Abstract

A practical hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design suitable for attaining low-loss propagation is analyzed. The geometry involves a number of localized elliptical features positioned on the glass ring that surrounds the air core and separates the core and cladding regions. The size of each feature is tuned so that the composite core-surround geometry is antiresonant within the cladding band gap, thus minimizing the guided mode field intensity both within the fiber material and at material / air interfaces. A birefringent design, which involves a 2-fold symmetric arrangement of the features on the core-surround ring, gives rise to wavelength ranges where the effective index difference between the polarization modes is larger than 10-4. At such high birefringence levels, one of the polarization modes retains favorable field exclusion characteristics, thus enabling low-loss propagation of this polarization channel.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (6)

2004 (4)

2003 (7)

N. Guan, S. Habu, K. Takenaga, K. Himeno, and A. Wada, "Boundary element method for analysis of holey optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1787-1792 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 14, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schriedber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, and A. Tunnermann, "All fiber chirped-pulse amplification system based on compression in air-guiding photonic band gap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 3332-3337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, T. P. Hansen, K. P. Hansen, and J. Broeng, "All-fiber chirped pulse amplification using highly dispersive air-core photonic band gap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 2832-2837 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1243-1251 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Abeeluck, A. K.

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, D. C.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkin, D. M.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, P. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically-induced transparency grid in acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF," Opt. Express 13, 5694-5703 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Botten, L. C.

Bouwmans, G.

G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Williams, P. J. Roberts, and B.J. Mangan, "Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery," Opt. Express 12, 1477-1484 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 14, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N. G. R.

Broeng, J.

Carberry, J.

Chen, X.

Couny, F.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowley, A.

de Matos, C. J. S.

de Sterke, C. M.

Dunn, S. C.

Eggleton, B. J.

Farr, L.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 14, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, M.

Gallagher, M. T.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisin, N.

Guan, N.

Habu, S.

Hansen, K. P.

Hansen, T. P.

Headley, C.

Himeno, K.

Humbert, G.

Jakobsen, C.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Knight, J. C.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Williams, P. J. Roberts, and B.J. Mangan, "Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery," Opt. Express 12, 1477-1484 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 14, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, K.

Koch, K. W.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshiba, M.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1291-1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Legré, M.

Li, M. J.

Light, P.

Limpert, J.

Litchinitser, N. M.

Luan, F.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 14, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 14, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangan, B.J.

Marom, E.

Mason, M. W.

Maystre, D.

McPhedran, R. C.

Monro, T. M.

Mortensen, N. A.

Muller, D.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, D.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, M. D.

Nolte, S.

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletti, F.

Renversez, G.

Richardson, D. J.

Roberts, P. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Benabid, P. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically-induced transparency grid in acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF," Opt. Express 13, 5694-5703 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Williams, P. J. Roberts, and B.J. Mangan, "Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery," Opt. Express 12, 1477-1484 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 14, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sabert, H.

Saitoh, K.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1291-1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schriedber, T.

Shepherd, T. J.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Silcox, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, C. M.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takenaga, K.

Taylor, J. R.

Thomas, M. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, A.

Tunnermann, A.

Usner, B.

Venkataraman, N.

X. Chen, M. J. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. Gallagher, W. Wood, A. Crowley, J. Carberry, L. Zenteno, and K. Koch, "Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 12, 3888-3893 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, A.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wegmuller, M.

West, J. A.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, T. P.

Williams, D. P.

Wood, W.

Yariv, A.

Yeh, P.

Zellmer, H.

Zenteno, L.

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1291-1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (2)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (13)

G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Williams, P. J. Roberts, and B.J. Mangan, "Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery," Opt. Express 12, 1477-1484 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, M. J. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. Gallagher, W. Wood, A. Crowley, J. Carberry, L. Zenteno, and K. Koch, "Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 12, 3888-3893 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550 nm," Opt. Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, P. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically-induced transparency grid in acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF," Opt. Express 13, 5694-5703 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Poletti, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "The effect of core asymmetries on the polarization properties of hollow core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 9115-9124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 14, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1243-1251 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, T. P. Hansen, K. P. Hansen, and J. Broeng, "All-fiber chirped pulse amplification using highly dispersive air-core photonic band gap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 2832-2837 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schriedber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, and A. Tunnermann, "All fiber chirped-pulse amplification system based on compression in air-guiding photonic band gap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 3332-3337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (2)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic band gap fibre," Proc. Conf. Optical Fiber Commun., paper PDP24 (Los Angeles, 2004).

P. J. Roberts and T. J. Shepherd, "The guidance properties of multi-core photonic crystal fibres," J. Optics A: Pure and applied 3, S133-S140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic representation of the considered geometries.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The light confining ability of the simplified core-surround geometries.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The normalized interface intensity for the simplified core-surround geometries.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A core-surround geometry which incorporates elliptical features.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) A HC-PCF which incorporates a core-surround of the form shown in Fig. 4(b). A stack suitable for fabricating the fiber structure shown in (a) by the stack-and-draw process using only rods and capillary tubes of circular cross-section. In practice more cladding periods than shown are incorporated to achieve sufficient light confinement.

Fig 6.
Fig 6.

The geometry of a cladding unit cell. The cladding structure used for fibers A and B is defined by L 1/L 2=0.6 and w=0.031Λ, with Λ the lattice pitch.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) The normalized interface field intensity, F, and (b) the power-in-glass fraction, η, for two HC-PCFs. The blue traces are for fiber A, which incorporates elliptical features on the core surround, whereas the purple traces are for fiber B which has no such features.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

A birefringent fiber design incorporating 4 elliptical features within the core surround.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The difference in effective index of the polarized modes for the birefringent HC-PCF design shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) The normalized field intensity, F, and (b) the power-in-glass fraction, η, for the two polarized modes of the birefringent fiber with 4 core-surround ellipses. Also shown are traces for the corresponding non-birefringent fiber with 6 ellipses on the core-surround.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

The field intensity of the two polarization modes of the fiber shown in Fig. 8, calculated at the normalized kΛ=16.7. The intensity is shown on a logarithmic scale over an 80 dB range. The positions of the hole interfaces close to the core region are superimposed in red. The pattern shown in (a) is for the low-loss x-polarized mode and (b) is for the higher loss mode (y-polarized). Note that for the former mode near-nulls occur close to the core-boundary around much of its perimeter.

Equations (1)

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F = ( ε 0 μ 0 ) 1 2 interfaces d s E 2 A c d S ( E H ) z ̂

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