Abstract

Membrane mirror devices presented here are capable of large amplitude deformation for wavefront generation and correction in adaptive optics. These devices consist of micro-fabricated membranes that are actuated by an underlying electrode array and a transparent counter-electrode. Deformations of +/- 20 μm optical are demonstrated for low order deformations and 10 μm optical for high order Zernike polynomial wavefront generation. Large deformation at low voltage is enabled by the use of low stress membranes, relatively small membrane-electrode separation and the transparent counter-electrode.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Marc Séchaud, "Wave-front compensation devices," in F. Roddier, ed. Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Vdovin, and P. M. Sarro, "Flexible mirror micromachined in silicon," Appl. Opt. 34, 2968-2972 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Paterson, I. Munro and J. C. Dainty, "A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror," Opt. Express 6, 175-185 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. I. Iglesias and P. Artal, "Closed loop adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 26, 746-748 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Zhu et al., "Wave-front generation of Zernike polynomial modes with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror" Appl. Opt. 38, 6019-6026 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Zhu et al., "Adaptive control of a micromachined continuous-membrane deformable mirror for aberration compensation," Appl. Opt. 38, 168-178 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Dayton et al., "Laboratory and field demonstration of a low cost membrane mirror adaptive optics system," Opt. Commun. 176, 339-345 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. P. Grosso and M. Yellin, "Membrane mirror as an adaptive optical element," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 399-406 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Pierre-Yves Madec, "Control techniques," in F. Roddier, ed. Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).
  10. J.C.Wyant and K. Creath, "Basic Wavefront Aberration Theory for Optical Metrology" in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, J. C. Wyant and R. R. Shannon, eds. (Academic, New York, NY 1992).
  11. P. Kurczynski and B. Sadoulet are preparing a manuscript to be called "Stability of Electrostatic Actuated Membrane Mirror Devices."

Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (2)

Marc Séchaud, "Wave-front compensation devices," in F. Roddier, ed. Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Pierre-Yves Madec, "Control techniques," in F. Roddier, ed. Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).

Appl. Opt. (3)

L. Zhu et al., "Wave-front generation of Zernike polynomial modes with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror" Appl. Opt. 38, 6019-6026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhu et al., "Adaptive control of a micromachined continuous-membrane deformable mirror for aberration compensation," Appl. Opt. 38, 168-178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Vdovin, and P. M. Sarro, "Flexible mirror micromachined in silicon," Appl. Opt. 34, 2968-2972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applied Optics and Optical Engineering (1)

J.C.Wyant and K. Creath, "Basic Wavefront Aberration Theory for Optical Metrology" in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, J. C. Wyant and R. R. Shannon, eds. (Academic, New York, NY 1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

R. P. Grosso and M. Yellin, "Membrane mirror as an adaptive optical element," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 399-406 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Dayton et al., "Laboratory and field demonstration of a low cost membrane mirror adaptive optics system," Opt. Commun. 176, 339-345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

C. Paterson, I. Munro and J. C. Dainty, "A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror," Opt. Express 6, 175-185 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

I. Iglesias and P. Artal, "Closed loop adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 26, 746-748 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. Kurczynski and B. Sadoulet are preparing a manuscript to be called "Stability of Electrostatic Actuated Membrane Mirror Devices."

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Left figure (a) is an image of the transparent electrode membrane device. The scale at left is indicated in cm. The membrane is circular, 15 mm diameter, and is positioned beneath the transparent electrode. Voltage to the transparent electrode is accomplished by the blue wire shown in the figure. Right figure (b) illustrates the optical measurement and test experiment. The device is illuminated by a collimated laser beam and imaged by a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Left figure (a) illustrates target wavefront, tilt. Middle left figure (b) illustrates a realization of tilt produced by the deformable mirror. Middle right figure (c) illustrates target wavefront, spherical aberration. Right figure (d) illustrates a realization of spherical aberration produced by the deformable mirror.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Left figure (a) illustrates target wavefront, Zygo Zernike 18. Middle figure (b) illustrates a realization of Zenike 18 produced by the deformable mirror. Right figure (c) illustrates a Zernike decomposition, magnitude vs. coefficient number, of the target (solid line) and experiment realization (filled circles).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Surface plot illustrating nearly 10 μm peak-to-valley wavefront deformation for a trefoil pattern (Zygo Zernike 18) generated by the deformable mirror. X,Y axes in mm, Z axis in μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Entire membrane deflection (mechanical) vs. voltage data. Left figure (a) illustrates deflection (in microns) toward transparent electrode as a function of transparent electrode voltage. Data for deflections greater than 10 microns are under-estimates of the actual deflection due to limitations of the wavefront sensor. Model (solid curve) has 3 MPa membrane stress. Right figure (b) illustrates deflection (in microns) toward electrode array as a function of electrode array voltage. Model (solid curve) has 3 MPa membrane stress.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Aberrated optical wavefront. Only the central 10 mm diameter region of the entire optical pupil is illustrated here. X,Y axes in mm, Z axis in microns.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Corrected optical wavefront. Only the central 10 mm diameter region of the entire optical pupil is illustrated here. X,Y axes in mm, Z axis in microns.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Wavefront statistics, in nanometers, for the aberration correction experiment. These statistics were computed for the central 10 mm diameter region of the entire 15 mm diameter wavefront.

Equations (1)

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δ x n = g R δ b

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