Abstract

We report on the realization of CW diode-pumped Tm:BaY2F8 Q-switched laser at 1.93 μm. Active Q-switching was obtained by means of an intracavity Pockels cell. A functional characterization of the laser performance is presented with particular attention to output energy, pulse duration, pulse stability, and wavelength tunability. Pulses with time duration as short as 170 ns were demonstrated at the minimum repetition rate of 5 Hz with an energy of 3.2 mJ (corresponding to a peak power of 19 kW). A wavelength tunability range from 1905 nm to 1990 nm has been observed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen "Coherent laser radar at 2 µm using solid-state laser," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sens. 21, 4-15 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminium garnet," App. Phys. Lett. 7, 127-129 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, "Ho:Tm lasers I: Theoretical," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 92-103 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, "Low threshold laser-diode side-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:Ho:YAG lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 82-89 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. M. Pollak, W. F. Wing, R. J. Grasso, E. P. Chicklis, and H. P. Jenssen, "CW laser operation of Nd:YLF," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 159-163 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. E. Murray "Pulsed gain and thermal lensing of Nd:LiYF4," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 488-491 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. M. Suni and S. W. Henderson, "1-mJ/pulse Tm:YAG laser pumped by a 3-W diode laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 817-819 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Li, J. Song, D. Shen, N. S. Kim, K. Ueda, Y. Huo, S. He, and Y. Cao, "Diode-pumped high-efficiency Tm:YAG lasers," Opt. Express 4, 12 (1999)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-1-12.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, "High-peak-power operation of a Q-switched Tm3+-doped silica fiber laser operating near 2 µm," Opt. Lett. 28, 22-24 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Cornacchia, D. Parisi, C. Bernardini, A Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, "Efficient, diode-pumped Tm3+:BaY2F8 vibronic laser," Opt. Express 12, 1982 (2004)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1982.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Galzerano, F. Cornacchia, D. Parisi, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, "Widely tunable 1.94-µm Tm:BaY2F8 laser" Opt. Lett. 30, 854-856 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Koechner, Solid-state laser engineering, 5th ed. (Springer, Berlin 1999) Chap. 3, pp. 110-112.
  13. W. Koechner, Solid-state laser engineering, 5th ed (Springer, Berlin. 1999) Chap. 8, pp. 469-479.

2005

2004

2003

1999

1997

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, "Low threshold laser-diode side-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:Ho:YAG lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 82-89 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, "Ho:Tm lasers I: Theoretical," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 92-103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen "Coherent laser radar at 2 µm using solid-state laser," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sens. 21, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

1983

J. E. Murray "Pulsed gain and thermal lensing of Nd:LiYF4," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 488-491 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

T. M. Pollak, W. F. Wing, R. J. Grasso, E. P. Chicklis, and H. P. Jenssen, "CW laser operation of Nd:YLF," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 159-163 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1965

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminium garnet," App. Phys. Lett. 7, 127-129 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, "Ho:Tm lasers I: Theoretical," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 92-103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, C.

Bruns, D. L.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen "Coherent laser radar at 2 µm using solid-state laser," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sens. 21, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

Chicklis, E. P.

T. M. Pollak, W. F. Wing, R. J. Grasso, E. P. Chicklis, and H. P. Jenssen, "CW laser operation of Nd:YLF," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 159-163 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cornacchia, F.

El-Sherif, A. F.

Filer, E. D.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, "Ho:Tm lasers I: Theoretical," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 92-103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Galzerano, G.

Geusic, J. E.

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminium garnet," App. Phys. Lett. 7, 127-129 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Grasso, R. J.

T. M. Pollak, W. F. Wing, R. J. Grasso, E. P. Chicklis, and H. P. Jenssen, "CW laser operation of Nd:YLF," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 159-163 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hale, C. P.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen "Coherent laser radar at 2 µm using solid-state laser," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sens. 21, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hannon, S. M.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen "Coherent laser radar at 2 µm using solid-state laser," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sens. 21, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Henderson, S. W.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen "Coherent laser radar at 2 µm using solid-state laser," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sens. 21, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. M. Suni and S. W. Henderson, "1-mJ/pulse Tm:YAG laser pumped by a 3-W diode laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 817-819 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huo, Y.

Jenssen, H. P.

T. M. Pollak, W. F. Wing, R. J. Grasso, E. P. Chicklis, and H. P. Jenssen, "CW laser operation of Nd:YLF," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 159-163 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminium garnet," App. Phys. Lett. 7, 127-129 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. S.

King, T. A.

Laporta, P.

Lee, C. J.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, "Ho:Tm lasers I: Theoretical," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 92-103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Magee, J. R.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen "Coherent laser radar at 2 µm using solid-state laser," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sens. 21, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, C. A.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, "Ho:Tm lasers I: Theoretical," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 92-103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J. E.

J. E. Murray "Pulsed gain and thermal lensing of Nd:LiYF4," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 488-491 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Parisi, D.

Pollak, T. M.

T. M. Pollak, W. F. Wing, R. J. Grasso, E. P. Chicklis, and H. P. Jenssen, "CW laser operation of Nd:YLF," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 159-163 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rustad, G.

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, "Low threshold laser-diode side-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:Ho:YAG lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 82-89 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

Song, J.

Stenersen, K.

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, "Low threshold laser-diode side-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:Ho:YAG lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 82-89 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suni, P. J. M.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen "Coherent laser radar at 2 µm using solid-state laser," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sens. 21, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. M. Suni and S. W. Henderson, "1-mJ/pulse Tm:YAG laser pumped by a 3-W diode laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 817-819 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toncelli, A

Toncelli, A.

Tonelli, M.

Ueda, K.

Van Uitert, L. G.

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminium garnet," App. Phys. Lett. 7, 127-129 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wing, W. F.

T. M. Pollak, W. F. Wing, R. J. Grasso, E. P. Chicklis, and H. P. Jenssen, "CW laser operation of Nd:YLF," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 159-163 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, E. H.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen "Coherent laser radar at 2 µm using solid-state laser," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sens. 21, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett.

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminium garnet," App. Phys. Lett. 7, 127-129 (1965).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, "Ho:Tm lasers I: Theoretical," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 92-103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Pollak, W. F. Wing, R. J. Grasso, E. P. Chicklis, and H. P. Jenssen, "CW laser operation of Nd:YLF," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 159-163 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Murray "Pulsed gain and thermal lensing of Nd:LiYF4," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 488-491 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, "Low threshold laser-diode side-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:Ho:YAG lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 82-89 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sens.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen "Coherent laser radar at 2 µm using solid-state laser," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sens. 21, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

W. Koechner, Solid-state laser engineering, 5th ed. (Springer, Berlin 1999) Chap. 3, pp. 110-112.

W. Koechner, Solid-state laser engineering, 5th ed (Springer, Berlin. 1999) Chap. 8, pp. 469-479.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diode-pumped electrooptically Q-switched Tm:BaYF laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CW Tm:BaYF output power versus input pump power with 5% output coupling.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output energy versus pulse repetition frequency for an incident pump power of 0.7 W with 5% (open circles) and 10% (filled circles) output couplings. Open squares represent the pulse energy for an incident pump power of 2 W with 5% output coupling. Continuous and dashed lines represent the best fits to the experimental data.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pulse duration versus pulse repetition frequency for an incident pump power of 0.7 W.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Pulse train of the Q-switched Tm:BaYF laser at 200 Hz repetition frequency with 5% output coupling. (b) Oscilloscope persistence trace of the pulse temporal profile for an observation time of 1 h.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Wavelength tunability for 5% and 10% output couplings with pulse repetition frequencies of 200 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively. In both configurations the incident pump power was 0.7 W.

Equations (2)

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E = P CW τ ( n n f n n th ) [ 1 exp ( 1 f r τ ) ]
( n n f ) [ 1 exp ( 1 f r τ ) ] = n th In { n n f [ 1 exp ( 1 f r τ ) ] + exp ( 1 f r τ ) }

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