Abstract

We report on the realisation of a few pairs dielectric Distributed Bragg Reflectors fabricated by reactive electron-beam deposition, with state-of-the-art performances, such as very high reflectance (up to about 99.4%), wide stop band (up to 160 nm) in the visible range, and smooth interfaces (roughness as low as 1.5 nm). As a demonstrator of the very high quality of the mirrors we realized a polymer-based vertical microcavity laser by an imprinting-like approach. The device exhibits laser action at 519 nm, indicating low-loss dielectric reflectors grown by electron-beam techniques as promising tools for organic solid-state lasers.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Arakawa, M. Nishioka, Y. Nagamune, and Y. Arakawa, "Fabrication of vertical-microcavity quantum wire lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2200-2202 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Liu, "Heterogeneous Integration of OE Arrays With Si Electronics and Microoptics," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packing. 25, 43-49 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Blum, M. J. Hafich, J. F. Klem, and K. L. Lear, and S. N. G. Chu, "Electrical and optical characteristics of AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflectors for surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3233-3235 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Wang, R. J. Lynch, P. J. Parbrook, R. Butté, A. Alyamani, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, and M. S. Skolnick, "High-reflectivity AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN distributed Bragg reflectors with peak wavelength around 350 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 43-45 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kako, T. Someya, and Y. Arakawa, "Observation of enhanced spontaneous emission coupling factor in nitride-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 722-724 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Bulović, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, "Transform-Limited, Narrow-linewidth Lasing Action in Organic Semiconductor Microcavities," Science 279, 553-555 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Andersson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundström, G. Björk, M. Granström, and O. Inganäs, "A polythiophene microcavity laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 879-884 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Theander, T. Granlund, D.M. Johanson, A. Ruseckas, V. Sundström, M. R. Andersson, and O. Inganäs, "Lasing in a Microcavity with an Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Polyfluorene Copolymer as Active Layer, " Adv. Mater. 13, 323-327 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Masenelli, A. Gagnaire, L. Berthelot, J. Tardy, and J. Joseph, "Controlled spontaneous emission of a tri(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum layer in a microcavity," J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3032-3037 (1999).
  10. Q. Song, L. Liu, T. Ling, L Xu and W. Wang, "Narrow-band polarized light emission from organic microcavity fabricated by sol-gel technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939-2941 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Schülzgen, Ch. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash P. and M. Allemand, "Near diffraction-limited laser emission from a polymer in a high finesse planar cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269-271 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, "Organic Electro- and Photoluminescent Microcavity Devices," Adv. Mater. 10, 167-171 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, "Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36,1850-1857 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H.-S. Lee, and J. M. Lee, "Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250°C, " J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917-921 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Y. Kim, "Simultaneous determination of refractive index, extinction coefficient, and void distribution of titanium dioxide thin film by optical methods," Appl. Opt. 35, 6703-6707 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. De Silvestri, P. Mataloni and C. Zenz, "Ultrafast light-emission processes in poly(para-phenylene)-type ladder polymer films," Phys. Rev. B 59, 11328-11332 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Frolov, M. Ozaki, W. Gellermann, K. Yoshino, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Cooperative Emission in π- conjugated Polymer Thin Films" Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 729-723 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Wang, R. J. Lynch, P. J. Parbrook, R. Butté, A. Alyamani, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, and M. S. Skolnick, "High-reflectivity AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN distributed Bragg reflectors with peak wavelength around 350 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 43-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Q. Song, L. Liu, T. Ling, L Xu and W. Wang, "Narrow-band polarized light emission from organic microcavity fabricated by sol-gel technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939-2941 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, "Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36,1850-1857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. Kako, T. Someya, and Y. Arakawa, "Observation of enhanced spontaneous emission coupling factor in nitride-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 722-724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, "Heterogeneous Integration of OE Arrays With Si Electronics and Microoptics," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packing. 25, 43-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Theander, T. Granlund, D.M. Johanson, A. Ruseckas, V. Sundström, M. R. Andersson, and O. Inganäs, "Lasing in a Microcavity with an Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Polyfluorene Copolymer as Active Layer, " Adv. Mater. 13, 323-327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H.-S. Lee, and J. M. Lee, "Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250°C, " J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917-921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. De Silvestri, P. Mataloni and C. Zenz, "Ultrafast light-emission processes in poly(para-phenylene)-type ladder polymer films," Phys. Rev. B 59, 11328-11332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Masenelli, A. Gagnaire, L. Berthelot, J. Tardy, and J. Joseph, "Controlled spontaneous emission of a tri(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum layer in a microcavity," J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3032-3037 (1999).

1998 (4)

V. Bulović, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, "Transform-Limited, Narrow-linewidth Lasing Action in Organic Semiconductor Microcavities," Science 279, 553-555 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Andersson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundström, G. Björk, M. Granström, and O. Inganäs, "A polythiophene microcavity laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 879-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Schülzgen, Ch. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash P. and M. Allemand, "Near diffraction-limited laser emission from a polymer in a high finesse planar cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269-271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, "Organic Electro- and Photoluminescent Microcavity Devices," Adv. Mater. 10, 167-171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. Frolov, M. Ozaki, W. Gellermann, K. Yoshino, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Cooperative Emission in π- conjugated Polymer Thin Films" Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 729-723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

O. Blum, M. J. Hafich, J. F. Klem, and K. L. Lear, and S. N. G. Chu, "Electrical and optical characteristics of AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflectors for surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3233-3235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Arakawa, M. Nishioka, Y. Nagamune, and Y. Arakawa, "Fabrication of vertical-microcavity quantum wire lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2200-2202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alyamani, A.

T. Wang, R. J. Lynch, P. J. Parbrook, R. Butté, A. Alyamani, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, and M. S. Skolnick, "High-reflectivity AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN distributed Bragg reflectors with peak wavelength around 350 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 43-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Andersson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundström, G. Björk, M. Granström, and O. Inganäs, "A polythiophene microcavity laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 879-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M. R.

M. Theander, T. Granlund, D.M. Johanson, A. Ruseckas, V. Sundström, M. R. Andersson, and O. Inganäs, "Lasing in a Microcavity with an Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Polyfluorene Copolymer as Active Layer, " Adv. Mater. 13, 323-327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, T.

T. Arakawa, M. Nishioka, Y. Nagamune, and Y. Arakawa, "Fabrication of vertical-microcavity quantum wire lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2200-2202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

S. Kako, T. Someya, and Y. Arakawa, "Observation of enhanced spontaneous emission coupling factor in nitride-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 722-724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Arakawa, M. Nishioka, Y. Nagamune, and Y. Arakawa, "Fabrication of vertical-microcavity quantum wire lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2200-2202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, M.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Andersson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundström, G. Björk, M. Granström, and O. Inganäs, "A polythiophene microcavity laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 879-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berthelot, L.

B. Masenelli, A. Gagnaire, L. Berthelot, J. Tardy, and J. Joseph, "Controlled spontaneous emission of a tri(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum layer in a microcavity," J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3032-3037 (1999).

Björk, G.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Andersson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundström, G. Björk, M. Granström, and O. Inganäs, "A polythiophene microcavity laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 879-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blum, O.

O. Blum, M. J. Hafich, J. F. Klem, and K. L. Lear, and S. N. G. Chu, "Electrical and optical characteristics of AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflectors for surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3233-3235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. Bulović, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, "Transform-Limited, Narrow-linewidth Lasing Action in Organic Semiconductor Microcavities," Science 279, 553-555 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butté, R.

T. Wang, R. J. Lynch, P. J. Parbrook, R. Butté, A. Alyamani, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, and M. S. Skolnick, "High-reflectivity AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN distributed Bragg reflectors with peak wavelength around 350 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 43-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. N. G.

O. Blum, M. J. Hafich, J. F. Klem, and K. L. Lear, and S. N. G. Chu, "Electrical and optical characteristics of AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflectors for surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3233-3235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. De Silvestri, P. Mataloni and C. Zenz, "Ultrafast light-emission processes in poly(para-phenylene)-type ladder polymer films," Phys. Rev. B 59, 11328-11332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dirr, S.

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, "Organic Electro- and Photoluminescent Microcavity Devices," Adv. Mater. 10, 167-171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

V. Bulović, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, "Transform-Limited, Narrow-linewidth Lasing Action in Organic Semiconductor Microcavities," Science 279, 553-555 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frolov, V.

V. Frolov, M. Ozaki, W. Gellermann, K. Yoshino, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Cooperative Emission in π- conjugated Polymer Thin Films" Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 729-723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gagnaire, A.

B. Masenelli, A. Gagnaire, L. Berthelot, J. Tardy, and J. Joseph, "Controlled spontaneous emission of a tri(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum layer in a microcavity," J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3032-3037 (1999).

Gellermann, W.

V. Frolov, M. Ozaki, W. Gellermann, K. Yoshino, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Cooperative Emission in π- conjugated Polymer Thin Films" Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 729-723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Granlund, T.

M. Theander, T. Granlund, D.M. Johanson, A. Ruseckas, V. Sundström, M. R. Andersson, and O. Inganäs, "Lasing in a Microcavity with an Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Polyfluorene Copolymer as Active Layer, " Adv. Mater. 13, 323-327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Andersson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundström, G. Björk, M. Granström, and O. Inganäs, "A polythiophene microcavity laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 879-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Granström, M.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Andersson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundström, G. Björk, M. Granström, and O. Inganäs, "A polythiophene microcavity laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 879-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hafich, M. J.

O. Blum, M. J. Hafich, J. F. Klem, and K. L. Lear, and S. N. G. Chu, "Electrical and optical characteristics of AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflectors for surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3233-3235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Im, K. Y.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H.-S. Lee, and J. M. Lee, "Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250°C, " J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917-921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inganäs, O.

M. Theander, T. Granlund, D.M. Johanson, A. Ruseckas, V. Sundström, M. R. Andersson, and O. Inganäs, "Lasing in a Microcavity with an Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Polyfluorene Copolymer as Active Layer, " Adv. Mater. 13, 323-327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Andersson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundström, G. Björk, M. Granström, and O. Inganäs, "A polythiophene microcavity laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 879-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. K.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H.-S. Lee, and J. M. Lee, "Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250°C, " J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917-921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, H-H.

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, "Organic Electro- and Photoluminescent Microcavity Devices," Adv. Mater. 10, 167-171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johanson, D.M.

M. Theander, T. Granlund, D.M. Johanson, A. Ruseckas, V. Sundström, M. R. Andersson, and O. Inganäs, "Lasing in a Microcavity with an Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Polyfluorene Copolymer as Active Layer, " Adv. Mater. 13, 323-327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, J.

B. Masenelli, A. Gagnaire, L. Berthelot, J. Tardy, and J. Joseph, "Controlled spontaneous emission of a tri(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum layer in a microcavity," J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3032-3037 (1999).

Kako, S.

S. Kako, T. Someya, and Y. Arakawa, "Observation of enhanced spontaneous emission coupling factor in nitride-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 722-724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V. B.

V. Bulović, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, "Transform-Limited, Narrow-linewidth Lasing Action in Organic Semiconductor Microcavities," Science 279, 553-555 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, G.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H.-S. Lee, and J. M. Lee, "Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250°C, " J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917-921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. B.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H.-S. Lee, and J. M. Lee, "Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250°C, " J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917-921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Y.

Kippelen, B.

A. Schülzgen, Ch. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash P. and M. Allemand, "Near diffraction-limited laser emission from a polymer in a high finesse planar cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269-271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klem, J. F.

O. Blum, M. J. Hafich, J. F. Klem, and K. L. Lear, and S. N. G. Chu, "Electrical and optical characteristics of AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflectors for surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3233-3235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, "Organic Electro- and Photoluminescent Microcavity Devices," Adv. Mater. 10, 167-171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. Bulović, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, "Transform-Limited, Narrow-linewidth Lasing Action in Organic Semiconductor Microcavities," Science 279, 553-555 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lear, K. L.

O. Blum, M. J. Hafich, J. F. Klem, and K. L. Lear, and S. N. G. Chu, "Electrical and optical characteristics of AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflectors for surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3233-3235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-S.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H.-S. Lee, and J. M. Lee, "Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250°C, " J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917-921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. M.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H.-S. Lee, and J. M. Lee, "Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250°C, " J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917-921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H.-S. Lee, and J. M. Lee, "Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250°C, " J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917-921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ling, T.

Q. Song, L. Liu, T. Ling, L Xu and W. Wang, "Narrow-band polarized light emission from organic microcavity fabricated by sol-gel technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939-2941 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Q. Song, L. Liu, T. Ling, L Xu and W. Wang, "Narrow-band polarized light emission from organic microcavity fabricated by sol-gel technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939-2941 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, "Heterogeneous Integration of OE Arrays With Si Electronics and Microoptics," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packing. 25, 43-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, R. J.

T. Wang, R. J. Lynch, P. J. Parbrook, R. Butté, A. Alyamani, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, and M. S. Skolnick, "High-reflectivity AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN distributed Bragg reflectors with peak wavelength around 350 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 43-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lyo, I. W.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H.-S. Lee, and J. M. Lee, "Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250°C, " J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917-921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masenelli, B.

B. Masenelli, A. Gagnaire, L. Berthelot, J. Tardy, and J. Joseph, "Controlled spontaneous emission of a tri(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum layer in a microcavity," J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3032-3037 (1999).

Mataloni, P.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. De Silvestri, P. Mataloni and C. Zenz, "Ultrafast light-emission processes in poly(para-phenylene)-type ladder polymer films," Phys. Rev. B 59, 11328-11332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mendes, S. B.

A. Schülzgen, Ch. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash P. and M. Allemand, "Near diffraction-limited laser emission from a polymer in a high finesse planar cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269-271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morrell, M. M.

A. Schülzgen, Ch. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash P. and M. Allemand, "Near diffraction-limited laser emission from a polymer in a high finesse planar cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269-271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nabor, M. F.

A. Schülzgen, Ch. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash P. and M. Allemand, "Near diffraction-limited laser emission from a polymer in a high finesse planar cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269-271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagamune, Y.

T. Arakawa, M. Nishioka, Y. Nagamune, and Y. Arakawa, "Fabrication of vertical-microcavity quantum wire lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2200-2202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, M.

T. Arakawa, M. Nishioka, Y. Nagamune, and Y. Arakawa, "Fabrication of vertical-microcavity quantum wire lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2200-2202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. De Silvestri, P. Mataloni and C. Zenz, "Ultrafast light-emission processes in poly(para-phenylene)-type ladder polymer films," Phys. Rev. B 59, 11328-11332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

V. Frolov, M. Ozaki, W. Gellermann, K. Yoshino, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Cooperative Emission in π- conjugated Polymer Thin Films" Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 729-723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parbrook, P. J.

T. Wang, R. J. Lynch, P. J. Parbrook, R. Butté, A. Alyamani, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, and M. S. Skolnick, "High-reflectivity AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN distributed Bragg reflectors with peak wavelength around 350 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 43-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

A. Schülzgen, Ch. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash P. and M. Allemand, "Near diffraction-limited laser emission from a polymer in a high finesse planar cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269-271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poelman, D.

D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, "Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36,1850-1857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruseckas, A.

M. Theander, T. Granlund, D.M. Johanson, A. Ruseckas, V. Sundström, M. R. Andersson, and O. Inganäs, "Lasing in a Microcavity with an Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Polyfluorene Copolymer as Active Layer, " Adv. Mater. 13, 323-327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ruzeckas, A.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Andersson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundström, G. Björk, M. Granström, and O. Inganäs, "A polythiophene microcavity laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 879-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sanvitto, D.

T. Wang, R. J. Lynch, P. J. Parbrook, R. Butté, A. Alyamani, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, and M. S. Skolnick, "High-reflectivity AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN distributed Bragg reflectors with peak wavelength around 350 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 43-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schülzgen, A.

A. Schülzgen, Ch. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash P. and M. Allemand, "Near diffraction-limited laser emission from a polymer in a high finesse planar cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269-271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Skolnick, M. S.

T. Wang, R. J. Lynch, P. J. Parbrook, R. Butté, A. Alyamani, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, and M. S. Skolnick, "High-reflectivity AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN distributed Bragg reflectors with peak wavelength around 350 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 43-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smet, P. F.

D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, "Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36,1850-1857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Someya, T.

S. Kako, T. Someya, and Y. Arakawa, "Observation of enhanced spontaneous emission coupling factor in nitride-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 722-724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q.

Q. Song, L. Liu, T. Ling, L Xu and W. Wang, "Narrow-band polarized light emission from organic microcavity fabricated by sol-gel technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939-2941 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spiegelberg, Ch.

A. Schülzgen, Ch. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash P. and M. Allemand, "Near diffraction-limited laser emission from a polymer in a high finesse planar cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269-271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. De Silvestri, P. Mataloni and C. Zenz, "Ultrafast light-emission processes in poly(para-phenylene)-type ladder polymer films," Phys. Rev. B 59, 11328-11332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sundström, V.

M. Theander, T. Granlund, D.M. Johanson, A. Ruseckas, V. Sundström, M. R. Andersson, and O. Inganäs, "Lasing in a Microcavity with an Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Polyfluorene Copolymer as Active Layer, " Adv. Mater. 13, 323-327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Andersson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundström, G. Björk, M. Granström, and O. Inganäs, "A polythiophene microcavity laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 879-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tardy, J.

B. Masenelli, A. Gagnaire, L. Berthelot, J. Tardy, and J. Joseph, "Controlled spontaneous emission of a tri(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum layer in a microcavity," J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3032-3037 (1999).

Theander, M.

M. Theander, T. Granlund, D.M. Johanson, A. Ruseckas, V. Sundström, M. R. Andersson, and O. Inganäs, "Lasing in a Microcavity with an Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Polyfluorene Copolymer as Active Layer, " Adv. Mater. 13, 323-327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Andersson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundström, G. Björk, M. Granström, and O. Inganäs, "A polythiophene microcavity laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 879-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

V. Frolov, M. Ozaki, W. Gellermann, K. Yoshino, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Cooperative Emission in π- conjugated Polymer Thin Films" Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 729-723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, R. J. Lynch, P. J. Parbrook, R. Butté, A. Alyamani, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, and M. S. Skolnick, "High-reflectivity AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN distributed Bragg reflectors with peak wavelength around 350 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 43-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

Q. Song, L. Liu, T. Ling, L Xu and W. Wang, "Narrow-band polarized light emission from organic microcavity fabricated by sol-gel technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939-2941 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whang, C. N.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H.-S. Lee, and J. M. Lee, "Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250°C, " J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917-921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Whangbo, S. W.

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H.-S. Lee, and J. M. Lee, "Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250°C, " J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917-921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D. M.

T. Wang, R. J. Lynch, P. J. Parbrook, R. Butté, A. Alyamani, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, and M. S. Skolnick, "High-reflectivity AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN distributed Bragg reflectors with peak wavelength around 350 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 43-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, S.

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, "Organic Electro- and Photoluminescent Microcavity Devices," Adv. Mater. 10, 167-171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L

Q. Song, L. Liu, T. Ling, L Xu and W. Wang, "Narrow-band polarized light emission from organic microcavity fabricated by sol-gel technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939-2941 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

V. Frolov, M. Ozaki, W. Gellermann, K. Yoshino, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Cooperative Emission in π- conjugated Polymer Thin Films" Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 729-723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zavelani-Rossi, M.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. De Silvestri, P. Mataloni and C. Zenz, "Ultrafast light-emission processes in poly(para-phenylene)-type ladder polymer films," Phys. Rev. B 59, 11328-11332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zenz, C.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. De Silvestri, P. Mataloni and C. Zenz, "Ultrafast light-emission processes in poly(para-phenylene)-type ladder polymer films," Phys. Rev. B 59, 11328-11332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. Theander, T. Granlund, D.M. Johanson, A. Ruseckas, V. Sundström, M. R. Andersson, and O. Inganäs, "Lasing in a Microcavity with an Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Polyfluorene Copolymer as Active Layer, " Adv. Mater. 13, 323-327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, "Organic Electro- and Photoluminescent Microcavity Devices," Adv. Mater. 10, 167-171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Q. Song, L. Liu, T. Ling, L Xu and W. Wang, "Narrow-band polarized light emission from organic microcavity fabricated by sol-gel technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939-2941 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Schülzgen, Ch. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash P. and M. Allemand, "Near diffraction-limited laser emission from a polymer in a high finesse planar cavity, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269-271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Arakawa, M. Nishioka, Y. Nagamune, and Y. Arakawa, "Fabrication of vertical-microcavity quantum wire lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2200-2202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Blum, M. J. Hafich, J. F. Klem, and K. L. Lear, and S. N. G. Chu, "Electrical and optical characteristics of AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflectors for surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3233-3235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, R. J. Lynch, P. J. Parbrook, R. Butté, A. Alyamani, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, and M. S. Skolnick, "High-reflectivity AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN distributed Bragg reflectors with peak wavelength around 350 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 43-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kako, T. Someya, and Y. Arakawa, "Observation of enhanced spontaneous emission coupling factor in nitride-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 722-724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Andersson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundström, G. Björk, M. Granström, and O. Inganäs, "A polythiophene microcavity laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 879-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packing. (1)

Y. Liu, "Heterogeneous Integration of OE Arrays With Si Electronics and Microoptics," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packing. 25, 43-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Masenelli, A. Gagnaire, L. Berthelot, J. Tardy, and J. Joseph, "Controlled spontaneous emission of a tri(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum layer in a microcavity," J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3032-3037 (1999).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, "Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36,1850-1857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

H. K. Jang, S. W. Whangbo, H. B. Kim, K. Y. Im, Y. S. Lee, I. W. Lyo, C. N. Whang, G. Kim, H.-S. Lee, and J. M. Lee, "Titanium oxide films on Si(100) deposited by electron-beam evaporation at 250°C, " J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 917-921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. De Silvestri, P. Mataloni and C. Zenz, "Ultrafast light-emission processes in poly(para-phenylene)-type ladder polymer films," Phys. Rev. B 59, 11328-11332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

V. Frolov, M. Ozaki, W. Gellermann, K. Yoshino, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Cooperative Emission in π- conjugated Polymer Thin Films" Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 729-723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

V. Bulović, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, "Transform-Limited, Narrow-linewidth Lasing Action in Organic Semiconductor Microcavities," Science 279, 553-555 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental VW-set-up for measuring absolute specular reflectance, in ‘reference’ position (a) and ‘measurement’ position (b). (c) Different mirrors realised by REBD, whose photonic band-gap is tuned in the visible and near infrared range. (d) Corresponding transmission spectra of the DBRs, having a stop-band centred from 425 to 850 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Three-dimensional AFM images of the electron-beam evaporated TiO2 (a) and SiO2 (b) films. (c) Cross section of the realized DBR structure. The bright and dark alternating areas correspond to the TiO2 and SiO2 regions respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectrum of the DBR mirrors. The continuous line indicates the theoretically predicted transmission, calculated by using the refractive index of TiO2 and SiO2 films determined by the optical measurements on the single layers, whereas the dots represents the experimental data.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser emission characteristic as a function of the pump excitation fluence (full circles). The solid line is a linear fit to experimental data above threshold. The inset shows PL emission spectra of the laser device measured at pumping fluences of 0.52 (dashed line) and 1.73 mJ/cm2 (continuous line), respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Typical figures of merit (number of couples, reflectance and stop band FWHM) of SiO2/TiO2 DBRs reported in recent works.

Metrics