Abstract

We present a hybrid photonic crystal fiber in which a guided mode is confined simultaneously by modified total internal reflection from an array of air holes and antiresonant reflection from a line of high-index inclusions. Experimental results demonstrate that this fiber shares properties of both index-guided and photonic bandgap structures.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 847–851 (2003) .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangam, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. -P. Martin Man, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2148–2155 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and P. D de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1347–1348 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 609–613 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  7. J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1–4 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent,” Opt. Express 13, 1540–1550 (2004).
  10. G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, F. Lopez, L. Provino, and M. Douay, “Fabrication and characterization of an all-solid 2D photonic bandgap fiber with a low-loss region (<20dB/km) around 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 13, 8452–8459 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. N. M. Litchinitser, Steven C. Dunn, P. E. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, “Application of an ARROW model for designing tunable photonic devices,” Opt. Express 12, 1540–1550 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. N. M. Litchinitser, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Antiresonant reflecting photonic crystal optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1592–1594 (2002) .
    [Crossref]
  13. N. M. Litchinitser, Steven C. Dunn, Brian Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, “Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 1243–1251 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Arismar Cerqueira, K.Z. Nobrega, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, and F. Di Pasquale, “A powerful tool based on finite element method for designing photonic crystal devices,” Proceedings of International Conference on Telecommunications 287–295 (2004) .
  15. P. J. B. Clarricoats and K. B. Chan, “Electromagnetic-wave propagation along radially inhomogeneous dielectric cylinders,” Electron. Lett. 6, 694–695 (1970) .
    [Crossref]
  16. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999) .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. Jasapara, T. Hua Her, R. Bise, R. Windeler, and D. J. Di Giovanni, “Group-velocity measurements in a photonic bandgap fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1611–1614 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

N. M. Litchinitser, Steven C. Dunn, P. E. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, “Application of an ARROW model for designing tunable photonic devices,” Opt. Express 12, 1540–1550 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1–4 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent,” Opt. Express 13, 1540–1550 (2004).

2003 (3)

2002 (3)

2000 (2)

Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangam, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and P. D de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1347–1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1970 (1)

P. J. B. Clarricoats and K. B. Chan, “Electromagnetic-wave propagation along radially inhomogeneous dielectric cylinders,” Electron. Lett. 6, 694–695 (1970) .
[Crossref]

Abeeluck, A. K.

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argyros, A.

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent,” Opt. Express 13, 1540–1550 (2004).

Arismar Cerqueira, S.

S. Arismar Cerqueira, K.Z. Nobrega, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, and F. Di Pasquale, “A powerful tool based on finite element method for designing photonic crystal devices,” Proceedings of International Conference on Telecommunications 287–295 (2004) .

Arriaga, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangam, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bigot, L.

Bird, D. M.

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1–4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent,” Opt. Express 13, 1540–1550 (2004).

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. -P. Martin Man, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2148–2155 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangam, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and P. D de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1347–1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bise, R.

Bouwmans, G.

Chan, K. B.

P. J. B. Clarricoats and K. B. Chan, “Electromagnetic-wave propagation along radially inhomogeneous dielectric cylinders,” Electron. Lett. 6, 694–695 (1970) .
[Crossref]

Clarricoats, P. J. B.

P. J. B. Clarricoats and K. B. Chan, “Electromagnetic-wave propagation along radially inhomogeneous dielectric cylinders,” Electron. Lett. 6, 694–695 (1970) .
[Crossref]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent,” Opt. Express 13, 1540–1550 (2004).

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and P. D de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1347–1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

de Sterke, C. M.

Di Giovanni, D. J.

Di Pasquale, F.

S. Arismar Cerqueira, K.Z. Nobrega, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, and F. Di Pasquale, “A powerful tool based on finite element method for designing photonic crystal devices,” Proceedings of International Conference on Telecommunications 287–295 (2004) .

Douay, M.

Dunn, Steven C.

Eggleton, B. J.

George, A. K.

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1–4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Headley, C.

Hedley, T. D.

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1–4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hernandez-Figueroa, H. E.

S. Arismar Cerqueira, K.Z. Nobrega, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, and F. Di Pasquale, “A powerful tool based on finite element method for designing photonic crystal devices,” Proceedings of International Conference on Telecommunications 287–295 (2004) .

Hua Her, T.

Jasapara, J.

Knight, J. C.

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1–4 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 847–851 (2003) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. -P. Martin Man, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2148–2155 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 609–613 (2002).
[PubMed]

Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangam, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and P. D de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1347–1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent,” Opt. Express 13, 1540–1550 (2004).

Litchinitser, N. M.

Lopez, F.

Luan, F.

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent,” Opt. Express 13, 1540–1550 (2004).

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1–4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mangam, B. J.

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin Man, T. -P.

McPhedran, R. C.

Nobrega, K.Z.

S. Arismar Cerqueira, K.Z. Nobrega, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, and F. Di Pasquale, “A powerful tool based on finite element method for designing photonic crystal devices,” Proceedings of International Conference on Telecommunications 287–295 (2004) .

Ortigosa-Blanch,

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangam, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Pearce, G. J.

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1–4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Provino, L.

Quiquempois, Y.

Reeves, W. H.

Roberts, P. J.

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 609–613 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangam, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and P. D de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1347–1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1–4 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent,” Opt. Express 13, 1540–1550 (2004).

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 609–613 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. -P. Martin Man, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2148–2155 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandro, P. D de

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and P. D de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1347–1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

Steinvurzel, P. E.

Usner, Brian

Wadsworth, W. J.

White, T. P.

Windeler, R.

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and P. D de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1347–1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. J. B. Clarricoats and K. B. Chan, “Electromagnetic-wave propagation along radially inhomogeneous dielectric cylinders,” Electron. Lett. 6, 694–695 (1970) .
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 847–851 (2003) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999) .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Arismar Cerqueira, K.Z. Nobrega, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, and F. Di Pasquale, “A powerful tool based on finite element method for designing photonic crystal devices,” Proceedings of International Conference on Telecommunications 287–295 (2004) .

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (1612 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The concept of a hybrid PCF: (a) Schematic of the hybrid PCF, and (b) relevant effective indices. The regime where hybrid guidance is possible is shaded grey.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images of the fabricated hybrid photonic crystal fibers: a) Δn = 1.0%, d = 3.2μm, D=4.3μm and Λ = 9.12μm (d/Λ = 0.35), b) Δn = 2.03%, d = 3.88μm, D = 5.70μm and Λ = 7.15μm (d/Λ = 0.54).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Hybrid PCF based on the preform A: (a) Effective index analysis, showing the cladding index (black line with squares), the guided-mode index of an index-guiding PCF (red line with triangles) and the hybrid modes; (b) Transmitted spectrum.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Near field images through the 3 low-loss spectral windows. [Media 1]

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulated and experimental results of the hybrid PCF based on the preform B.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Hybrid PCF dispersion in the third PBG.

Metrics