Abstract

An electrically pumped light source on silicon is a key element needed for photonic integrated circuits on silicon. Here we report an electrically pumped AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser architecture where the laser cavity is defined solely by the silicon waveguide and needs no critical alignment to the III-V active material during fabrication via wafer bonding. This laser runs continuous-wave (c.w.) with a threshold of 65 mA, a maximum output power of 1.8 mW with a differential quantum efficiency of 12.7 % and a maximum operating temperature of 40 °C. This approach allows for 100’s of lasers to be fabricated in one bonding step, making it suitable for high volume, low-cost, integration. By varying the silicon waveguide dimensions and the composition of the III-V layer, this architecture can be extended to fabricate other active devices on silicon such as optical amplifiers, modulators and photo-detectors.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. T. Reed, “The optical age of silicon,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
  2. G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction, (John Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, eds., Silicon Photonics, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004).
  4. D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312–1317 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. S. Jacobsen, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Rong, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12, 5269 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Espinola, J. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. Vlasov, “Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 3713–3718 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. Xu, “Optical gain & stimulated emission in periodic nanopatterned crystalline silicon,” Nature Materials 4, 887 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Irrera, et al., “Electroluminescence properties of light emitting devices based on silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 395–399 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Gelloz and N. Koshida, “Electroluminescence with high and stable quantum efficiency and low threshold voltage from anodically oxidized thin porous silicon diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4319–4324 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Lombardo, “A Room-temperature luminescence from Er3+-implanted semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1942–1944 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Kato and Y. Tohmori, “PLC hybrid integration technology and its application to photonic components,” IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron 6, 4–13 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. L. Friedrich, M. G. Oberg, B. Broberg, S. Nilsson, and S. Valette, “Hybrid integration of Semiconductor Lasers with Si-based single-mode ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 336–340 (1992)
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Sasaki, M. Itoh, .T. Tamanuki, H. Hatakeyama, S. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, and T. Kato, “Multiple-chip precise self-aligned assembly for hybrid integrated optical modules using Au-Sn solder bumps,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging 24, 569–575 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Monat, et al., “InP membrane-based microlasers on silicon wafer: microdisks vs. photonic crystal cavities,” Conference Proceedings to the 2001Internation Conference on Indium Phosphide Materials FA24, 603–606 (2001)
  19. S. Mino et al. “Planar lightwave circuit platform with coplanar waveguide for opto-electronic hybrid integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2320 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. T. Hattori, “Heterogeneous integration of Microdisk lasers on silicon strip Waveguides for Optical Interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 223–225 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Park, H., A. W. Fang, S. Kodama, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon evanescent laser fabricated with a silicon waveguide and III–V offset quantum wells,” Opt. Express 13, 9460–9464 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Karim, et al. “Super lattice barrier 1528-nm vertical-cavity laser with 85oC continuous-wave operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1438, (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Pasquariello, et al. “Plasma-Assisted InP-to-Si Low Temperature Wafer Bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 118, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Electrical isolation of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 89– 10, 5343–5347 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. W. Hakki and T. L. Paoli, “CW degradation at 300K of GaAs double-heterostructure junction lasers-II: Electronic gain,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4113–4119 (1973)
    [CrossRef]
  26. N. Margalit, “High-temperature long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of California Santa Barbara, (1998).
  27. R. Ramaswamy and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical networks: a practical perspective, (Academic Press, San Francisco, 2002).
  28. J. H. Marsh and A. C. Bryce, “Fabrication of photonic integrated circuits using quantum well intermixing,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 24, 272–278, (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Geske, V. Jayaraman, Y. L. Okuno, and J. E. Bowers, “Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1760–2, (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. S. Jacobsen, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Hattori, “Heterogeneous integration of Microdisk lasers on silicon strip Waveguides for Optical Interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 223–225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

H. Park, H., A. W. Fang, S. Kodama, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon evanescent laser fabricated with a silicon waveguide and III–V offset quantum wells,” Opt. Express 13, 9460–9464 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. Xu, “Optical gain & stimulated emission in periodic nanopatterned crystalline silicon,” Nature Materials 4, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12, 5269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Espinola, J. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. Vlasov, “Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 3713–3718 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, “The optical age of silicon,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).

2003 (1)

A. Irrera, et al., “Electroluminescence properties of light emitting devices based on silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 395–399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Pasquariello, et al. “Plasma-Assisted InP-to-Si Low Temperature Wafer Bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 118, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Electrical isolation of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 89– 10, 5343–5347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geske, V. Jayaraman, Y. L. Okuno, and J. E. Bowers, “Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1760–2, (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Sasaki, M. Itoh, .T. Tamanuki, H. Hatakeyama, S. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, and T. Kato, “Multiple-chip precise self-aligned assembly for hybrid integrated optical modules using Au-Sn solder bumps,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging 24, 569–575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

A. Karim, et al. “Super lattice barrier 1528-nm vertical-cavity laser with 85oC continuous-wave operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1438, (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Gelloz and N. Koshida, “Electroluminescence with high and stable quantum efficiency and low threshold voltage from anodically oxidized thin porous silicon diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4319–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kato and Y. Tohmori, “PLC hybrid integration technology and its application to photonic components,” IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron 6, 4–13 (2000)
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

S. Mino et al. “Planar lightwave circuit platform with coplanar waveguide for opto-electronic hybrid integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. H. Marsh and A. C. Bryce, “Fabrication of photonic integrated circuits using quantum well intermixing,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 24, 272–278, (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Lombardo, “A Room-temperature luminescence from Er3+-implanted semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1942–1944 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. L. Friedrich, M. G. Oberg, B. Broberg, S. Nilsson, and S. Valette, “Hybrid integration of Semiconductor Lasers with Si-based single-mode ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 336–340 (1992)
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

B. W. Hakki and T. L. Paoli, “CW degradation at 300K of GaAs double-heterostructure junction lasers-II: Electronic gain,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4113–4119 (1973)
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudinov, H.

H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Electrical isolation of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 89– 10, 5343–5347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Boyraz, O.

Broberg, B.

E. L. Friedrich, M. G. Oberg, B. Broberg, S. Nilsson, and S. Valette, “Hybrid integration of Semiconductor Lasers with Si-based single-mode ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 336–340 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Bryce, A. C.

J. H. Marsh and A. C. Bryce, “Fabrication of photonic integrated circuits using quantum well intermixing,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 24, 272–278, (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cloutier, S. G.

S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. Xu, “Optical gain & stimulated emission in periodic nanopatterned crystalline silicon,” Nature Materials 4, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dadap, J.

Dal Negro, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Espinola, R.

Fang, H., A. W.

Franzò, G.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedrich, E. L.

E. L. Friedrich, M. G. Oberg, B. Broberg, S. Nilsson, and S. Valette, “Hybrid integration of Semiconductor Lasers with Si-based single-mode ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 336–340 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Gelloz, B.

B. Gelloz and N. Koshida, “Electroluminescence with high and stable quantum efficiency and low threshold voltage from anodically oxidized thin porous silicon diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4319–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geske, J.

J. Geske, V. Jayaraman, Y. L. Okuno, and J. E. Bowers, “Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1760–2, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hakki, B. W.

B. W. Hakki and T. L. Paoli, “CW degradation at 300K of GaAs double-heterostructure junction lasers-II: Electronic gain,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4113–4119 (1973)
[CrossRef]

Hatakeyama, H.

J. Sasaki, M. Itoh, .T. Tamanuki, H. Hatakeyama, S. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, and T. Kato, “Multiple-chip precise self-aligned assembly for hybrid integrated optical modules using Au-Sn solder bumps,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging 24, 569–575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, H. T.

H. T. Hattori, “Heterogeneous integration of Microdisk lasers on silicon strip Waveguides for Optical Interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 223–225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Irrera, A.

A. Irrera, et al., “Electroluminescence properties of light emitting devices based on silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 395–399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

J. Sasaki, M. Itoh, .T. Tamanuki, H. Hatakeyama, S. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, and T. Kato, “Multiple-chip precise self-aligned assembly for hybrid integrated optical modules using Au-Sn solder bumps,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging 24, 569–575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jagadish, C.

H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Electrical isolation of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 89– 10, 5343–5347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Jayaraman, V.

J. Geske, V. Jayaraman, Y. L. Okuno, and J. E. Bowers, “Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1760–2, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karim, A.

A. Karim, et al. “Super lattice barrier 1528-nm vertical-cavity laser with 85oC continuous-wave operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1438, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

K. Kato and Y. Tohmori, “PLC hybrid integration technology and its application to photonic components,” IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron 6, 4–13 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

J. Sasaki, M. Itoh, .T. Tamanuki, H. Hatakeyama, S. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, and T. Kato, “Multiple-chip precise self-aligned assembly for hybrid integrated optical modules using Au-Sn solder bumps,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging 24, 569–575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, S.

J. Sasaki, M. Itoh, .T. Tamanuki, H. Hatakeyama, S. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, and T. Kato, “Multiple-chip precise self-aligned assembly for hybrid integrated optical modules using Au-Sn solder bumps,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging 24, 569–575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction, (John Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, S.

Koshida, N.

B. Gelloz and N. Koshida, “Electroluminescence with high and stable quantum efficiency and low threshold voltage from anodically oxidized thin porous silicon diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4319–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kossyrev, P. A.

S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. Xu, “Optical gain & stimulated emission in periodic nanopatterned crystalline silicon,” Nature Materials 4, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lombardo, S.

S. Lombardo, “A Room-temperature luminescence from Er3+-implanted semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1942–1944 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Margalit, N.

N. Margalit, “High-temperature long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of California Santa Barbara, (1998).

Marsh, J. H.

J. H. Marsh and A. C. Bryce, “Fabrication of photonic integrated circuits using quantum well intermixing,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 24, 272–278, (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, C.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNab, S.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mino, S.

S. Mino et al. “Planar lightwave circuit platform with coplanar waveguide for opto-electronic hybrid integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

C. Monat, et al., “InP membrane-based microlasers on silicon wafer: microdisks vs. photonic crystal cavities,” Conference Proceedings to the 2001Internation Conference on Indium Phosphide Materials FA24, 603–606 (2001)

Nilsson, S.

E. L. Friedrich, M. G. Oberg, B. Broberg, S. Nilsson, and S. Valette, “Hybrid integration of Semiconductor Lasers with Si-based single-mode ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 336–340 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Oberg, M. G.

E. L. Friedrich, M. G. Oberg, B. Broberg, S. Nilsson, and S. Valette, “Hybrid integration of Semiconductor Lasers with Si-based single-mode ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 336–340 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Okuno, Y. L.

J. Geske, V. Jayaraman, Y. L. Okuno, and J. E. Bowers, “Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1760–2, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R.

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paoli, T. L.

B. W. Hakki and T. L. Paoli, “CW degradation at 300K of GaAs double-heterostructure junction lasers-II: Electronic gain,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4113–4119 (1973)
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

Pasquariello, D.

D. Pasquariello, et al. “Plasma-Assisted InP-to-Si Low Temperature Wafer Bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 118, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priolo, F.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramaswamy, R.

R. Ramaswamy and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical networks: a practical perspective, (Academic Press, San Francisco, 2002).

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, “The optical age of silicon,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction, (John Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, J.

J. Sasaki, M. Itoh, .T. Tamanuki, H. Hatakeyama, S. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, and T. Kato, “Multiple-chip precise self-aligned assembly for hybrid integrated optical modules using Au-Sn solder bumps,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging 24, 569–575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, T.

J. Sasaki, M. Itoh, .T. Tamanuki, H. Hatakeyama, S. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, and T. Kato, “Multiple-chip precise self-aligned assembly for hybrid integrated optical modules using Au-Sn solder bumps,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging 24, 569–575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswamy and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical networks: a practical perspective, (Academic Press, San Francisco, 2002).

Tamanuki, .T.

J. Sasaki, M. Itoh, .T. Tamanuki, H. Hatakeyama, S. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, and T. Kato, “Multiple-chip precise self-aligned assembly for hybrid integrated optical modules using Au-Sn solder bumps,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging 24, 569–575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. H.

H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Electrical isolation of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 89– 10, 5343–5347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tohmori, Y.

K. Kato and Y. Tohmori, “PLC hybrid integration technology and its application to photonic components,” IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron 6, 4–13 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Valette, S.

E. L. Friedrich, M. G. Oberg, B. Broberg, S. Nilsson, and S. Valette, “Hybrid integration of Semiconductor Lasers with Si-based single-mode ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 336–340 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

Xu, J.

S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. Xu, “Optical gain & stimulated emission in periodic nanopatterned crystalline silicon,” Nature Materials 4, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Lombardo, “A Room-temperature luminescence from Er3+-implanted semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1942–1944 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geske, V. Jayaraman, Y. L. Okuno, and J. E. Bowers, “Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1760–2, (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Pasquariello, et al. “Plasma-Assisted InP-to-Si Low Temperature Wafer Bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 118, (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron (1)

K. Kato and Y. Tohmori, “PLC hybrid integration technology and its application to photonic components,” IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron 6, 4–13 (2000)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. T. Hattori, “Heterogeneous integration of Microdisk lasers on silicon strip Waveguides for Optical Interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 223–225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Karim, et al. “Super lattice barrier 1528-nm vertical-cavity laser with 85oC continuous-wave operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1438, (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging (1)

J. Sasaki, M. Itoh, .T. Tamanuki, H. Hatakeyama, S. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, and T. Kato, “Multiple-chip precise self-aligned assembly for hybrid integrated optical modules using Au-Sn solder bumps,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging 24, 569–575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

B. Gelloz and N. Koshida, “Electroluminescence with high and stable quantum efficiency and low threshold voltage from anodically oxidized thin porous silicon diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4319–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Electrical isolation of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 89– 10, 5343–5347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Hakki and T. L. Paoli, “CW degradation at 300K of GaAs double-heterostructure junction lasers-II: Electronic gain,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4113–4119 (1973)
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. Mino et al. “Planar lightwave circuit platform with coplanar waveguide for opto-electronic hybrid integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Friedrich, M. G. Oberg, B. Broberg, S. Nilsson, and S. Valette, “Hybrid integration of Semiconductor Lasers with Si-based single-mode ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 336–340 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

J. H. Marsh and A. C. Bryce, “Fabrication of photonic integrated circuits using quantum well intermixing,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 24, 272–278, (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nature (5)

R. S. Jacobsen, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic drawing of the hybrid laser structure with the optical mode superimposed (b) A scanning electron microscope cross sectional image of a fabricated hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic drawing of an integrated silicon transmitter photonic chip showing multiple evanescent lasers fabricated on a silicon chip, all self aligned to silicon modulators and multiplexed to a single output.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The single sided fiber coupled laser output as a function of drive current for various operating temperatures.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The hybrid laser spectrum taken slightly above threshold (70 mA) and well above threshold (100 mA). The y-axis is on a logarithmic scale.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

An infrared image taken from one of the polished facets showing seven c.w. silicon evanescent lasers operating simultaneously.

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