Abstract

We demonstrate the use of shallow diffraction gratings for quadrature phase interferometry. A single shallow diffraction grating-based Michelson interferometer yields only trivial (0° or 180°) phase shift between different output ports. In comparison, a combination of two parallel shallow diffraction gratings can be useful to achieve desired phase shifts (e.g., 90° for quadrature phase interferometry). We show that the phase at different output ports of a grating-pair based interferometer can be adjusted by shearing the two gratings with respect to each other. Two harmonically-related diffraction gratings are used to demonstrate phase shift control at the output ports of a modified Michelson interferometer. Our experimental data is in good agreement with theory.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Harmonically matched grating-based full-field quantitative high-resolution phase microscope for observing dynamics of transparent biological samples

Jigang Wu, Zahid Yaqoob, Xin Heng, Xiquan Cui, and Changhuei Yang
Opt. Express 15(26) 18141-18155 (2007)

All-reflection Michelson interferometer: analysis and test for far ir Fourier spectroscopy

R. J. Fonck, D. A. Huppler, F. L. Roesler, D. H. Tracy, and Mark Daehler
Appl. Opt. 17(11) 1739-1747 (1978)

All-Reflection Interferometer for Use as a Fourier-Transform Spectrometer*

R. A. Kruger, L. W. Anderson, and F. L. Roesler
J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62(8) 938-945 (1972)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. C. Shaw , “ Metrology using differential phase-contrast microscopy ,” Microelectron. Eng.   13 , 527 – 530 ( 1991 ).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. J. McMahon , E. D. Barone-Nugent , B. E. Allman , and K. A. Nugent , “ Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy II: differential interference contrast imaging for biological TEM ,” J. Microsc.-Oxford   206 , 204 – 208 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Zernike , “ Phase contrast, a new method for the microsopic observation of transparent objects ,” Physica   9 , 686 – 698 ( 1942 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Zernike , “ Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects Part II ,” Physica   9 , 974 – 986 ( 1942 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Nomarski and A. R. Weill , “ Application à la métallographie des méthodes interférentielles à deux ondes polarisées ,” Rev. Metall.   2 , 121 – 128 ( 1955 ).
  6. W. Shimada , T. Sato , and T. Yatagai , “ Optical surface microtopography using phase-shifting Nomarski microscope ,” Proc. SPIE   1332 , 525 – 529 ( 1990 ).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Hariharan and M. Roy , “ Achromatic phase-shifting for two-wavelength phase-stepping interferometry ,” Opt. Comm.   126 , 220 – 222 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , K. G. Larkin , and P. Hariharan , “ Quantitative DIC microscopy using a geometric phase shifter ,” Proc. SPIE   2984 , 72 – 81 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. R. Arnison , C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , P. W. Fekete , and K. G. Larkin , “ Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   199 , 79 – 84 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. R. Arnison , K. G. Larkin , C. J. R. Sheppard , N. I. Smith , and C. J. Cogswell , “ Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   214 , 7 – 12 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Ishiwata , M. Itoh , and T. Yatagai , “ A new method of three-dimensional measurement by differential interference contrast microscope ,” Opt. Comm.   260 , 117 – 126 ( 2006 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. U. Schnars and W. Juptner , “ Direct Recording of Holograms by a Ccd Target and Numerical Reconstruction ,” Appl. Opt.   33 , 179 – 181 ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. E. Cuche , F. Bevilacqua , and C. Depeursinge , “ Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging ,” Opt. Lett.   24 , 291 – 293 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Ikeda , G. Popescu , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1165 – 1167 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. D. S. Marx and D. Psaltis , “ Polarization quadrature measurement of subwavelength diffracting structures ,” Appl. Opt.   36 , 6434 – 6440 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. O. Hogenboom , C. A. DiMarzio , T. J. Gaudette , A. J. Devaney , and S. C. Lindberg , “ Three-dimensional images generated by quadrature interferometry ,” Opt. Lett.   23 , 783 – 785 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. A. Choma , “ Instantaneous quadrature low-coherence interferometry with 3 × 3 fiber-optic couplers ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2162 – 2164 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Z. Yaqoob , J. Fingler , X. Heng , and C. H. Yang , “ Homodyne en face optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   31 , 1815 – 1817 ( 2006 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. B. L. Danielson and C. Y. Boisrobert , “ Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry ,” Appl. Opt.   30 , 2975 – 2979 ( 1991 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. V. V. Tuchin , “ Coherence-domain methods in tissue and cell optics ,” Laser Phys.   8 , 807 – 849 ( 1998 ).
  22. S. R. Thurber , A. M. Brodsky , and L. W. Burgess , “ Characterization of random media by low-coherence interferometry ,” Appl. Spectrosc.   54 , 1506 – 1514 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. C. M. B. Cordeiro , L. Cescato , A. A. Freschi , and L. F. Li , “ Measurement of phase differences between the diffracted orders of deep relief gratings ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 683 – 685 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. Ishiwata , M. Itoh , and T. Yatagai , “ A new method of three-dimensional measurement by differential interference contrast microscope ,” Opt. Comm.   260 , 117 – 126 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob , J. Fingler , X. Heng , and C. H. Yang , “ Homodyne en face optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   31 , 1815 – 1817 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

T. Ikeda , G. Popescu , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1165 – 1167 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. R. Arnison , K. G. Larkin , C. J. R. Sheppard , N. I. Smith , and C. J. Cogswell , “ Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   214 , 7 – 12 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

P. J. McMahon , E. D. Barone-Nugent , B. E. Allman , and K. A. Nugent , “ Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy II: differential interference contrast imaging for biological TEM ,” J. Microsc.-Oxford   206 , 204 – 208 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

M. R. Arnison , C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , P. W. Fekete , and K. G. Larkin , “ Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   199 , 79 – 84 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

S. R. Thurber , A. M. Brodsky , and L. W. Burgess , “ Characterization of random media by low-coherence interferometry ,” Appl. Spectrosc.   54 , 1506 – 1514 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , K. G. Larkin , and P. Hariharan , “ Quantitative DIC microscopy using a geometric phase shifter ,” Proc. SPIE   2984 , 72 – 81 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

D. S. Marx and D. Psaltis , “ Polarization quadrature measurement of subwavelength diffracting structures ,” Appl. Opt.   36 , 6434 – 6440 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. Hariharan and M. Roy , “ Achromatic phase-shifting for two-wavelength phase-stepping interferometry ,” Opt. Comm.   126 , 220 – 222 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1991 (3)

J. C. Shaw , “ Metrology using differential phase-contrast microscopy ,” Microelectron. Eng.   13 , 527 – 530 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. L. Danielson and C. Y. Boisrobert , “ Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry ,” Appl. Opt.   30 , 2975 – 2979 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Shimada , T. Sato , and T. Yatagai , “ Optical surface microtopography using phase-shifting Nomarski microscope ,” Proc. SPIE   1332 , 525 – 529 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

G. Nomarski and A. R. Weill , “ Application à la métallographie des méthodes interférentielles à deux ondes polarisées ,” Rev. Metall.   2 , 121 – 128 ( 1955 ).

1942 (2)

F. Zernike , “ Phase contrast, a new method for the microsopic observation of transparent objects ,” Physica   9 , 686 – 698 ( 1942 ).
[Crossref]

F. Zernike , “ Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects Part II ,” Physica   9 , 974 – 986 ( 1942 ).
[Crossref]

Allman, B. E.

P. J. McMahon , E. D. Barone-Nugent , B. E. Allman , and K. A. Nugent , “ Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy II: differential interference contrast imaging for biological TEM ,” J. Microsc.-Oxford   206 , 204 – 208 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Arnison, M. R.

M. R. Arnison , K. G. Larkin , C. J. R. Sheppard , N. I. Smith , and C. J. Cogswell , “ Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   214 , 7 – 12 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

M. R. Arnison , C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , P. W. Fekete , and K. G. Larkin , “ Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   199 , 79 – 84 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Badizadegan, K.

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Barone-Nugent, E. D.

P. J. McMahon , E. D. Barone-Nugent , B. E. Allman , and K. A. Nugent , “ Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy II: differential interference contrast imaging for biological TEM ,” J. Microsc.-Oxford   206 , 204 – 208 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Best, C. A.

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Bevilacqua, F.

Boisrobert, C. Y.

Brodsky, A. M.

Burgess, L. W.

Cescato, L.

Chang, W.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

Cogswell, C. J.

M. R. Arnison , K. G. Larkin , C. J. R. Sheppard , N. I. Smith , and C. J. Cogswell , “ Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   214 , 7 – 12 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

M. R. Arnison , C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , P. W. Fekete , and K. G. Larkin , “ Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   199 , 79 – 84 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , K. G. Larkin , and P. Hariharan , “ Quantitative DIC microscopy using a geometric phase shifter ,” Proc. SPIE   2984 , 72 – 81 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Cuche, E.

Danielson, B. L.

Dasari, R. R.

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

T. Ikeda , G. Popescu , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1165 – 1167 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Devaney, A. J.

DiMarzio, C. A.

Fekete, P. W.

M. R. Arnison , C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , P. W. Fekete , and K. G. Larkin , “ Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   199 , 79 – 84 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Feld, M. S.

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

T. Ikeda , G. Popescu , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1165 – 1167 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fingler, J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freschi, A. A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaudette, T. J.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hariharan, P.

C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , K. G. Larkin , and P. Hariharan , “ Quantitative DIC microscopy using a geometric phase shifter ,” Proc. SPIE   2984 , 72 – 81 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy , “ Achromatic phase-shifting for two-wavelength phase-stepping interferometry ,” Opt. Comm.   126 , 220 – 222 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heng, X.

Hogenboom, D. O.

Huang, D.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

T. Ikeda , G. Popescu , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1165 – 1167 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Ishiwata, H.

H. Ishiwata , M. Itoh , and T. Yatagai , “ A new method of three-dimensional measurement by differential interference contrast microscope ,” Opt. Comm.   260 , 117 – 126 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref]

Itoh, M.

H. Ishiwata , M. Itoh , and T. Yatagai , “ A new method of three-dimensional measurement by differential interference contrast microscope ,” Opt. Comm.   260 , 117 – 126 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref]

Juptner, W.

Larkin, K. G.

M. R. Arnison , K. G. Larkin , C. J. R. Sheppard , N. I. Smith , and C. J. Cogswell , “ Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   214 , 7 – 12 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

M. R. Arnison , C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , P. W. Fekete , and K. G. Larkin , “ Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   199 , 79 – 84 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , K. G. Larkin , and P. Hariharan , “ Quantitative DIC microscopy using a geometric phase shifter ,” Proc. SPIE   2984 , 72 – 81 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Li, L. F.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindberg, S. C.

Marx, D. S.

McMahon, P. J.

P. J. McMahon , E. D. Barone-Nugent , B. E. Allman , and K. A. Nugent , “ Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy II: differential interference contrast imaging for biological TEM ,” J. Microsc.-Oxford   206 , 204 – 208 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Nomarski, G.

G. Nomarski and A. R. Weill , “ Application à la métallographie des méthodes interférentielles à deux ondes polarisées ,” Rev. Metall.   2 , 121 – 128 ( 1955 ).

Nugent, K. A.

P. J. McMahon , E. D. Barone-Nugent , B. E. Allman , and K. A. Nugent , “ Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy II: differential interference contrast imaging for biological TEM ,” J. Microsc.-Oxford   206 , 204 – 208 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Popescu, G.

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

T. Ikeda , G. Popescu , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1165 – 1167 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, M.

P. Hariharan and M. Roy , “ Achromatic phase-shifting for two-wavelength phase-stepping interferometry ,” Opt. Comm.   126 , 220 – 222 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Sato, T.

W. Shimada , T. Sato , and T. Yatagai , “ Optical surface microtopography using phase-shifting Nomarski microscope ,” Proc. SPIE   1332 , 525 – 529 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

Schnars, U.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaw, J. C.

J. C. Shaw , “ Metrology using differential phase-contrast microscopy ,” Microelectron. Eng.   13 , 527 – 530 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

M. R. Arnison , K. G. Larkin , C. J. R. Sheppard , N. I. Smith , and C. J. Cogswell , “ Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   214 , 7 – 12 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Shimada, W.

W. Shimada , T. Sato , and T. Yatagai , “ Optical surface microtopography using phase-shifting Nomarski microscope ,” Proc. SPIE   1332 , 525 – 529 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

Smith, N. I.

M. R. Arnison , K. G. Larkin , C. J. R. Sheppard , N. I. Smith , and C. J. Cogswell , “ Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   214 , 7 – 12 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

M. R. Arnison , C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , P. W. Fekete , and K. G. Larkin , “ Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   199 , 79 – 84 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , K. G. Larkin , and P. Hariharan , “ Quantitative DIC microscopy using a geometric phase shifter ,” Proc. SPIE   2984 , 72 – 81 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thurber, S. R.

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin , “ Coherence-domain methods in tissue and cell optics ,” Laser Phys.   8 , 807 – 849 ( 1998 ).

Weill, A. R.

G. Nomarski and A. R. Weill , “ Application à la métallographie des méthodes interférentielles à deux ondes polarisées ,” Rev. Metall.   2 , 121 – 128 ( 1955 ).

Yang, C. H.

Yaqoob, Z.

Yatagai, T.

H. Ishiwata , M. Itoh , and T. Yatagai , “ A new method of three-dimensional measurement by differential interference contrast microscope ,” Opt. Comm.   260 , 117 – 126 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref]

W. Shimada , T. Sato , and T. Yatagai , “ Optical surface microtopography using phase-shifting Nomarski microscope ,” Proc. SPIE   1332 , 525 – 529 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike , “ Phase contrast, a new method for the microsopic observation of transparent objects ,” Physica   9 , 686 – 698 ( 1942 ).
[Crossref]

F. Zernike , “ Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects Part II ,” Physica   9 , 974 – 986 ( 1942 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc.-Oxford (1)

P. J. McMahon , E. D. Barone-Nugent , B. E. Allman , and K. A. Nugent , “ Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy II: differential interference contrast imaging for biological TEM ,” J. Microsc.-Oxford   206 , 204 – 208 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J. of Microsc.-Oxford (2)

M. R. Arnison , C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , P. W. Fekete , and K. G. Larkin , “ Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   199 , 79 – 84 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

M. R. Arnison , K. G. Larkin , C. J. R. Sheppard , N. I. Smith , and C. J. Cogswell , “ Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy ,” J. of Microsc.-Oxford   214 , 7 – 12 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

V. V. Tuchin , “ Coherence-domain methods in tissue and cell optics ,” Laser Phys.   8 , 807 – 849 ( 1998 ).

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

J. C. Shaw , “ Metrology using differential phase-contrast microscopy ,” Microelectron. Eng.   13 , 527 – 530 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Comm. (2)

P. Hariharan and M. Roy , “ Achromatic phase-shifting for two-wavelength phase-stepping interferometry ,” Opt. Comm.   126 , 220 – 222 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

H. Ishiwata , M. Itoh , and T. Yatagai , “ A new method of three-dimensional measurement by differential interference contrast microscope ,” Opt. Comm.   260 , 117 – 126 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Physica (2)

F. Zernike , “ Phase contrast, a new method for the microsopic observation of transparent objects ,” Physica   9 , 686 – 698 ( 1942 ).
[Crossref]

F. Zernike , “ Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects Part II ,” Physica   9 , 974 – 986 ( 1942 ).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. J. Cogswell , N. I. Smith , K. G. Larkin , and P. Hariharan , “ Quantitative DIC microscopy using a geometric phase shifter ,” Proc. SPIE   2984 , 72 – 81 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

W. Shimada , T. Sato , and T. Yatagai , “ Optical surface microtopography using phase-shifting Nomarski microscope ,” Proc. SPIE   1332 , 525 – 529 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

Rev. Metall. (1)

G. Nomarski and A. R. Weill , “ Application à la métallographie des méthodes interférentielles à deux ondes polarisées ,” Rev. Metall.   2 , 121 – 128 ( 1955 ).

Science (1)

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics