Abstract

We propose what we believe is a novel method for enabling the complete suppression of noise due to Rayleigh scattering in sodium laser guide star systems by means of selective discrimination between Rayleigh and fluorescence signals based on polarization properties. We show that, contrary to the nearly 100% polarized Rayleigh scattering, fluorescence from the D2 sodium line is strongly depolarized under excitation by a modeless laser. This offers the possibility of completely cancelling the effects of the Rayleigh scattering background while preserving the fluorescence signal to about 40% of its maximal value, leading to an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio by several orders of magnitude. Both theoretical and experimental data confirm this new proposal.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, "Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe," Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29-L31 (1985).
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    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, "Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem," Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-682 (1992).
  4. R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).
  5. M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Dicke, "Phase-contrast detection of telescope seeing and their correction," Astron. J. 198, 605 (1975).
  7. P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Nafcha, M. Rosenbluh, P. Tremblay, and C. Jacques, "Coherence-induced population redistribution in optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3116-3124 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, "Complete electromagnetically induced transparency in sodium atoms excited by a multimode dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 69, 1-9 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. R. Contos, P. L. Wizinovitch, S. K. Hartman, D. Le Mignant, C. R. Neyman, P. J. Stomski, and D. Summers, "Laser guide star adaptive optics at the Keck Observatory," in Adaptive Optics System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinovitch and D. Bonaccini, eds, Proc. SPIE 4839, 370 (2002).
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2006 (2)

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Pique, I. Moldovan, and V. Fesquet, "Concept of the polychromatic laser guide star: direct one photon excitation of 4P3/2 level of the sodium atom," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 23 (2006), to appear.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, "Complete electromagnetically induced transparency in sodium atoms excited by a multimode dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 69, 1-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

Y. Nafcha, M. Rosenbluh, P. Tremblay, and C. Jacques, "Coherence-induced population redistribution in optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3116-3124 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (2)

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, "Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem," Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-682 (1992).

X.-K. Meng, W. R. MacGillivray, and M. C. Standage, "Line polarization of laser-excited Na D2-transition resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 45, 1767-1774 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

L. Thompson and C. Gardner, "Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory for Adaptive Optics in Astronomy," Nature 328, 229-235 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, "Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe," Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29-L31 (1985).

1982 (2)

A. T. Young, "Rayleigh scattering," Phys. Today, 42-48 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Walkup, A. L. Migdall, and D. E. Pritchard, "Frequency-dependent polarization of light scattered near the Na D2 resonance line," Phys. Rev. A 25, 3114-3120 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

H. Hamaguchi, A. D. Buckingham, and M. Kakimoto, "Depolarization of the near-resonant light scattered by atomic sodium," Opt. Lett. 5, 124-126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. H. Dicke, "Phase-contrast detection of telescope seeing and their correction," Astron. J. 198, 605 (1975).

1934 (1)

L. Larrick, "Nuclear magnetic moments from the polarization of resonance radiation sodium, 32S1/2-32P3/2,1/2," Phys. Rev. 46, 581-586 (1934).
[CrossRef]

1932 (1)

N. P. Heydenburg, L. Larrick, and A. Ellett, "Polarization of sodium resonance radiation and nuclear moment of the sodium atom," Phys. Rev. 40, 1041-1044 (1932).

1918 (1)

R. W. Wood and F. L. Mohler, "Resonance radiation of sodium vapor excited by one of the D lines," Phys. Rev. 11, 70-81 (1918), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Ageorges, N.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alzetta, G.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, "Complete electromagnetically induced transparency in sodium atoms excited by a multimode dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 69, 1-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bellanger, V.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

Bouchez, A. H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buckingham, A. D.

H. Hamaguchi, A. D. Buckingham, and M. Kakimoto, "Depolarization of the near-resonant light scattered by atomic sodium," Opt. Lett. 5, 124-126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R. D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cartaleva, S.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, "Complete electromagnetically induced transparency in sodium atoms excited by a multimode dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 69, 1-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chevrou, P.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. C. Y.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Contos, A. R.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deron, R.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dicke, R. H.

R. H. Dicke, "Phase-contrast detection of telescope seeing and their correction," Astron. J. 198, 605 (1975).

d'Orgeville, C.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Edner, H.

Ellett, A.

N. P. Heydenburg, L. Larrick, and A. Ellett, "Polarization of sodium resonance radiation and nuclear moment of the sodium atom," Phys. Rev. 40, 1041-1044 (1932).

Farinotti, S.

Faris, G. W.

Fesquet, V.

J. P. Pique, I. Moldovan, and V. Fesquet, "Concept of the polychromatic laser guide star: direct one photon excitation of 4P3/2 level of the sodium atom," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 23 (2006), to appear.
[CrossRef]

Fews, H.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foy, F.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foy, R.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, "Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe," Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29-L31 (1985).

Gardner, C.

L. Thompson and C. Gardner, "Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory for Adaptive Optics in Astronomy," Nature 328, 229-235 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gendron, E.

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, "Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem," Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-682 (1992).

Gozzini, S.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, "Complete electromagnetically induced transparency in sodium atoms excited by a multimode dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 69, 1-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grynberg, G.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

Hamaguchi, H.

H. Hamaguchi, A. D. Buckingham, and M. Kakimoto, "Depolarization of the near-resonant light scattered by atomic sodium," Opt. Lett. 5, 124-126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, S. K.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heydenburg, N. P.

N. P. Heydenburg, L. Larrick, and A. Ellett, "Polarization of sodium resonance radiation and nuclear moment of the sodium atom," Phys. Rev. 40, 1041-1044 (1932).

Högemann, C.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, C.

Y. Nafcha, M. Rosenbluh, P. Tremblay, and C. Jacques, "Coherence-induced population redistribution in optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3116-3124 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, E. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kakimoto, M.

H. Hamaguchi, A. D. Buckingham, and M. Kakimoto, "Depolarization of the near-resonant light scattered by atomic sodium," Opt. Lett. 5, 124-126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Karaulanov, T.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, "Complete electromagnetically induced transparency in sodium atoms excited by a multimode dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 69, 1-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, "Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe," Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29-L31 (1985).

Lafon, R. E.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larrick, L.

L. Larrick, "Nuclear magnetic moments from the polarization of resonance radiation sodium, 32S1/2-32P3/2,1/2," Phys. Rev. 46, 581-586 (1934).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Heydenburg, L. Larrick, and A. Ellett, "Polarization of sodium resonance radiation and nuclear moment of the sodium atom," Phys. Rev. 40, 1041-1044 (1932).

Laubscher, M.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Le Mignant, D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lucchesini, A.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, "Complete electromagnetically induced transparency in sodium atoms excited by a multimode dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 69, 1-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

MacGillivray, W. R.

X.-K. Meng, W. R. MacGillivray, and M. C. Standage, "Line polarization of laser-excited Na D2-transition resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 45, 1767-1774 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marinelli, C.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, "Complete electromagnetically induced transparency in sodium atoms excited by a multimode dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 69, 1-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCullough, P. R.

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

Meng, X.-K.

X.-K. Meng, W. R. MacGillivray, and M. C. Standage, "Line polarization of laser-excited Na D2-transition resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 45, 1767-1774 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michau, V.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Migdall, A. L.

R. Walkup, A. L. Migdall, and D. E. Pritchard, "Frequency-dependent polarization of light scattered near the Na D2 resonance line," Phys. Rev. A 25, 3114-3120 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

Mohler, F. L.

R. W. Wood and F. L. Mohler, "Resonance radiation of sodium vapor excited by one of the D lines," Phys. Rev. 11, 70-81 (1918), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Moi, L.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, "Complete electromagnetically induced transparency in sodium atoms excited by a multimode dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 69, 1-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moldovan, I.

J. P. Pique, I. Moldovan, and V. Fesquet, "Concept of the polychromatic laser guide star: direct one photon excitation of 4P3/2 level of the sodium atom," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 23 (2006), to appear.
[CrossRef]

Morris, J. R.

Muller, D.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nafcha, Y.

Y. Nafcha, M. Rosenbluh, P. Tremblay, and C. Jacques, "Coherence-induced population redistribution in optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3116-3124 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peillet, O.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petit, A.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pique, J.

Pique, J. P.

J. P. Pique, I. Moldovan, and V. Fesquet, "Concept of the polychromatic laser guide star: direct one photon excitation of 4P3/2 level of the sodium atom," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 23 (2006), to appear.
[CrossRef]

Pique, J.-P.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pritchard, D. E.

R. Walkup, A. L. Migdall, and D. E. Pritchard, "Frequency-dependent polarization of light scattered near the Na D2 resonance line," Phys. Rev. A 25, 3114-3120 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Redfern, M.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, "Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem," Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-682 (1992).

Rosenbluh, M.

Y. Nafcha, M. Rosenbluh, P. Tremblay, and C. Jacques, "Coherence-induced population redistribution in optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3116-3124 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schöck, M.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Segonds, P.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soden, R.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Standage, M. C.

X.-K. Meng, W. R. MacGillivray, and M. C. Standage, "Line polarization of laser-excited Na D2-transition resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 45, 1767-1774 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stomski, P. J.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Summers, D. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sunesson, A.

Svanberg, S.

Tallon, M.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

Thiébaut, E.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, L.

L. Thompson and C. Gardner, "Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory for Adaptive Optics in Astronomy," Nature 328, 229-235 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tokovinin, A.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tremblay, P.

Y. Nafcha, M. Rosenbluh, P. Tremblay, and C. Jacques, "Coherence-induced population redistribution in optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3116-3124 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vaillant, J.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, M. A.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walkup, R.

R. Walkup, A. L. Migdall, and D. E. Pritchard, "Frequency-dependent polarization of light scattered near the Na D2 resonance line," Phys. Rev. A 25, 3114-3120 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Weulersse, J.-M.

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wizinowich, P. L.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood and F. L. Mohler, "Resonance radiation of sodium vapor excited by one of the D lines," Phys. Rev. 11, 70-81 (1918), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Young, A. T.

A. T. Young, "Rayleigh scattering," Phys. Today, 42-48 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, "Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe," Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29-L31 (1985).

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, "Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem," Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-682 (1992).

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

R. Foy, A. Migus, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, P. R. McCullough, and M. Tallon, "The polychromatic artificial sodium star: a new concept for correcting the atmospheric tilt," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569-578 (1995).

Astron. J. (1)

R. H. Dicke, "Phase-contrast detection of telescope seeing and their correction," Astron. J. 198, 605 (1975).

J. Opt. Soc. Am A (1)

J. P. Pique, I. Moldovan, and V. Fesquet, "Concept of the polychromatic laser guide star: direct one photon excitation of 4P3/2 level of the sodium atom," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 23 (2006), to appear.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

L. Thompson and C. Gardner, "Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory for Adaptive Optics in Astronomy," Nature 328, 229-235 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

H. Hamaguchi, A. D. Buckingham, and M. Kakimoto, "Depolarization of the near-resonant light scattered by atomic sodium," Opt. Lett. 5, 124-126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (3)

R. W. Wood and F. L. Mohler, "Resonance radiation of sodium vapor excited by one of the D lines," Phys. Rev. 11, 70-81 (1918), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

N. P. Heydenburg, L. Larrick, and A. Ellett, "Polarization of sodium resonance radiation and nuclear moment of the sodium atom," Phys. Rev. 40, 1041-1044 (1932).

L. Larrick, "Nuclear magnetic moments from the polarization of resonance radiation sodium, 32S1/2-32P3/2,1/2," Phys. Rev. 46, 581-586 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

X.-K. Meng, W. R. MacGillivray, and M. C. Standage, "Line polarization of laser-excited Na D2-transition resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 45, 1767-1774 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Walkup, A. L. Migdall, and D. E. Pritchard, "Frequency-dependent polarization of light scattered near the Na D2 resonance line," Phys. Rev. A 25, 3114-3120 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nafcha, M. Rosenbluh, P. Tremblay, and C. Jacques, "Coherence-induced population redistribution in optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3116-3124 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, "Complete electromagnetically induced transparency in sodium atoms excited by a multimode dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 69, 1-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

A. T. Young, "Rayleigh scattering," Phys. Today, 42-48 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Schöck, J.-P. Pique, A. Petit, P. Chevrou, V. Michau, G. Grynberg, A. Migus, N. Ageorges, V. Bellanger, F. Biraben, R. Deron, H. Fews, F. Foy, C. Högemann, M. Laubscher, D. Muller, C. d'Orgeville, O. Peillet, M. Redfern, R. Foy, P. Segonds, R. Soden, M. Tallon, E. Thiébaut, A. Tokovinin, J. Vaillant, and J.-M. Weulersse, "ELP-OA: measuring the wavefront tilt without a natural guide star," Proc. SPIE 4125, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac (1)

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, and D. M. Summers, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac 118, 297-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

D. Bonaccini, ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (personal communication, 2006).

J. P. Pique, I. Moldovan, and V. Fesquet, "New method for atmospheric tip-tilt correction: low power UV modeless laser excitation of mesospheric sodium layer," Proc. CLEO Europe (2005).

P. Feofilov, The Physical Basis of Polarized Emission (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1961).

A. R. Contos, P. L. Wizinovitch, S. K. Hartman, D. Le Mignant, C. R. Neyman, P. J. Stomski, and D. Summers, "Laser guide star adaptive optics at the Keck Observatory," in Adaptive Optics System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinovitch and D. Bonaccini, eds, Proc. SPIE 4839, 370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Heydenburg and A. Ellett, "Nuclear moment of Na, and polarization of resonance radiation," Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., June 2 (1933).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Picture of the resonance fluorescence experiment. The 589 nm laser beam centered on the D2 line is sent into the sodium cell. Left: no analyzer is used. Right: an analyzer perpendicular to the polarization of the laser (yellow arrow) is placed in front of the camera. Note that not only Mie and Rayleigh scattering are suppressed, but also parasite reflections on the optics.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Hyperfine structure of the sodium D2 line.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Doppler broadening of the sodium D2 line for different temperatures in the mesosphere (T=173 K) and at 130°C (403 K).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Numerical results (Ilaser=104 W/m2, 50 ns, linear polarization). Top: 3S1/2 level (left), 3P3/2 level (right). Bottom: temporal shape of the laser (left), fluorescence (spontaneous photons) dynamics (right).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental setup for the determination of the polarization rate.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Fluorescence signal obtained by scanning the modeless laser line across the D1 (top) and D2 (bottom) lines at 130°C. (The horizontal axis is rescaled to set the maximum of the fluorescence curve at zero detuning). The direction of the analyzer is set parallel (blue data) or perpendicular (red data) to the polarization of the laser. The fits (dotted lines) are the convolution product of the D2 line shape at 130°C (cf. Fig. 3) by the profile of the laser line (supposed Gaussian, FWHM ~ 3 GHz). Green scatter data correspond to the polarization rate. Green curves are calculated from the dotted fit functions.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Theoretical (line) and experimental data giving the polarization rate vs. the peak power. S is the saturation parameter per velocity class. The values of the single-mode laser excitation are taken from Ref. [13].

Equations (6)

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d N F g , m F g d t = F e ( N F g , m F g q W F g , m F g F e , m F e + q
+ q N F e , m F e + q W F e , m F e + q F g , m F g + k = m F e 1 m F e + 1 N F e , k A F e , k F g , m F g )
d N F e , m F e d t = F g ( q ( N F g , m F g q W F g , m F g q F e , m F e N F e , m F e W F e , m F e F g , m F g q )
N F e , m F e k = m F g 1 m F g + 1 A F e , m F e F g , k ) ,
α ( F e , m F e ; F g , m F g ; q ) = ( 1 ) 1 + I + J e + F e + F g m Fe × 2 F g + 1 2 F e + 1 2 J e + 1
× ( F e 1 F g m Fe q m Fg ) { F e 1 F g J g I J e } .

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