Abstract

A new domain of rapid waveguide writing with non-overlapping pulses of a 1-kHz ultrashort laser is demonstrated to produce low loss waveguides in fused silica glass. This new regime is distinguishable in two ways from traditional approaches in laser waveguide writing. First, an examination of a wide 50-fs to 5-ps range of pulse duration shows the lowest loss waveguides to form in a narrow 1.0±0.2 ps window that significantly exceeds the 50–200 fs duration reported as optimal in other studies. Second, an unusually high scan speed of 1.0±0.2 mm/s points to a novel Type-II photosensitivity mechanism for generating low-loss refractive index structures. The waveguides comprise of an array of nearly isolated single-pulse interaction volumes that sharply contrast with the high exposures of tens to thousands of overlapping laser pulses typically applied along a slowly moving focal volume. A minimum propagation loss of ~0.2 dB/cm and a slightly asymmetric mode diameter of ~9 µm is reported for 633-nm light. The low loss waveguides fabricated with picosecond pulses enables 3-D photonics circuit fabrication with simpler and lower cost picosecond laser systems.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005

2003

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724-3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky and E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, "Fiber Bragg gratings made with a phase mask and 800-nm femtosecond radiation," Opt. Lett. 28, 995-997 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

1999

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248-2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, "100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by single excimer laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 29, 453-455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983

Aiello, L.

Ams, M.

Arai, A. Y.

Archambault, J. L.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, "100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by single excimer laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 29, 453-455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenasi, D.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser-induced damage in SiO2 and CaF2 with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 62, 293-294 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky and E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bovatsek, J.

Brodeur, A.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Callan, J. P.

Campbell, E. E. B.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser-induced damage in SiO2 and CaF2 with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 62, 293-294 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chichkov, B. N.

Chin, S. L.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724-3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiodo, N.

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky and E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. M.

De Nicola, S.

De Silvestri, S.

Ding, H.

Eaton, S. M.

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248-2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferraro, P.

Finizio, A.

Finlay, R. J.

García, J. F.

Glezer, E. N.

Gong, Q.

L. Luo, C. Li, D. Wang, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, "Pulse-parameter dependence of the configuration characteristics of a micro-structure in fused SiO2 induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 74, 497-501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

Henderson, G.

Her, T.-H.

Herman, P. R.

Herrmann, R.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser-induced damage in SiO2 and CaF2 with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 62, 293-294 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, "Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit," Opt Lett. 30, 723-725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky and E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

L. Luo, C. Li, D. Wang, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, "Pulse-parameter dependence of the configuration characteristics of a micro-structure in fused SiO2 induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 74, 497-501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kohtoku, M.

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, "Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit," Opt Lett. 30, 723-725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laporta, P.

Li, C.

L. Luo, C. Li, D. Wang, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, "Pulse-parameter dependence of the configuration characteristics of a micro-structure in fused SiO2 induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 74, 497-501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Luo, L.

L. Luo, C. Li, D. Wang, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, "Pulse-parameter dependence of the configuration characteristics of a micro-structure in fused SiO2 induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 74, 497-501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

Marshall, G. D.

Maselli, V.

Mazur, E.

Mehandale, M.

Mihailov, S. J.

Milosavljevic, M.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, M.-C.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724-3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, Y.

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, "Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit," Opt Lett. 30, 723-725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, N. T.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724-3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noack, F.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser-induced damage in SiO2 and CaF2 with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 62, 293-294 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tuennermann, "Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Opt. 41, 4360-4364 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamura, Y.

Osellame, R.

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248-2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petit, S.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724-3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pierattini, G.

Polli, D.

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

Rayner, D. M.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky and E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reekie, L.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, "100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by single excimer laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 29, 453-455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser-induced damage in SiO2 and CaF2 with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 62, 293-294 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248-2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, "100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by single excimer laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 29, 453-455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Saliminia, A.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724-3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

Shah, L.

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248-2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky and E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smelser, C. W.

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248-2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, N.

Taccheo, S.

Taylor, R. S.

Tien, A.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
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S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unruh, J.

Vallee, R.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz femtosecond infrared pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724-3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser-induced damage in SiO2 and CaF2 with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 62, 293-294 (1996).
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L. Luo, C. Li, D. Wang, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, "Pulse-parameter dependence of the configuration characteristics of a micro-structure in fused SiO2 induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 74, 497-501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tuennermann, "Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Opt. 41, 4360-4364 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, S.

Yang, H.

L. Luo, C. Li, D. Wang, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, "Pulse-parameter dependence of the configuration characteristics of a micro-structure in fused SiO2 induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 74, 497-501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, R. Herrmann, F. Noack, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser-induced damage in SiO2 and CaF2 with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 62, 293-294 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration (a) of the waveguide fabrication process with the sample translated perpendicularly to the focused laser beam direction, and leading to an array of isolated focal volumes (b) under high (>1 mm/s) scan velocities. A transverse microscope image (c) of a waveguide showing the isolated modification volumes written with 1-ps duration, 0.6-µJ energy, and 1.25 mm/s scan speed.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Microscope images in top view (top row) and the side view (middle row) together with the near-field mode profiles of 633-nm light (bottom row) of waveguides written with 1-ps duration and 0.6-µJ pulse energy. Scan velocities are show above the top row and the mode sizes (FWHM) are given below the bottom row. The 1-ps laser is incident from the top in the side view microscope images and the mode field images.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Overhead CCD-camera images of scattered waveguide light (top) and log plot scattered intensity versus distance along waveguide for waveguides written with 1mm/s speed and pulse durations of (a) 1 ps, (b) 1.5 ps, and (c) 100 fs. The solid red lines mark the fitted exponential decay with slopes of (a) 0.2 dB/cm, (b) 1.2 dB/cm, and (c) 2.3 dB/cm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Waveguide propagation loss as a function of scan velocity for 1-ps duration and 0.6-µJ pulse energy.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Microscope images in transverse (top row) and end view (middle row) together with the near-field mode profiles of 633-nm light (bottom row) of waveguides written with 1-mm/s scan speed. Pulse energies are 0.5 µJ for 50 fs, 0.6 µJ for 100 fs to 1 ps, and 0.7 µJ for 1.5 ps. The mode sizes (FWHM) are given below the bottom row. The laser pulses are incident from the top in the end view and mode field images.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Waveguide propagation losses as a function to the laser pulse duration for 1.0 and 0.9 mm/s scan speeds.

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