Abstract

We report the fabrication of micro lens using an alternative annular scanning mode with continuous variable layer thickness by two-photon polymerization after multi-parameter optimization. Laser scanning mode and scanning pace parameter are optimized to achieve good appearance. As examples of the results, a 2 × 2 micro spherical lens array with diameter of 15 μm and a micro Fresnel lens with diameter of 17 μm are fabricated. Their optical performances are also tested. Compared to the conventional femtosecond two-photon fabrication, this work provides an alternative, effective and cheap processing method for the fabrication of micro optic device that requires arbitrary shape with high surface quality and small scale.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  4. J. Yao, Z. Cui, F. Gao, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, C. Du, H. Zeng, and C. Qiu,“ Refractive micro lens array made of dichromate gelatin with gray-tone photolithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 729 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  5. M. He, X. C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao,“ Single-step fabrication of a microlens array in sol-gel material by direct laser writing and its application in optical coupling,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 94 (2004).
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    [Crossref]
  24. R. Guo, S. Z. Xiao, H. Xing, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Effect of overlapping degree to surface roughness in a femtosecond laser micro fabrication,” Photonics China 6, 9 (2004)
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    [Crossref]

2005 (8)

T. J. Suleskiand and R. D. TeKolste,“ Fabrication Trends for Free-Space Microoptics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 633 (2005)
[Crossref]

R. Guo, Z. Y. Li, Z. W. Jiang, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 396 (2005)
[Crossref]

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, Y. Kuroiwa, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in glass,” Opt.Lett. 30, 352 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Z. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, X. W. Jiang, E. W. Dai, C. H. Zhou, and C. S. Zhu,“ Direct writing computer-generated holograms on metal film by an infrared femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 13, 2089 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, T. Nagata, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of photonic crystals in ZnS-doped glass,” Opt.Lett. 30,537(2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Takada, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata,“ Improved spatial resolution and surface roughness in photopolymerization-based laser nanowriting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. F. Jiu, H. H. Tang, J. L. Zhou, J. Xu, Q. J. Zhang, H. Xing, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“Sm(DBM)3Phen -doped poly(methyl methacrylate) for three-dimensional multilayered optical memory,” Opt. Lett. 30, 774 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata,“ Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005)
[Crossref]

2004 (7)

R. Guo, S. Z. Xiao, H. Xing, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Effect of overlapping degree to surface roughness in a femtosecond laser micro fabrication,” Photonics China 6, 9 (2004)

J. Serbin and B. Chichkov,“ High-resolution direct-write femtosecond laser technologies,“ in Solid State Laser Technologies and Femtosecond Phenomena,Jonathan A. C. Terry and W. Andrew Clarkson, eds. Proc. SPIE 5620,245–251 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor,“ Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica,” Opt.Lett. 29, 1312 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis,“ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Serbin, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov,“ Fabrication of woodpile structures by two-photon polymerization and investigation of their optical properties,” Opt.Express 12, 5221 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. He, X. C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao,“ Single-step fabrication of a microlens array in sol-gel material by direct laser writing and its application in optical coupling,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 94 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Sugiyama, S. Khumpuang, and G. Kawaguchi,“ Plain-pattern to cross-section transfer (PCT) technique for deep x-ray lithography and applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14,1399 (2004)
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

H. B. Sun, M. Maeda, K. Takada, James W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and S. Kawata,“ Experimental investigation of single voxels for laser nanofabrication via two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 819 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. W. Jiang, Y. J. Zhou, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ A Two-Photon Femtosecond Laser System for Three-Dimensional Microfabrication and Data Storage,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata,“ Submicron diamond-lattice photonic crystals produced by two-photon laser nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2091 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu,“ Multiple Higher-Order Stop Gaps in Infrared Polymer Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada,“ Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, Z. Cui, F. Gao, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, C. Du, H. Zeng, and C. Qiu,“ Refractive micro lens array made of dichromate gelatin with gray-tone photolithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 729 (2001)
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa,“ Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. Nussbaum, R. VÖlkel, H. P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck,“ Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617 (1997)
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

D. F. Vanderwerf,“ Ghost-image analysis of Fresnel lens doublet,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems, Robert P. Breault, eds. Proc. SPIE 1331, 143–157 (1990)
[Crossref]

D. F. Vanderwerf,“ Ghost-image analysis of Fresnel lens doublet,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems, Robert P. Breault, eds. Proc. SPIE 1331, 143–157 (1990)
[Crossref]

Adachi, Y.

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata,“ Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005)
[Crossref]

Ananthavel, S. P.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Barlow, S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor,“ Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica,” Opt.Lett. 29, 1312 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge,1999).

Breault, Robert P.

D. F. Vanderwerf,“ Ghost-image analysis of Fresnel lens doublet,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems, Robert P. Breault, eds. Proc. SPIE 1331, 143–157 (1990)
[Crossref]

Bu, J.

M. He, X. C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao,“ Single-step fabrication of a microlens array in sol-gel material by direct laser writing and its application in optical coupling,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 94 (2004).
[Crossref]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis,“ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chichkov, B.

J. Serbin, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov,“ Fabrication of woodpile structures by two-photon polymerization and investigation of their optical properties,” Opt.Express 12, 5221 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Serbin and B. Chichkov,“ High-resolution direct-write femtosecond laser technologies,“ in Solid State Laser Technologies and Femtosecond Phenomena,Jonathan A. C. Terry and W. Andrew Clarkson, eds. Proc. SPIE 5620,245–251 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chon, James W. M.

H. B. Sun, M. Maeda, K. Takada, James W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and S. Kawata,“ Experimental investigation of single voxels for laser nanofabrication via two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 819 (2003).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor,“ Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica,” Opt.Lett. 29, 1312 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Z.

J. Yao, Z. Cui, F. Gao, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, C. Du, H. Zeng, and C. Qiu,“ Refractive micro lens array made of dichromate gelatin with gray-tone photolithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 729 (2001)
[Crossref]

Cumpston, B. H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dai, E. W.

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis,“ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Du, C.

J. Yao, Z. Cui, F. Gao, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, C. Du, H. Zeng, and C. Qiu,“ Refractive micro lens array made of dichromate gelatin with gray-tone photolithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 729 (2001)
[Crossref]

Duan, X. M.

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata,“ Submicron diamond-lattice photonic crystals produced by two-photon laser nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2091 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dyer, D. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ehrlich, J. E.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eisner, M.

P. Nussbaum, R. VÖlkel, H. P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck,“ Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617 (1997)
[Crossref]

Erskine, L. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Freymann, G. von

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis,“ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gao, F.

J. Yao, Z. Cui, F. Gao, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, C. Du, H. Zeng, and C. Qiu,“ Refractive micro lens array made of dichromate gelatin with gray-tone photolithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 729 (2001)
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

H. B. Sun, M. Maeda, K. Takada, James W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and S. Kawata,“ Experimental investigation of single voxels for laser nanofabrication via two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 819 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu,“ Multiple Higher-Order Stop Gaps in Infrared Polymer Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, R.

R. Guo, Z. Y. Li, Z. W. Jiang, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 396 (2005)
[Crossref]

R. Guo, S. Z. Xiao, H. Xing, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Effect of overlapping degree to surface roughness in a femtosecond laser micro fabrication,” Photonics China 6, 9 (2004)

Guo, Y.

J. Yao, Z. Cui, F. Gao, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, C. Du, H. Zeng, and C. Qiu,“ Refractive micro lens array made of dichromate gelatin with gray-tone photolithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 729 (2001)
[Crossref]

Haselbeck, S.

P. Nussbaum, R. VÖlkel, H. P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck,“ Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617 (1997)
[Crossref]

He, M.

M. He, X. C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao,“ Single-step fabrication of a microlens array in sol-gel material by direct laser writing and its application in optical coupling,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 94 (2004).
[Crossref]

Heikal, A. A.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Herzig, H. P.

P. Nussbaum, R. VÖlkel, H. P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck,“ Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617 (1997)
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, Y. Kuroiwa, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in glass,” Opt.Lett. 30, 352 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, T. Nagata, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of photonic crystals in ZnS-doped glass,” Opt.Lett. 30,537(2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor,“ Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica,” Opt.Lett. 29, 1312 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, W. H.

R. Guo, Z. Y. Li, Z. W. Jiang, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 396 (2005)
[Crossref]

H. F. Jiu, H. H. Tang, J. L. Zhou, J. Xu, Q. J. Zhang, H. Xing, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“Sm(DBM)3Phen -doped poly(methyl methacrylate) for three-dimensional multilayered optical memory,” Opt. Lett. 30, 774 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Guo, S. Z. Xiao, H. Xing, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Effect of overlapping degree to surface roughness in a femtosecond laser micro fabrication,” Photonics China 6, 9 (2004)

Z. W. Jiang, Y. J. Zhou, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ A Two-Photon Femtosecond Laser System for Three-Dimensional Microfabrication and Data Storage,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Itoh, K.

Jiang, X. W.

Jiang, Z. W.

R. Guo, Z. Y. Li, Z. W. Jiang, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 396 (2005)
[Crossref]

Z. W. Jiang, Y. J. Zhou, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ A Two-Photon Femtosecond Laser System for Three-Dimensional Microfabrication and Data Storage,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jiu, H. F.

Kaneko, K.

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata,“ Submicron diamond-lattice photonic crystals produced by two-photon laser nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2091 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kato, J.

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata,“ Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005)
[Crossref]

Kawaguchi, G.

S. Sugiyama, S. Khumpuang, and G. Kawaguchi,“ Plain-pattern to cross-section transfer (PCT) technique for deep x-ray lithography and applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14,1399 (2004)
[Crossref]

Kawata, S.

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata,“ Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005)
[Crossref]

K. Takada, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata,“ Improved spatial resolution and surface roughness in photopolymerization-based laser nanowriting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata,“ Submicron diamond-lattice photonic crystals produced by two-photon laser nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2091 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. B. Sun, M. Maeda, K. Takada, James W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and S. Kawata,“ Experimental investigation of single voxels for laser nanofabrication via two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 819 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada,“ Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khumpuang, S.

S. Sugiyama, S. Khumpuang, and G. Kawaguchi,“ Plain-pattern to cross-section transfer (PCT) technique for deep x-ray lithography and applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14,1399 (2004)
[Crossref]

Kuebler, S. M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kuroda, D.

Kuroiwa, Y.

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, Y. Kuroiwa, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in glass,” Opt.Lett. 30, 352 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, I. Y. S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. Y.

R. Guo, Z. Y. Li, Z. W. Jiang, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 396 (2005)
[Crossref]

Maeda, M.

H. B. Sun, M. Maeda, K. Takada, James W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and S. Kawata,“ Experimental investigation of single voxels for laser nanofabrication via two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 819 (2003).
[Crossref]

Marder, S. R.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Matsuo, S.

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa,“ Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[Crossref]

McCord-Maughon, D.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Misawa, H.

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa,“ Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nagata, T.

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, T. Nagata, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of photonic crystals in ZnS-doped glass,” Opt.Lett. 30,537(2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narita, Y.

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, T. Nagata, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of photonic crystals in ZnS-doped glass,” Opt.Lett. 30,537(2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, Y. Kuroiwa, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in glass,” Opt.Lett. 30, 352 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ngo, N. Q.

M. He, X. C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao,“ Single-step fabrication of a microlens array in sol-gel material by direct laser writing and its application in optical coupling,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 94 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nishihara, H.

H. Nishihara and T. Suhara,Micro Fresnel Lenses Progress in Optics( Elsevier Science, Amsterdam,1987).

Nishii, J.

Nussbaum, P.

P. Nussbaum, R. VÖlkel, H. P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck,“ Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617 (1997)
[Crossref]

Ovsianikov, A.

J. Serbin, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov,“ Fabrication of woodpile structures by two-photon polymerization and investigation of their optical properties,” Opt.Express 12, 5221 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis,“ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Perry, J. W.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Qin, J.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C.

J. Yao, Z. Cui, F. Gao, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, C. Du, H. Zeng, and C. Qiu,“ Refractive micro lens array made of dichromate gelatin with gray-tone photolithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 729 (2001)
[Crossref]

Qiu, J. R.

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor,“ Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica,” Opt.Lett. 29, 1312 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

RÖckel, H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rumi, M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Serbin, J.

J. Serbin and B. Chichkov,“ High-resolution direct-write femtosecond laser technologies,“ in Solid State Laser Technologies and Femtosecond Phenomena,Jonathan A. C. Terry and W. Andrew Clarkson, eds. Proc. SPIE 5620,245–251 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Serbin, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov,“ Fabrication of woodpile structures by two-photon polymerization and investigation of their optical properties,” Opt.Express 12, 5221 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor,“ Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica,” Opt.Lett. 29, 1312 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis,“ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Straub, M.

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu,“ Multiple Higher-Order Stop Gaps in Infrared Polymer Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugiyama, S.

S. Sugiyama, S. Khumpuang, and G. Kawaguchi,“ Plain-pattern to cross-section transfer (PCT) technique for deep x-ray lithography and applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14,1399 (2004)
[Crossref]

Suhara, T.

H. Nishihara and T. Suhara,Micro Fresnel Lenses Progress in Optics( Elsevier Science, Amsterdam,1987).

Suleskiand, T. J.

Sun, H. B.

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata,“ Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005)
[Crossref]

K. Takada, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata,“ Improved spatial resolution and surface roughness in photopolymerization-based laser nanowriting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata,“ Submicron diamond-lattice photonic crystals produced by two-photon laser nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2091 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. B. Sun, M. Maeda, K. Takada, James W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and S. Kawata,“ Experimental investigation of single voxels for laser nanofabrication via two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 819 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada,“ Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa,“ Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[Crossref]

Takada, K.

K. Takada, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata,“ Improved spatial resolution and surface roughness in photopolymerization-based laser nanowriting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. B. Sun, M. Maeda, K. Takada, James W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and S. Kawata,“ Experimental investigation of single voxels for laser nanofabrication via two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 819 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada,“ Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeshima, N.

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, Y. Kuroiwa, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in glass,” Opt.Lett. 30, 352 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, T. Nagata, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of photonic crystals in ZnS-doped glass,” Opt.Lett. 30,537(2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeyasu, N.

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata,“ Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005)
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, T. Nagata, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of photonic crystals in ZnS-doped glass,” Opt.Lett. 30,537(2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, Y. Kuroiwa, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in glass,” Opt.Lett. 30, 352 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada,“ Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, H. H.

Tao, S. H.

M. He, X. C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao,“ Single-step fabrication of a microlens array in sol-gel material by direct laser writing and its application in optical coupling,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 94 (2004).
[Crossref]

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor,“ Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica,” Opt.Lett. 29, 1312 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

TeKolste, R. D.

Vanderwerf, D. F.

D. F. Vanderwerf,“ Ghost-image analysis of Fresnel lens doublet,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems, Robert P. Breault, eds. Proc. SPIE 1331, 143–157 (1990)
[Crossref]

Ventura, M.

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu,“ Multiple Higher-Order Stop Gaps in Infrared Polymer Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

VÖlkel, R.

P. Nussbaum, R. VÖlkel, H. P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck,“ Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617 (1997)
[Crossref]

Watanabe, W.

Wegener, M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis,“ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge,1999).

Wu, X. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xia, A. D.

R. Guo, Z. Y. Li, Z. W. Jiang, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 396 (2005)
[Crossref]

H. F. Jiu, H. H. Tang, J. L. Zhou, J. Xu, Q. J. Zhang, H. Xing, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“Sm(DBM)3Phen -doped poly(methyl methacrylate) for three-dimensional multilayered optical memory,” Opt. Lett. 30, 774 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Guo, S. Z. Xiao, H. Xing, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Effect of overlapping degree to surface roughness in a femtosecond laser micro fabrication,” Photonics China 6, 9 (2004)

Z. W. Jiang, Y. J. Zhou, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ A Two-Photon Femtosecond Laser System for Three-Dimensional Microfabrication and Data Storage,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S. Z.

R. Guo, S. Z. Xiao, H. Xing, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Effect of overlapping degree to surface roughness in a femtosecond laser micro fabrication,” Photonics China 6, 9 (2004)

Xing, H.

H. F. Jiu, H. H. Tang, J. L. Zhou, J. Xu, Q. J. Zhang, H. Xing, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“Sm(DBM)3Phen -doped poly(methyl methacrylate) for three-dimensional multilayered optical memory,” Opt. Lett. 30, 774 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Guo, S. Z. Xiao, H. Xing, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Effect of overlapping degree to surface roughness in a femtosecond laser micro fabrication,” Photonics China 6, 9 (2004)

Xu, J.

Yao, J.

J. Yao, Z. Cui, F. Gao, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, C. Du, H. Zeng, and C. Qiu,“ Refractive micro lens array made of dichromate gelatin with gray-tone photolithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 729 (2001)
[Crossref]

Yuan, D. J.

R. Guo, Z. Y. Li, Z. W. Jiang, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 396 (2005)
[Crossref]

Z. W. Jiang, Y. J. Zhou, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ A Two-Photon Femtosecond Laser System for Three-Dimensional Microfabrication and Data Storage,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X. C.

M. He, X. C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao,“ Single-step fabrication of a microlens array in sol-gel material by direct laser writing and its application in optical coupling,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 94 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

J. Yao, Z. Cui, F. Gao, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, C. Du, H. Zeng, and C. Qiu,“ Refractive micro lens array made of dichromate gelatin with gray-tone photolithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 729 (2001)
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q. J.

Zhang, Y.

J. Yao, Z. Cui, F. Gao, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, C. Du, H. Zeng, and C. Qiu,“ Refractive micro lens array made of dichromate gelatin with gray-tone photolithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 729 (2001)
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q. Z.

Zhou, C. H.

Zhou, J. L.

Zhou, Y. J.

Z. W. Jiang, Y. J. Zhou, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ A Two-Photon Femtosecond Laser System for Three-Dimensional Microfabrication and Data Storage,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhu, C. S.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

H. B. Sun, M. Maeda, K. Takada, James W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and S. Kawata,“ Experimental investigation of single voxels for laser nanofabrication via two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 819 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa,“ Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata,“ Submicron diamond-lattice photonic crystals produced by two-photon laser nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2091 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata,“ Multiple-spot parallel processing for laser micronanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005)
[Crossref]

K. Takada, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata,“ Improved spatial resolution and surface roughness in photopolymerization-based laser nanowriting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. W. Jiang, Y. J. Zhou, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ A Two-Photon Femtosecond Laser System for Three-Dimensional Microfabrication and Data Storage,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

S. Sugiyama, S. Khumpuang, and G. Kawaguchi,“ Plain-pattern to cross-section transfer (PCT) technique for deep x-ray lithography and applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14,1399 (2004)
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

R. Guo, Z. Y. Li, Z. W. Jiang, D. J. Yuan, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 396 (2005)
[Crossref]

M. He, X. C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao,“ Single-step fabrication of a microlens array in sol-gel material by direct laser writing and its application in optical coupling,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 94 (2004).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

J. Yao, Z. Cui, F. Gao, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo, C. Du, H. Zeng, and C. Qiu,“ Refractive micro lens array made of dichromate gelatin with gray-tone photolithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 729 (2001)
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada,“ Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. RÖckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry,“ Two-photon polymerization initiators for threedimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nature Mater. (1)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis,“ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt.Express (1)

J. Serbin, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov,“ Fabrication of woodpile structures by two-photon polymerization and investigation of their optical properties,” Opt.Express 12, 5221 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt.Lett. (3)

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor,“ Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica,” Opt.Lett. 29, 1312 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, Y. Kuroiwa, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in glass,” Opt.Lett. 30, 352 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, T. Nagata, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao,“ Fabrication of photonic crystals in ZnS-doped glass,” Opt.Lett. 30,537(2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photonics China (1)

R. Guo, S. Z. Xiao, H. Xing, W. H. Huang, and A. D. Xia,“ Effect of overlapping degree to surface roughness in a femtosecond laser micro fabrication,” Photonics China 6, 9 (2004)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu,“ Multiple Higher-Order Stop Gaps in Infrared Polymer Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. F. Vanderwerf,“ Ghost-image analysis of Fresnel lens doublet,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems, Robert P. Breault, eds. Proc. SPIE 1331, 143–157 (1990)
[Crossref]

J. Serbin and B. Chichkov,“ High-resolution direct-write femtosecond laser technologies,“ in Solid State Laser Technologies and Femtosecond Phenomena,Jonathan A. C. Terry and W. Andrew Clarkson, eds. Proc. SPIE 5620,245–251 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

P. Nussbaum, R. VÖlkel, H. P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck,“ Design, fabrication and testing of microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617 (1997)
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge,1999).

H. Nishihara and T. Suhara,Micro Fresnel Lenses Progress in Optics( Elsevier Science, Amsterdam,1987).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The diagram of the evaluation system for micro lens optical performance.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulations of microfabrication scanning method effects on micro lens surface quality: (a) parallel linear scanning method with fixed constant Delta Z, (b) annular scanning method with a fixed constant Delta Z, (c) annular scanning method with a dynamical Zi , where Zi =[R 2-(i·lx)2]1/2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The correlation of the lateral scanning step (lx) effect with the surface roughness (Ra), The data are gotten by 50× WYKO NT1000 (Veeco Metrology Group).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Scanning electron microscope images of micro lens fabricated with optimized parameters: (a), (b) 2×2 array micro spherical lens and its close-up view. (c) The curve indicates the alternation of Delta Z according to layer number i. (d-g) micro Fresnel lens fabricated with different lateral scanning step: 100 nm, 200 nm, 300 nm and 400 nm, respectively. For each Fresnel lens, the thickness is 2μm, and the diameter is 17 μm. The refractive index is 1.53. The number of zones is 3 and their radiuses are 5.0 μm, 7.1 μm and 8.7 μm, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The optical performance of micro lens: (a) the simulated and experimental focus intensity distribution of the micro spherical lens, the focus length is detected about 60 μm (b) The simulated and experimental diffractive intensity distribution of micro Fresnel lens, the detected image was obtained at a distance of 350 μm away from the lens, (c) and (d) are the detection of micro Fresnel lens imaging ability, (c) the real ghost image of “USTC”, detected at about 250 μm behind the Fresnel lens, (d) the spurious ghost image of “USTC”, detected at about 200 μm before the Fresnel lens.

Equations (4)

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E ( x , y ) = i λz s E ( x 0 , y 0 ) exp { ikz [ 1 + ( x x 0 ) 2 ( y y 0 ) 2 2 z 2 ] } dx 0 dy 0
E ( x 0 , y 0 ) = E in · H lens ( x 0 , y 0 ) = E in · A lens · exp ( i φ lens )
φ spherical ( r ) = k 0 · ( R 2 r 2 ) 1 2
φ fresnel ( r ) = k 0 ( f ( f 2 + r 2 ) 1 2 )

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