Abstract

Ultrahigh axial resolution surface profiling as well as volumetric optical imaging based on time encoded optical coherence tomography in the frequency domain without any mechanical scanning element is presented. A frequency tuned broad bandwidth titanium sapphire laser is interfaced to an optical microscope (Axioskop 2 MAT, Carl Zeiss Meditec) that is enhanced with an interferometric imaging head. The system is equipped with a 640 × 480 pixel CMOS camera, optimized for the 800 nm wavelength tuning range for transmission and reflection measurements of a microscopic sample. Sample volume information over 1.3 × 1 × 0.2 mm3 with ~3 μm axial and ~4 μm transverse resolution in tissue is acquired by a single wavelength scan over more than 100 nm optical bandwidth from <760 to >860 nm with 128–2048 equidistant optical frequency steps with an acquisition time of 1 to 50 ms per step. Topography and tomography with a signal to noise ratio of 83 dB is demonstrated on test surfaces and biological specimen respectively. This novel OCT technique promises to enable high speed, three dimensional imaging by employing high frame rate cameras and state of the art tunable lasers in a mechanically stable environment, due to lack of moving components while reducing the intensity on the sample.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (4)

2004 (9)

L. F. Yu, and M. K. Kim, "Full-color three-dimensional microscopy by wide-field optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 6632-6641 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, "Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 2874-2883 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, and N. A. Nassif, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubois, G. Moneron, K. Grieve, and A. C. Boccara, "Three-dimensional cellular-level imaging using full-field optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1227-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (8)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de-Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11 (2003).
[PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hauger, M. Worz, and T. Hellmuth, "Interferometer for optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3896-3902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3116-3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, N. Iftimia, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional spectrally encoded imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2321-2323 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Hyle Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

2001 (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 219-229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hausler, and M. W. Linduer, ""Coherence radar" and "spectral radar"-new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P. K.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, G.

T. Endo, Y. Yasuno, F. Truffer, G. Aoki, S. Makita, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Line-field Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography," Proceedings of the SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering 5690, 168-173 (2005).

Apolonski, A.

Bajraszewski, T.

Bizheva, K.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Považay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, "Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1800-1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

G. Moneron, A. C. Boccara, and A. Dubois, "Stroboscopic ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 1351-1353 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubois, G. Moneron, K. Grieve, and A. C. Boccara, "Three-dimensional cellular-level imaging using full-field optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1227-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boccara, C.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 3159-3161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, N. Iftimia, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional spectrally encoded imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2321-2323 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Hyle Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de-Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11 (2003).
[PubMed]

B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 1704-1706 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Budka, H.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Choma, M. A.

Cowey, A.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

de-Boer, J. F.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de-Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11 (2003).
[PubMed]

Drexler, W.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3116-3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Považay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, "Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1800-1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, A.

Duker, J. S.

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

T. Endo, Y. Yasuno, F. Truffer, G. Aoki, S. Makita, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Line-field Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography," Proceedings of the SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering 5690, 168-173 (2005).

Fercher, A. F.

B. Grajciar, M. Pircher, A. F. Fercher, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Parallel Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for in vivo measurement of the human eye," Opt. Express 13, 1131-1137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3116-3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Považay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, "Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1800-1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, "Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 1415-1417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, and M. Kulhavy, "Wavelength-tuning interferometry of intraocular distances," Appl. Opt. 36, 6548-6562 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golubovic, B.

Grajciar, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grieve, K.

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, "Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 2874-2883 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubois, G. Moneron, K. Grieve, and A. C. Boccara, "Three-dimensional cellular-level imaging using full-field optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1227-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauger, C.

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler, and M. W. Linduer, ""Coherence radar" and "spectral radar"-new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, "High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry," Opt. Lett. 17, 151-153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellmuth, T.

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, "High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry," Opt. Lett. 17, 151-153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyle Park, B.

Iftimia, N.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de-Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, N. Iftimia, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional spectrally encoded imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2321-2323 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Itoh, M.

T. Endo, Y. Yasuno, F. Truffer, G. Aoki, S. Makita, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Line-field Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography," Proceedings of the SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering 5690, 168-173 (2005).

Izatt, J. A.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. K.

Kim, M.-K.

Knight, J. C.

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

Kulhavy, M.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Le, T.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lecaque, R.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lexer, F.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, "High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry," Opt. Lett. 17, 151-153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linduer, M. W.

G. Hausler, and M. W. Linduer, ""Coherence radar" and "spectral radar"-new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Makita, S.

T. Endo, Y. Yasuno, F. Truffer, G. Aoki, S. Makita, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Line-field Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography," Proceedings of the SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering 5690, 168-173 (2005).

Y. Yasuno, Y. Sutoh, M. Nakama, S. Makita, M. Roh, T. Yatagai, and M. Mori, "Spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography with nonlinear beta-barium borate time gating," Opt. Lett. 27, 403-405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, R.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moneron, G.

Morgan, J. E.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mori, M.

Nakama, M.

Nassif, N.

Nassif, N. A.

Oh, W. Y.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Pitris, C.

Považay, B.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Považay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, "Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1800-1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Preusser, M.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, "High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry," Opt. Lett. 17, 151-153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitsamer, H.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roh, M.

Rollins, A. M.

Russell, P. S. J.

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Považay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, "Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1800-1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scherzer, E.

Schmetterer, L.

Schubert, C.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seefeld, M.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stingl, A.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, M. Preusser, H. Budka, C. Schubert, H. Reitsamer, P. K. Ahnelt, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, and W. Drexler, "Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235-1246 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutoh, Y.

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, "High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry," Opt. Lett. 17, 151-153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 3159-3161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, N. Iftimia, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional spectrally encoded imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2321-2323 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Hyle Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de-Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11 (2003).
[PubMed]

B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 1704-1706 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Truffer, F.

T. Endo, Y. Yasuno, F. Truffer, G. Aoki, S. Makita, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Line-field Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography," Proceedings of the SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering 5690, 168-173 (2005).

Ung-arunyawee, R.

Unterhuber, A.

Vabre, L.

Vetterlein, M.

Wadsworth, W. J.

White, B. R.

Wojtkowski, M.

Worz, M.

Yang, C. H.

Yasuno, Y.

T. Endo, Y. Yasuno, F. Truffer, G. Aoki, S. Makita, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Line-field Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography," Proceedings of the SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering 5690, 168-173 (2005).

Y. Yasuno, Y. Sutoh, M. Nakama, S. Makita, M. Roh, T. Yatagai, and M. Mori, "Spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography with nonlinear beta-barium borate time gating," Opt. Lett. 27, 403-405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yatagai, T.

T. Endo, Y. Yasuno, F. Truffer, G. Aoki, S. Makita, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Line-field Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography," Proceedings of the SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering 5690, 168-173 (2005).

Y. Yasuno, Y. Sutoh, M. Nakama, S. Makita, M. Roh, T. Yatagai, and M. Mori, "Spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography with nonlinear beta-barium borate time gating," Opt. Lett. 27, 403-405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yazdanfar, S.

Yelin, D.

Yu, L. F.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hausler, and M. W. Linduer, ""Coherence radar" and "spectral radar"-new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (13)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de-Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 219-229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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"Spectroscopic techniques for far infra-red, submillimetre and millimetre waves," D. H. Martin, ed. (North-Holland Publishing Co, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1967), p. 400.

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (3082 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (4874 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (999 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (1141 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison of “full field”-OCT technologies, customizing 2D-arrays for acquisition of a 3D-volume. Inlets from left to right depict used frequency range, sample volume where information is extracted from (z=depth=illumination from the top) and detection scheme with the reference beam indicated by a dashed arrow and the sample light by a solid one; detection parameters are marked. Double headed arrows indicate scanning in spatial direction or in frequency. Top left - teTD (time encoded time domain) “parallel en face” imaging; bottom left - seTD (spatially encoded time domain) parallel imaging in the time domain based on linear superposition of the sample and reference fields, depth is encoded by spatial distribution of different delays (this method has only been demonstrated with a linear array); bottom right - seFD (spatially encoded frequency domain) operating like a parallel set of spectrometers; top right - teFD (time encoded frequency domain), acquisition of the full volume, successively at different optical frequencies.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematics of the set-up: Broadband light is generated in the Ti:sapphire oscillator, filtered in the acousto-optic element, guided by a multi-mode fiber where the modes are dynamically mixed and sent trough the KÖhler illumination system onto the sample. Alternative brightfield illumination marked in green. The CMOS camera acquires the images and triggers the next optical frequency step.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

left: acoustic mode mixer, reduction of typical speckle pattern on a partially reflective surface at single optical frequency illumination, in the movie (acousticMixerOnOff.avi, 3 MB) the sample is also moved as a whole; right: profilometry of a star on a 10 cent Euro-coin, rendering based on stack FD images (Ecoin-star.avi 1.5 MB)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fruit fly (drosophila melanogaster) eye. Left: En face crosssections at successive depth. Right: the rendering unveils the volumetric nature of the eye, including the symmetric structure of single facets of the compound eye “Flyhead-Eye_3DteFD.avi“ 1 MB

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

left: Fruit-fly (drosophila melanogaster) leg, portion fixed to a tilted glass plate (not directly visible). Right: Transmission microscopy image of the identical specimen illuminated with white light. [Media 4]

Equations (1)

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SNR = ρ P vox · R vox · Δt 2 · e

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