Abstract

Tunable coupling regimes of a silicon microdisk resonator controlled by MEMS (microelectromechanical system) actuation are demonstrated for the first time. By varying the gap spacing between the waveguide and the disk, this microresonator can dynamically operate in either under-, ciritcal or over-coupling regime. The waveguide transmittance is suppressed by 30 dB in critical coupling, and the quality factor of the microdisk is measured to be as high as 105. Additionally, the microdisk presents tunable group delay from 27 ps to 65 ps, and tunable group velocity dispersion from 185 ps/nm to 1200 ps/nm. Waveguides, microdisks and actuators are all integrated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. This compact device exhibits the promise to construct resonator-based reconfigurable photonic integrated circuits.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. K. Madsen, G. Lenz, A. J. Bruce, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, T. N. Nielsen, L. E. Adams, and I. Brenner, "An all-pass filter dispersion compensator using planar waveguide ring resonators," presented at OFC/IOOC'99. Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications (Cat. No.99CH36322). IEEE. Part vol.4, 1999, pp.99-101 vol.4. Piscataway, NJ, USA.
  3. P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, Z. Cheng, W. Chuan-guang, and H. J. Lee, "Polymer micro-ring modulator with 1 THz FSR," presented at Postdeadline Papers. Summaries of papers presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. Conference Edition (IEEE Cat. No.02CH37337). (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002) Part vol.2, pp.CPDB8-1-CPDC2-3 vol.2..
  4. K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and R. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk tunable resonant filters and switches," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,828-30 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, F. Giacometti, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "MEMS based wavelength selective optical switching for integrated photonic circuits," presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO). IEEE. Part vol.1, 2004, pp.2 pp. vol.1. Piscataway, NJ, USA.
  6. K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Vertically coupled InP microdisk switching devices with electroabsorptive active regions," IEEE IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,1115-17 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Gain trimming of the resonant characteristics in vertically coupled InP microdisk switches," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3467-3469 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. M. J. Green, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, "Control of optical waveguide-resonator coupling: applications to low-power optical modulation and switching," presented at 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE Cat. No.03CH37460). IEEE. Part vol.1, 2003, pp.130-1 vol.1. Piscataway, NJ, USA.
  9. M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, and O. Painter, "Rayleigh scattering, mode coupling, and optical loss in silicon microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3693-3695 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, "MEMS-Actuated microdisk resonators with variable power coupling ratios," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17,1034-1036 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. D. Senturia, Microsystem Design (Kluwer Academic, 2001).
  12. M. C. M. Lee, J. Yao, and M. C. Wu, "Silicon Profile Transformation and Sidewall Roughness Reduction Using Hydrogen Annealing," presented at 18th IEEE International Conference on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems, Miami, 2005.
  13. M. Matsuhara and A. Watanabe, "Coupling of curved transmission lines, and application to optical directional couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65,163-168 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998-1005 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, "MEMS-Actuated microdisk resonators with variable power coupling ratios," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17,1034-1036 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, and O. Painter, "Rayleigh scattering, mode coupling, and optical loss in silicon microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3693-3695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and R. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk tunable resonant filters and switches," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,828-30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Vertically coupled InP microdisk switching devices with electroabsorptive active regions," IEEE IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,1115-17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Gain trimming of the resonant characteristics in vertically coupled InP microdisk switches," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3467-3469 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Barclay, P. E.

M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, and O. Painter, "Rayleigh scattering, mode coupling, and optical loss in silicon microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3693-3695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Borselli, M.

M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, and O. Painter, "Rayleigh scattering, mode coupling, and optical loss in silicon microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3693-3695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Gain trimming of the resonant characteristics in vertically coupled InP microdisk switches," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3467-3469 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Vertically coupled InP microdisk switching devices with electroabsorptive active regions," IEEE IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,1115-17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, R. D.

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and R. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk tunable resonant filters and switches," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,828-30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Djordjev, K.

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and R. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk tunable resonant filters and switches," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,828-30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Vertically coupled InP microdisk switching devices with electroabsorptive active regions," IEEE IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,1115-17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Gain trimming of the resonant characteristics in vertically coupled InP microdisk switches," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3467-3469 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J. P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. C. M.

M. C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, "MEMS-Actuated microdisk resonators with variable power coupling ratios," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17,1034-1036 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsuhara, M.

Painter, O.

M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, and O. Painter, "Rayleigh scattering, mode coupling, and optical loss in silicon microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3693-3695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sang-Jun, C.

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and R. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk tunable resonant filters and switches," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,828-30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Gain trimming of the resonant characteristics in vertically coupled InP microdisk switches," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3467-3469 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Vertically coupled InP microdisk switching devices with electroabsorptive active regions," IEEE IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,1115-17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seung-June, C.

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Vertically coupled InP microdisk switching devices with electroabsorptive active regions," IEEE IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,1115-17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Gain trimming of the resonant characteristics in vertically coupled InP microdisk switches," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3467-3469 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and R. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk tunable resonant filters and switches," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,828-30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, and O. Painter, "Rayleigh scattering, mode coupling, and optical loss in silicon microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3693-3695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, A.

Wu, M. C.

M. C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, "MEMS-Actuated microdisk resonators with variable power coupling ratios," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17,1034-1036 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, and O. Painter, "Rayleigh scattering, mode coupling, and optical loss in silicon microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3693-3695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Gain trimming of the resonant characteristics in vertically coupled InP microdisk switches," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3467-3469 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and P. D. Dapkus, "Vertically coupled InP microdisk switching devices with electroabsorptive active regions," IEEE IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,1115-17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

M. C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, "MEMS-Actuated microdisk resonators with variable power coupling ratios," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17,1034-1036 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, C. Seung-June, C. Sang-Jun, and R. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk tunable resonant filters and switches," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14,828-30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (6)

W. M. J. Green, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, "Control of optical waveguide-resonator coupling: applications to low-power optical modulation and switching," presented at 2003 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE Cat. No.03CH37460). IEEE. Part vol.1, 2003, pp.130-1 vol.1. Piscataway, NJ, USA.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, F. Giacometti, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "MEMS based wavelength selective optical switching for integrated photonic circuits," presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO). IEEE. Part vol.1, 2004, pp.2 pp. vol.1. Piscataway, NJ, USA.

C. K. Madsen, G. Lenz, A. J. Bruce, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, T. N. Nielsen, L. E. Adams, and I. Brenner, "An all-pass filter dispersion compensator using planar waveguide ring resonators," presented at OFC/IOOC'99. Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications (Cat. No.99CH36322). IEEE. Part vol.4, 1999, pp.99-101 vol.4. Piscataway, NJ, USA.

P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, Z. Cheng, W. Chuan-guang, and H. J. Lee, "Polymer micro-ring modulator with 1 THz FSR," presented at Postdeadline Papers. Summaries of papers presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. Conference Edition (IEEE Cat. No.02CH37337). (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002) Part vol.2, pp.CPDB8-1-CPDC2-3 vol.2..

S. D. Senturia, Microsystem Design (Kluwer Academic, 2001).

M. C. M. Lee, J. Yao, and M. C. Wu, "Silicon Profile Transformation and Sidewall Roughness Reduction Using Hydrogen Annealing," presented at 18th IEEE International Conference on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems, Miami, 2005.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of a vertically-coupled microdisk resonator integrated with MEMS actuators. The top view is shown on the left. The right pictures depict the crosssections at different locations: actuator (AA’), microdisk (BB’), and waveguide anchor (CC’). The waveguides are electrically grounded.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scanning electron micrograph of the fabricated device.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mechanical analysis of a MEMS actuator: (a) the cross-section, where dashed arrows represent electrical fields, and (b) simulated curves of the gap spacing as a function of the applied voltage. The two curves are the gap variations with and without electrical shield, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Analysis of variable power coupling ratios: (a) illustration of vertical coupling, (b) coupling coefficients versus points along the waveguide and gap spacing, and (c) gapcontrolled power coupling ratios.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectra for (a) decoupling, (b) critical coupling and (c) over-coupling. The resonant wavelength shown in these spectra is 1549.37nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission curve of a microdisk-coupled waveguide at the resonant wavelength.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Analytic chromatic dispersion of (a) optical phase and (b) group delay. The curves represent the operations in the over-coupling (O.C.) and the under-coupling regimes (U.C.).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured group delay spectra at various bias voltages: (a) 23.7V, (b) 29V and (c) 34.3V. The power coupling ratios are extracted by fitting the experimental data to the theoretical curves.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F ( ω ) = j 2 t R ( ω ω 0 ) + ( γ κ ) j 2 t R ( ω ω 0 ) + ( γ + κ ) .
T ( ω 0 ) = F ( ω 0 ) 2 = ( 1 κ γ 1 + κ γ ) 2 .
ϕ ( ω ) = F ( ω ) = [ ( γ κ ) + j 2 t R ( ω ω 0 ) ] [ ( γ + κ ) + j 2 t R ( ω ω 0 ) ]
τ ( ω ) = d ϕ ( ω ) d ω .

Metrics