Abstract

We describe the implementation of the wavelength- and frequency-modulation spectroscopy techniques using a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a fiber-amplified diode laser. Frequency modulation of the diode laser was transferred to the OPO’s mid-infrared idler output, avoiding the need for external modulation devices. This approach thus provides a means of implementing these important techniques with powerful, widely tunable, mid-infrared sources while retaining the simple, flexible modulation properties of diode lasers.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton and J. A. Silver, "Frequency-modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies - comparison of experimental methods using a Lead-Salt Diode-Laser," Appl. Opt. 31, 718-731 (1992).
  2. F. S. Pavone and M. Inguscio, "Frequency-modulation and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies - comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs Diode-Laser," Appl. Phys. B. 56, 118-122 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  5. S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 mu m for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 141-145 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. van Herpen, S. E. Bisson, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. J. M. Harren, "Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 281-286 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M. E. Klein, P. Gross, K. J. Boller, M. Auerbach, P. Wessels and C. Fallnich, "Rapidly tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 920-922 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. L. S. Rothman et al. "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Phys. B. B32, 145-52 (1983).

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

I. D. Lindsay, B. Adhimoolam, P. Gross, M. E. Klein and K. J. Boller, "110GHz rapid, continuous tuning from an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber-amplified DBR diode laser," Opt. Express 13, 1234-1239 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 mu m for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman et al. "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. van Herpen, S. E. Bisson, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. J. M. Harren, "Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng, A. H. Kung, A. Miklos and P. Hess, "Sensitive wavelength-modulated photoacoustic spectroscopy with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1206-1208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1993 (1)

F. S. Pavone and M. Inguscio, "Frequency-modulation and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies - comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs Diode-Laser," Appl. Phys. B. 56, 118-122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1983 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Phys. B. B32, 145-52 (1983).

Adhimoolam, B.

Auerbach, M.

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Bartalini, S.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, S. E.

M. van Herpen, S. E. Bisson, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. J. M. Harren, "Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Phys. B. B32, 145-52 (1983).

Boller, K. J.

Bomse, D. S.

Borri, S.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

de Natale, P.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 mu m for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fallnich, C.

Gagliardi, G.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 mu m for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

Gross, P.

Hanson, R. K.

Harren, F. J. M.

M. van Herpen, S. E. Bisson, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. J. M. Harren, "Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, A.

Hess, P.

Inguscio, M.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Pavone and M. Inguscio, "Frequency-modulation and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies - comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs Diode-Laser," Appl. Phys. B. 56, 118-122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

Klein, M. E.

Kliner, D. A. V.

Koplow, J. P.

Kosterev, A. A.

Kung, A. H.

Lenth, W.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Phys. B. B32, 145-52 (1983).

Levenson, M. D.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Phys. B. B32, 145-52 (1983).

Li, H. J.

Lindsay, I. D.

Liu, X.

Maddaloni, P.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 mu m for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malara, P.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 mu m for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miklos, A.

Ng, J.

Ngai, A. K. Y.

M. van Herpen, S. E. Bisson, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. J. M. Harren, "Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz, C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Phys. B. B32, 145-52 (1983).

Pavone, F. S.

F. S. Pavone and M. Inguscio, "Frequency-modulation and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies - comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs Diode-Laser," Appl. Phys. B. 56, 118-122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rieker, G. B.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman et al. "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Sivco, D. L.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stafford, R.

Stanton, A. C.

Tittel, F. K.

van Herpen, M.

M. van Herpen, S. E. Bisson, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. J. M. Harren, "Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, P.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B. (5)

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Phys. B. B32, 145-52 (1983).

F. S. Pavone and M. Inguscio, "Frequency-modulation and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies - comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs Diode-Laser," Appl. Phys. B. 56, 118-122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 mu m for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. van Herpen, S. E. Bisson, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. J. M. Harren, "Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman et al. "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

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