Abstract

The symmetry of metal nanostructures may be broken by their overall features or small-scale defects. To separate the roles of these two mechanisms in chiral symmetry breaking, we prepare gold nanostructures with chirality occurring on different levels. Linear optical measurements reveal small chiral signatures, whereas the chiral responses from second-harmonic generation are enormous. The responses of all structures are remarkably similar, suggesting that uncontrollable defects play an important role in symmetry breaking.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11421”432 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4957–961 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Atay, J.-H. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Strongly interacting plasmon nanoparticle pairs: from dipole-dipole interaction to conductively coupled regime,” Nano Lett. 4, 1627–1631 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Spectrally coded optical data storage by metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 25, 563–565 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668–677 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Polarization effects in the linear and nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 110–117 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, “Coherent control of femtosecond energy localization in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183109 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Linear and nonlinear optical responses influenced by broken symmetry in an array of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 12, 5418–5423 (2004), http://oe.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=81638.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “SHG studies of plasmon dephasing in nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 419–423 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, “Surface second-harmonic generation from chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 1425–1434 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, and A. Persoons, “Chirality in surface nonlinear optics,” Opt. Mater. 9, 286–294 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce giant enhancements in electromagnetic fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 62–67 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (5)

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Polarization effects in the linear and nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 110–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce giant enhancements in electromagnetic fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Linear and nonlinear optical responses influenced by broken symmetry in an array of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 12, 5418–5423 (2004), http://oe.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=81638.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Atay, J.-H. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Strongly interacting plasmon nanoparticle pairs: from dipole-dipole interaction to conductively coupled regime,” Nano Lett. 4, 1627–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, and P. Gadenne, “Local second-harmonic generation enhancement on gold nanostructures probed by two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 28, 713–715 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, “Coherent control of femtosecond energy localization in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11421”432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “SHG studies of plasmon dephasing in nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 419–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, and A. Persoons, “Chirality in surface nonlinear optics,” Opt. Mater. 9, 286–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical dichroism of lithographically designed silver nanoparticle films,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1099–1101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and V. A. Markel, “Small-particle composites. II. Nonlinear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2437–2449 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, “Surface second-harmonic generation from chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 1425–1434 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. G. Craighead and G. A. Niklasson, “Characterization and optical properties of arrays of small gold particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1134–1136 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Anceau, C.

Armstrong, R. L.

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Atay, T.

T. Atay, J.-H. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Strongly interacting plasmon nanoparticle pairs: from dipole-dipole interaction to conductively coupled regime,” Nano Lett. 4, 1627–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

Bagnall, D. M.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, “Coherent control of femtosecond energy localization in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brasselet, S.

Canfield, B. K.

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Polarization effects in the linear and nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 110–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Linear and nonlinear optical responses influenced by broken symmetry in an array of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 12, 5418–5423 (2004), http://oe.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=81638.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coles, H. J.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

H. G. Craighead and G. A. Niklasson, “Characterization and optical properties of arrays of small gold particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1134–1136 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elshocht, S. V.

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, and A. Persoons, “Chirality in surface nonlinear optics,” Opt. Mater. 9, 286–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faleev, S. V.

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, “Coherent control of femtosecond energy localization in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gadenne, P.

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gotschy, W.

Ino, Y.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jefimovs, K.

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Polarization effects in the linear and nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 110–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Linear and nonlinear optical responses influenced by broken symmetry in an array of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 12, 5418–5423 (2004), http://oe.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=81638.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11421”432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Polarization effects in the linear and nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 110–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Linear and nonlinear optical responses influenced by broken symmetry in an array of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 12, 5418–5423 (2004), http://oe.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=81638.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11421”432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, and A. Persoons, “Chirality in surface nonlinear optics,” Opt. Mater. 9, 286–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, “Surface second-harmonic generation from chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 1425–1434 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

Kujala, S.

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Polarization effects in the linear and nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 110–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Linear and nonlinear optical responses influenced by broken symmetry in an array of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 12, 5418–5423 (2004), http://oe.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=81638.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamprecht, B.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Spectrally coded optical data storage by metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 25, 563–565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “SHG studies of plasmon dephasing in nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 419–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maki, J. J.

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, “Surface second-harmonic generation from chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 1425–1434 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Markel, V. A.

V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and V. A. Markel, “Small-particle composites. II. Nonlinear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2437–2449 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Niklasson, G. A.

H. G. Craighead and G. A. Niklasson, “Characterization and optical properties of arrays of small gold particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1134–1136 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A. V.

T. Atay, J.-H. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Strongly interacting plasmon nanoparticle pairs: from dipole-dipole interaction to conductively coupled regime,” Nano Lett. 4, 1627–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Papakostas, A.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penninkhof, J. J.

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, and A. Persoons, “Chirality in surface nonlinear optics,” Opt. Mater. 9, 286–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, “Surface second-harmonic generation from chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 1425–1434 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poliakov, E. Y.

V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and V. A. Markel, “Small-particle composites. II. Nonlinear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2437–2449 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Potts, A.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, N.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce giant enhancements in electromagnetic fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and V. A. Markel, “Small-particle composites. II. Nonlinear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2437–2449 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-H.

T. Atay, J.-H. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Strongly interacting plasmon nanoparticle pairs: from dipole-dipole interaction to conductively coupled regime,” Nano Lett. 4, 1627–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stechel, E. B.

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, “Coherent control of femtosecond energy localization in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaramurthy, A.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Svirko, Y.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tuovinen, H.

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11421”432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Polarization effects in the linear and nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 110–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Linear and nonlinear optical responses influenced by broken symmetry in an array of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 12, 5418–5423 (2004), http://oe.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=81638.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11421”432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vahimaa, P.

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11421”432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vallius, T.

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Polarization effects in the linear and nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 110–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11421”432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Verbiest, T.

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, and A. Persoons, “Chirality in surface nonlinear optics,” Opt. Mater. 9, 286–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vonmetz, K.

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, S.

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce giant enhancements in electromagnetic fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “SHG studies of plasmon dephasing in nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 419–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Craighead and G. A. Niklasson, “Characterization and optical properties of arrays of small gold particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1134–1136 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce giant enhancements in electromagnetic fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11421”432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Polarization effects in the linear and nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 110–117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Atay, J.-H. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Strongly interacting plasmon nanoparticle pairs: from dipole-dipole interaction to conductively coupled regime,” Nano Lett. 4, 1627–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, and A. Persoons, “Chirality in surface nonlinear optics,” Opt. Mater. 9, 286–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and V. A. Markel, “Small-particle composites. II. Nonlinear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2437–2449 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, “Surface second-harmonic generation from chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 1425–1434 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, “Coherent control of femtosecond energy localization in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical manifestations of planar chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM image of nanoparticles exhibiting defects within individual particles.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Nanoparticle array designs and extinction spectra. (a) S1: achiral array of achiral particles; S2: achiral array of chiral particles; S3: chiral array of achiral particles. (b) Extinction spectra for x- and y-polarizations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

CPV experimental setups for (a) the linear case, and (b) the SHG case; ω: fundamental beam, 2ω: second-harmonic beam.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Results of SH-CPV measurements. The connecting line segments are guides to the eye. The circular polarization states are indicated by vertical dashed lines.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

CDR = 2 I LHC ( ω ) I RHC ( ω ) I LHC ( ω ) + I RHC ( ω ) .
I j ( 2 ω ) = f j E x 2 ( ω ) + g j E y 2 ( ω ) + h j E x ( ω ) E y ( ω ) 2 ,

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