Abstract

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy has been used to study the dielectric relaxation of pure 4’-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) liquid crystal (LC) and its mixtures with 10 µm SiO2 particles in the frequency range 0.2–2 THz. For the pure sample, we find that spatial inhomogeneities consisting of oriented domains, comparable in size to our probe area (~1 mm2), cause a large scatter in the measured dielectric function, due to varying contributions from the ordinary and extraordinary components. In the LC/particle mixtures, ordering of the LC at the surface of the SiO2 particles results in a break-up of these domains, giving rise to a spatially much more homogeneous dielectric response. The inferred dielectric function can be interpreted using effective medium theory and the Debye relaxation model. We observe this stabilizing effect for interparticle distances < ~30 µm, setting a lower limit for the size of oriented domains in the bulk LC.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C.-L. Pan, C.-F. Hsieh, R.-P. Pan, M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, "Control of enhanced THz transmission through metallic hole arrays using nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Express 13, 3921-3930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leys, G. Sinha, C. Glorieux, and J. Thoen, "Influence of nanosized confinements on 4-n-decyl-4’- cyanobiphenyl (10CB): A broadband dielectric study," Phys. Rev. E 71, 051709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with Terahertz Spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759 - 1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R. Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan, "Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497 - 4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB," Appl. Opt. 42, 2372-2376 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Terahertz Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7146-7159 (2002); J. Shan, F. Wang, E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the frequency-dependent conductivity in Sapphire," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 247401 (2003); E. Hendry, J. M. Schins, L. P. Candeias, L. D. A. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, "Efficiency of exciton and charge carrier photogeneration in a semiconducting Polymer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 196601 (2004); E. Hendry, F. Wang, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, "Electron transport in TiO2 probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 69, 081101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (4)

A , Kirchner, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transport properties of random arrays of dielectric cylinders," Phys. Rev. B 57, 277-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Lubensky, D. Pettey, N. Currier, and H. Stark, "Topological defects and interactions in nematic emulsions," Phys. Rev. E 57, 610 - 625 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, "Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions," Phys. Rev. E 57, 626-637 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Sinha and F. M. Aliev, "Dielectric spectroscopy of liquid crystals in smectic, nematic, and isotropic phases confined in random porous media," Phys. Rev. E 58, 2001-2010 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, "Novel Colloidal Interactions in Anisotropic Fluids, " Science 275, 1770-1773 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nose, S. Sato, K. Mizuno, J. Bae, and T. Nozokido, "Refractive index of nematic liquid crystals in the submillimeter wave region," Appl. Opt. 36, 6383-6387 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J. Coutaz, "A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz timedomain spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739 - 746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

M. Xu, P. Firman, S. Petrucci, and E. M. Eyring, "Molecular dynamics of organic carbonate solutions from 50 ps to 10 fs," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3968-3973 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Wu, C.-S. Wu, M. Warenghhem, and M. Ismaili, Opt. Eng. 32, 1775-1780 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

X. C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764-2766 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

D. Lippens, J. P. Parneix, and A. Chapoton, "Etude du 4 heptyl 4’ cyanobiphenyl a partir de l’analyse de ses proprietes dielectriques," J. de Physique 38, 1465-1471 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

B. R. Ratna and R. Shashidhar, "Dielectric properties of 4’-n-alkyl-4-cyanobiphenyls in their nematic phases," Pramana 6, 278-283 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1904 (1)

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A203, 385 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Aliev, F. M.

G. P. Sinha and F. M. Aliev, "Dielectric spectroscopy of liquid crystals in smectic, nematic, and isotropic phases confined in random porous media," Phys. Rev. E 58, 2001-2010 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bae, J.

Bakker, H. J.

Beard, M. C.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Terahertz Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7146-7159 (2002); J. Shan, F. Wang, E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the frequency-dependent conductivity in Sapphire," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 247401 (2003); E. Hendry, J. M. Schins, L. P. Candeias, L. D. A. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, "Efficiency of exciton and charge carrier photogeneration in a semiconducting Polymer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 196601 (2004); E. Hendry, F. Wang, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, "Electron transport in TiO2 probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 69, 081101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

A , Kirchner, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transport properties of random arrays of dielectric cylinders," Phys. Rev. B 57, 277-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chapoton, A.

D. Lippens, J. P. Parneix, and A. Chapoton, "Etude du 4 heptyl 4’ cyanobiphenyl a partir de l’analyse de ses proprietes dielectriques," J. de Physique 38, 1465-1471 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R. Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan, "Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497 - 4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB," Appl. Opt. 42, 2372-2376 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coutaz, J.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J. Coutaz, "A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz timedomain spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739 - 746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Currier, N.

T. C. Lubensky, D. Pettey, N. Currier, and H. Stark, "Topological defects and interactions in nematic emulsions," Phys. Rev. E 57, 610 - 625 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duvillaret, L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J. Coutaz, "A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz timedomain spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739 - 746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eyring, E. M.

M. Xu, P. Firman, S. Petrucci, and E. M. Eyring, "Molecular dynamics of organic carbonate solutions from 50 ps to 10 fs," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3968-3973 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Firman, P.

M. Xu, P. Firman, S. Petrucci, and E. M. Eyring, "Molecular dynamics of organic carbonate solutions from 50 ps to 10 fs," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3968-3973 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garet, F.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J. Coutaz, "A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz timedomain spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739 - 746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Glorieux, C.

J. Leys, G. Sinha, C. Glorieux, and J. Thoen, "Influence of nanosized confinements on 4-n-decyl-4’- cyanobiphenyl (10CB): A broadband dielectric study," Phys. Rev. E 71, 051709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

Grischkowsky, D.

Hangyo, M.

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-F.

Hunderi, O.

Ismaili, M.

S.-T. Wu, C.-S. Wu, M. Warenghhem, and M. Ismaili, Opt. Eng. 32, 1775-1780 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

X. C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764-2766 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Kirchner, A

A , Kirchner, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transport properties of random arrays of dielectric cylinders," Phys. Rev. B 57, 277-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leys, J.

J. Leys, G. Sinha, C. Glorieux, and J. Thoen, "Influence of nanosized confinements on 4-n-decyl-4’- cyanobiphenyl (10CB): A broadband dielectric study," Phys. Rev. E 71, 051709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lippens, D.

D. Lippens, J. P. Parneix, and A. Chapoton, "Etude du 4 heptyl 4’ cyanobiphenyl a partir de l’analyse de ses proprietes dielectriques," J. de Physique 38, 1465-1471 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lubensky, T. C.

T. C. Lubensky, D. Pettey, N. Currier, and H. Stark, "Topological defects and interactions in nematic emulsions," Phys. Rev. E 57, 610 - 625 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, "Novel Colloidal Interactions in Anisotropic Fluids, " Science 275, 1770-1773 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, X. F.

X. C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764-2766 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell-Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A203, 385 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

Mizuno, K.

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nienhuys, H. K.

Niklasson, G. A.

Nose, T.

Nozokido, T.

Pan, C.-L.

Pan, R.-P.

Parneix, J. P.

D. Lippens, J. P. Parneix, and A. Chapoton, "Etude du 4 heptyl 4’ cyanobiphenyl a partir de l’analyse de ses proprietes dielectriques," J. de Physique 38, 1465-1471 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Petrucci, S.

M. Xu, P. Firman, S. Petrucci, and E. M. Eyring, "Molecular dynamics of organic carbonate solutions from 50 ps to 10 fs," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3968-3973 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pettey, D.

T. C. Lubensky, D. Pettey, N. Currier, and H. Stark, "Topological defects and interactions in nematic emulsions," Phys. Rev. E 57, 610 - 625 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

Poulin, P.

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, "Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions," Phys. Rev. E 57, 626-637 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, "Novel Colloidal Interactions in Anisotropic Fluids, " Science 275, 1770-1773 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ratna, B. R.

B. R. Ratna and R. Shashidhar, "Dielectric properties of 4’-n-alkyl-4-cyanobiphenyls in their nematic phases," Pramana 6, 278-283 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with Terahertz Spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759 - 1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Terahertz Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7146-7159 (2002); J. Shan, F. Wang, E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the frequency-dependent conductivity in Sapphire," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 247401 (2003); E. Hendry, J. M. Schins, L. P. Candeias, L. D. A. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, "Efficiency of exciton and charge carrier photogeneration in a semiconducting Polymer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 196601 (2004); E. Hendry, F. Wang, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, "Electron transport in TiO2 probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 69, 081101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shashidhar, R.

B. R. Ratna and R. Shashidhar, "Dielectric properties of 4’-n-alkyl-4-cyanobiphenyls in their nematic phases," Pramana 6, 278-283 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, G.

J. Leys, G. Sinha, C. Glorieux, and J. Thoen, "Influence of nanosized confinements on 4-n-decyl-4’- cyanobiphenyl (10CB): A broadband dielectric study," Phys. Rev. E 71, 051709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, G. P.

G. P. Sinha and F. M. Aliev, "Dielectric spectroscopy of liquid crystals in smectic, nematic, and isotropic phases confined in random porous media," Phys. Rev. E 58, 2001-2010 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

A , Kirchner, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transport properties of random arrays of dielectric cylinders," Phys. Rev. B 57, 277-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stark, H.

T. C. Lubensky, D. Pettey, N. Currier, and H. Stark, "Topological defects and interactions in nematic emulsions," Phys. Rev. E 57, 610 - 625 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, "Novel Colloidal Interactions in Anisotropic Fluids, " Science 275, 1770-1773 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, M.

Tani, M.

Thoen, J.

J. Leys, G. Sinha, C. Glorieux, and J. Thoen, "Influence of nanosized confinements on 4-n-decyl-4’- cyanobiphenyl (10CB): A broadband dielectric study," Phys. Rev. E 71, 051709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T.-R.

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB," Appl. Opt. 42, 2372-2376 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R. Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan, "Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497 - 4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G. M.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Terahertz Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7146-7159 (2002); J. Shan, F. Wang, E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the frequency-dependent conductivity in Sapphire," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 247401 (2003); E. Hendry, J. M. Schins, L. P. Candeias, L. D. A. Siebbeles, and M. Bonn, "Efficiency of exciton and charge carrier photogeneration in a semiconducting Polymer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 196601 (2004); E. Hendry, F. Wang, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, "Electron transport in TiO2 probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 69, 081101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M. P.

Warenghhem, M.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Chemical structure of 5CB.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)THz waveforms transmitted through the cuvette with and without the uniaxially oriented 5CB layer under a magnetic field, Etrans (t) and Eref (t), and ε′(ω) and ε″(ω) deduced from the obtained THz waveforms with θ=90δ. (b)Extracted ε′(ω) as a function of the rotation angle θ of a magnetic field. Solid lines are fits described in the text.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Extracted dielectric functions, the real ε′(ω) and imaginary ε′(ω) parts, of the LC colloids as a function of SiO2 particle volume fraction.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dielectric functions, the real ε m (ω) and imaginary ε m (ω) parts, of the 5CB media εm extracted using (a)Maxwell-Garnett and (b)Bruggeman theories as a function of SiO2 particle volume fraction.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Deduced dielectric functions, the real ε′(ω) and imaginary ε′(ω) parts, of the average εmave , extraordinary εme and ordinary εmo components of 5CB. Solid lines are fits to the deduced dielectric functions by a Debye expression. The dotted line represents ε o , deduced from the measurement under a magnetic field shown in Fig. 2(b).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E trans ( ω ) = t 12 t 23 exp ( i ε 2 ω d c ) E ( ω ) ,
Δ E ( ω ) E ref ( ω ) = E trans ( ω ) E ref ( ω ) E ref ( ω )
= t 12 t 23 exp ( i ε 2 ω d c ) t 1 air t air 3 exp ( i ω d c ) 1 .
ε ε m ε + 2 ε m = s ε p ε m ε p + 2 ε m ,
ε ( ω ) = ε + ε 0 ε int 1 i ω τ 1 + ε int ε 1 i ω τ 2 ,

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