélisation des bilans radiatifs et énergétiques des couverts végétaux,” M. S. thesis (P. Sabatier University, 1999).

Herrala, E.

J. Okkonen, T. Hyvarinen, and E. Herrala, “AISA Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-on its way from hyperspectral research to operative use,” in International airborne remote sensing conference and exhibition - Development, integration, applications and operations, 3rd, Copenhagen, Denmark,1997; United States, July 7-10 1997, pp I-189- I-196.7

Hyvarinen, T.

J. Okkonen, T. Hyvarinen, and E. Herrala, “AISA Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-on its way from hyperspectral research to operative use,” in International airborne remote sensing conference and exhibition - Development, integration, applications and operations, 3rd, Copenhagen, Denmark,1997; United States, July 7-10 1997, pp I-189- I-196.7

Irvine, M.

J. P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J. M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airborne experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas : case study of Marseille (France),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 93, 443–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lac, C.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, J. Salmond, J. P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. R. Oke, and C. Lac, “The canopy and aerosol particles interaction in Toulouse urban layer (CAPITOUL) experiment: first results,” in Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment, AMS, 2004.

Lagouarde, J. P.

J. P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J. M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airborne experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas : case study of Marseille (France),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 93, 443–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, J. Salmond, J. P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. R. Oke, and C. Lac, “The canopy and aerosol particles interaction in Toulouse urban layer (CAPITOUL) experiment: first results,” in Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment, AMS, 2004.

Lenot, X.

C. Miesch, L. Poutier, V. Achard, X. Briottet, X. Lenot, and Y. Boucher, “Direct and inverse radiative transfer solutions for visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 1552–1562 (2005).
[Crossref]

Llewellyn-Jones, D.

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, “AATSR: global-change and surface-temperature measurements from ENVISAT,” ESA bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265) 105, 11–21 (2001).

Malaplate, A.

A. Malaplate, F. Nerry, M. P. Stoll, B. Guillame, and X. Briottet, “Combined field [3–5μm] and [8–14μm] infrared imaging: approaches to extracting target’s bi-directional reflectivity and emissivity,”.in 8st Inter. Symposium on remote sensing, SPIE-EOS-NASA-CNES, Sept. 17–21, Toulouse, France 2001.

Masson, V.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, J. Salmond, J. P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. R. Oke, and C. Lac, “The canopy and aerosol particles interaction in Toulouse urban layer (CAPITOUL) experiment: first results,” in Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment, AMS, 2004.

Matthew, M. W.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “Modtran4,” (1999).

Meier, E.

A. Monti Guarnieri, D. Daria, C. Cafforio, P. Guccione, P. Pasquali, D. Nüetsch, D. Small, E. Meier, and Y. L. Desnos, “ENVISAT interferometry for mapping and monitoring: preliminary results,” inProceedings of the FRINGE 2003 workshop (ESA SP - 550), ESA /ESRIN, Italy, 1-5 December 2003.

Miesch, C.

C. Miesch, L. Poutier, V. Achard, X. Briottet, X. Lenot, and Y. Boucher, “Direct and inverse radiative transfer solutions for visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 1552–1562 (2005).
[Crossref]

Monti Guarnieri, A.

A. Monti Guarnieri, D. Daria, C. Cafforio, P. Guccione, P. Pasquali, D. Nüetsch, D. Small, E. Meier, and Y. L. Desnos, “ENVISAT interferometry for mapping and monitoring: preliminary results,” inProceedings of the FRINGE 2003 workshop (ESA SP - 550), ESA /ESRIN, Italy, 1-5 December 2003.

Moreau, P.

J. P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J. M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airborne experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas : case study of Marseille (France),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 93, 443–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mutlow, C. T.

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, “AATSR: global-change and surface-temperature measurements from ENVISAT,” ESA bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265) 105, 11–21 (2001).

Nerry, F.

A. Malaplate, F. Nerry, M. P. Stoll, B. Guillame, and X. Briottet, “Combined field [3–5μm] and [8–14μm] infrared imaging: approaches to extracting target’s bi-directional reflectivity and emissivity,”.in 8st Inter. Symposium on remote sensing, SPIE-EOS-NASA-CNES, Sept. 17–21, Toulouse, France 2001.

Nüetsch, D.

A. Monti Guarnieri, D. Daria, C. Cafforio, P. Guccione, P. Pasquali, D. Nüetsch, D. Small, E. Meier, and Y. L. Desnos, “ENVISAT interferometry for mapping and monitoring: preliminary results,” inProceedings of the FRINGE 2003 workshop (ESA SP - 550), ESA /ESRIN, Italy, 1-5 December 2003.

Oke, T. R.

J. A Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Thermal remote sensing of urban climates,” Remote Sens. Environ. 86, 370–384 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, J. Salmond, J. P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. R. Oke, and C. Lac, “The canopy and aerosol particles interaction in Toulouse urban layer (CAPITOUL) experiment: first results,” in Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment, AMS, 2004.

Okkonen, J.

J. Okkonen, T. Hyvarinen, and E. Herrala, “AISA Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-on its way from hyperspectral research to operative use,” in International airborne remote sensing conference and exhibition - Development, integration, applications and operations, 3rd, Copenhagen, Denmark,1997; United States, July 7-10 1997, pp I-189- I-196.7

Pasquali, P.

A. Monti Guarnieri, D. Daria, C. Cafforio, P. Guccione, P. Pasquali, D. Nüetsch, D. Small, E. Meier, and Y. L. Desnos, “ENVISAT interferometry for mapping and monitoring: preliminary results,” inProceedings of the FRINGE 2003 workshop (ESA SP - 550), ESA /ESRIN, Italy, 1-5 December 2003.

Pigeon, G.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, J. Salmond, J. P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. R. Oke, and C. Lac, “The canopy and aerosol particles interaction in Toulouse urban layer (CAPITOUL) experiment: first results,” in Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment, AMS, 2004.

Poutier, L.

C. Miesch, L. Poutier, V. Achard, X. Briottet, X. Lenot, and Y. Boucher, “Direct and inverse radiative transfer solutions for visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 1552–1562 (2005).
[Crossref]

Salmond, J.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, J. Salmond, J. P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. R. Oke, and C. Lac, “The canopy and aerosol particles interaction in Toulouse urban layer (CAPITOUL) experiment: first results,” in Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment, AMS, 2004.

Shettle, E. P.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “Modtran4,” (1999).

Small, D.

A. Monti Guarnieri, D. Daria, C. Cafforio, P. Guccione, P. Pasquali, D. Nüetsch, D. Small, E. Meier, and Y. L. Desnos, “ENVISAT interferometry for mapping and monitoring: preliminary results,” inProceedings of the FRINGE 2003 workshop (ESA SP - 550), ESA /ESRIN, Italy, 1-5 December 2003.

Solliec, F.

J. P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J. M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airborne experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas : case study of Marseille (France),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 93, 443–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stoll, M. P.

A. Malaplate, F. Nerry, M. P. Stoll, B. Guillame, and X. Briottet, “Combined field [3–5μm] and [8–14μm] infrared imaging: approaches to extracting target’s bi-directional reflectivity and emissivity,”.in 8st Inter. Symposium on remote sensing, SPIE-EOS-NASA-CNES, Sept. 17–21, Toulouse, France 2001.

Tait, H.

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, “AATSR: global-change and surface-temperature measurements from ENVISAT,” ESA bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265) 105, 11–21 (2001).

Voogt, J.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, J. Salmond, J. P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. R. Oke, and C. Lac, “The canopy and aerosol particles interaction in Toulouse urban layer (CAPITOUL) experiment: first results,” in Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment, AMS, 2004.

Voogt, J. A

J. A Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Thermal remote sensing of urban climates,” Remote Sens. Environ. 86, 370–384 (2003).
[Crossref]

Voogt, J. A.

J. P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J. M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airborne experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas : case study of Marseille (France),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 93, 443–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

ESA bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265) (1)

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, “AATSR: global-change and surface-temperature measurements from ENVISAT,” ESA bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265) 105, 11–21 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

C. Miesch, L. Poutier, V. Achard, X. Briottet, X. Lenot, and Y. Boucher, “Direct and inverse radiative transfer solutions for visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 1552–1562 (2005).
[Crossref]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

J. A Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Thermal remote sensing of urban climates,” Remote Sens. Environ. 86, 370–384 (2003).
[Crossref]

Remote. Sens. Environ. (1)

J. P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J. M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airborne experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas : case study of Marseille (France),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 93, 443–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “Modtran4,” (1999).

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, J. Salmond, J. P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. R. Oke, and C. Lac, “The canopy and aerosol particles interaction in Toulouse urban layer (CAPITOUL) experiment: first results,” in Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment, AMS, 2004.

A. Monti Guarnieri, D. Daria, C. Cafforio, P. Guccione, P. Pasquali, D. Nüetsch, D. Small, E. Meier, and Y. L. Desnos, “ENVISAT interferometry for mapping and monitoring: preliminary results,” inProceedings of the FRINGE 2003 workshop (ESA SP - 550), ESA /ESRIN, Italy, 1-5 December 2003.

J. Okkonen, T. Hyvarinen, and E. Herrala, “AISA Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-on its way from hyperspectral research to operative use,” in International airborne remote sensing conference and exhibition - Development, integration, applications and operations, 3rd, Copenhagen, Denmark,1997; United States, July 7-10 1997, pp I-189- I-196.7

ONERA, Timbre-Poste : http://www.onera.fr/visiononera/2005-02/faits-marquants.html#3 .

K. D. Bishop and M. J. Diestel, “Airborne remote earth sensing program: an operational airborne MWIR imaging spectrometer and applications,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Applications, S. S. Shen, ed., Proc. SPIE2821, 183–194 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. Guillevic, “Modélisation des bilans radiatifs et énergétiques des couverts végétaux,” M. S. thesis (P. Sabatier University, 1999).

NASA/JHU, ASTER thermo-optical database, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ .

A. Malaplate, F. Nerry, M. P. Stoll, B. Guillame, and X. Briottet, “Combined field [3–5μm] and [8–14μm] infrared imaging: approaches to extracting target’s bi-directional reflectivity and emissivity,”.in 8st Inter. Symposium on remote sensing, SPIE-EOS-NASA-CNES, Sept. 17–21, Toulouse, France 2001.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Radiance seen by the sensor

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Radiance contributors at BOA level

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sky viewing solid angle

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulated cases

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) sand reflectance (sand hill case) (b) street materials reflectances (urban case)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Sensor radiance for the sand cases (flat and hill)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Relative difference between flat and rugged surfaces (hill case)

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Relative contribution of each sensor radiance component for the sand hill case

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Relative contribution of each sensor radiance component for the sand flat case

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Relative contribution of each BOA radiance component for the sand hill case

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

LBOA terms against facet location in the surface for the sand hill case at 3.9μ m

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Sensor radiance for flat and urban surfaces

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Relative difference between flat and rugged surfaces (street case)

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Relative contribution of each sensor radiance component for the urban street case

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Relative contribution of each sensor radiance component for the urban flat case

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Relative contribution of each BOA radiance component for the urban street case

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

LBOA terms against facet location in the surface for the urban street case at 3.9μm

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Absolute measure uncertainty over a sand hill case using the flat hypothesis .

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Table 2. Absolute measure uncertainty over a street case using the flat hypothesis .

Equations (20)

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L v = ∫∫ Ω IFOV [ L BOA ( P d ω ) . t Pd ω + L atm , ] d ω
L BOA ( P ) = L D ( P ) + L A ( P ) + L emis ( P ) + L env ( P )
L D ( P ) = E D ( P ) . ρ P dd ( u sun , u v ) π
E D ( P ) = E TOA . t ( u sun , P ) . n P . u sun .o ( P )
L A ( P ) = ∫∫ Ω sky L atm , ( u ; z P ) . n P . u . ρ P dd ( u , u v ) π .d ω + ∫∫ Ω sky L relief atm , ( u ; z P ) . n P . u . ρ P dd ( u , u v ) π .d ω
L emis ( P ) = ε P ( u v ) . L CN ( T P )
L env ( P ) = L D env ( P ) + L A evn ( P ) + L emis env ( P )
L D env ( P ) = ∫∫ V ( P ) ρ P dd ( u PM , u v ) π . E D ( M ) . ρ M dd ( u S , u MP ) π . t MP . g MP . dS M
L A env ( P ) = ∫∫ V ( P ) ρ P dd ( u PM , u v ) π . E atm _ diffus ( M ) π . ρ M dh ( u MP ) .t MP . g MP . dS M
L emis env ( P ) = ∫∫ V ( P ) ρ P dd ( u PM , u v ) π . ε M ( u MP ) . L CN ( T M ) . t MP . g MP . dS M
E atm _ diffus ( M ) = ∫∫ Ω sky L atm , ( u ; z M ) . n M . u .d ω + ∫∫ Ω sky ¯ L relief atm , ( u ; z M ) . n M . u .d ω
L BOA = L D ( P ) + L A ( P ) + L emis ( P )
= ( 1 ε ) E D ( P ) π + ( 1 ε ) L atm , + ε L CN ( T )
ΔL BOA = Δ [ ( 1 ε ) E D ( P ) π + ( 1 ε ) L atm , + ε L CN ( T ) ]
= Δ [ ( 1 ε ) E D ( P ) π ] + Δ [ ( 1 ε ) L atm , ] + Δ [ ε L CN ( T ) ]
= Δ ε E D ( P ) π Δ ε L atm , + Δ ε L CN ( T )
as Δ E D ( P ) π = Δ L atm , = ΔL CN ( T ) = 0 .
Then
Δ ε = ΔL BOA [ L CN ( T ) L atm , E D ( P ) π ]
ΔT = ΔL BOA ε L CN ( T ) T

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