Abstract

Design optimization of a novel integrated bi-directional (BiDi) triplexer filter based on planar lightwave circuit (PLC) for fiber-to-the-premise (FTTP) applications is described. A multi-mode interference (MMI) device is used to filter the up-stream 1310nm signal from the down-stream 1490nm and 1555nm signals. An array waveguide grating (AWG) device performs the dense WDM function by further separating the two down-stream signals. The MMI and AWG are built on the same substrate with monolithic integration. The design is validated by simulation, which shows excellent performance in terms of filter spectral characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, cross-talk, etc.) as well as insertion loss.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006

T. Lang, J. J. He, and S. He, "Cross-Order Arrayed Waveguide Grating Design for Triplexers in Fiber Access Networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 232-234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Xun Li, Gui-Rong Zhou, Ning-Ning Feng, and Wei-Ping Huang, "A novel planar waveguide wavelength demultiplexer design for integrated optical triplexer transceiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1214-1216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, L. Shen, D. Zhou, W.-P. Huang, and J. Hong"Novel design of bi-directional triplexer based on PLC," Photonic application in devices and communication systems, Proc. SPIE 5970, (2005).

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, and D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Uamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Meghan Fuller, "Price pressure rules PON transceivers," Lightwave 21, 24-26 (2004).

L. P. Shen, C. L. Xu, and W.-P. Huang, "Integrated grating-assisted coarse/dense WDM multiplexers," in Optical components and Devices, Proc. SPIE 5577, 698-706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

N.-N. Feng, G.-R. Zhou, C. Xu; and W.-P. Huang, "Computation of full-vector modes for bending waveguide using cylindrical perfectly matched layers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1976-1980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. K. Nadler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5,1407-1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Nakamura, C.L. Xu, X. Li, and W.-P Huang, "A Spot-Size Transformer Based on Mode Interference," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 325-327 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, and S. Matsuura, "Temperature-independent filter at 1.55μm wavelength using a silica-based athemal waveguide," Electron. Lett. 34,367-368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, "PHASAR-Based WDM-Devices: Principles, Design and Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. B. Soldano and C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, and D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.-N.

N.-N. Feng, G.-R. Zhou, C. Xu; and W.-P. Huang, "Computation of full-vector modes for bending waveguide using cylindrical perfectly matched layers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1976-1980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Uamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, Meghan

Meghan Fuller, "Price pressure rules PON transceivers," Lightwave 21, 24-26 (2004).

Han, D.

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, and D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, J. J.

T. Lang, J. J. He, and S. He, "Cross-Order Arrayed Waveguide Grating Design for Triplexers in Fiber Access Networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 232-234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

T. Lang, J. J. He, and S. He, "Cross-Order Arrayed Waveguide Grating Design for Triplexers in Fiber Access Networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 232-234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J.

C. Xu, L. Shen, D. Zhou, W.-P. Huang, and J. Hong"Novel design of bi-directional triplexer based on PLC," Photonic application in devices and communication systems, Proc. SPIE 5970, (2005).

Huang, W.-P

T. Nakamura, C.L. Xu, X. Li, and W.-P Huang, "A Spot-Size Transformer Based on Mode Interference," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 325-327 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.-P.

C. Xu, L. Shen, D. Zhou, W.-P. Huang, and J. Hong"Novel design of bi-directional triplexer based on PLC," Photonic application in devices and communication systems, Proc. SPIE 5970, (2005).

L. P. Shen, C. L. Xu, and W.-P. Huang, "Integrated grating-assisted coarse/dense WDM multiplexers," in Optical components and Devices, Proc. SPIE 5577, 698-706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, G.-R. Zhou, C. Xu; and W.-P. Huang, "Computation of full-vector modes for bending waveguide using cylindrical perfectly matched layers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1976-1980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, W.

C. K. Nadler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5,1407-1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Uamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jang, D. H.

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, and D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. H.

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, and D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, and D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, R. K.

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, and D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, and S. Matsuura, "Temperature-independent filter at 1.55μm wavelength using a silica-based athemal waveguide," Electron. Lett. 34,367-368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lang, T.

T. Lang, J. J. He, and S. He, "Cross-Order Arrayed Waveguide Grating Design for Triplexers in Fiber Access Networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 232-234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lanker, M.

C. K. Nadler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5,1407-1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, and D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

T. Nakamura, C.L. Xu, X. Li, and W.-P Huang, "A Spot-Size Transformer Based on Mode Interference," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 325-327 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. H.

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, and D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, S.

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, and S. Matsuura, "Temperature-independent filter at 1.55μm wavelength using a silica-based athemal waveguide," Electron. Lett. 34,367-368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

C. K. Nadler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5,1407-1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Uamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nadler, C. K.

C. K. Nadler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5,1407-1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura, C.L. Xu, X. Li, and W.-P Huang, "A Spot-Size Transformer Based on Mode Interference," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 325-327 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oh, Y.

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, and D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, C. M.

L. B. Soldano and C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.

C. Xu, L. Shen, D. Zhou, W.-P. Huang, and J. Hong"Novel design of bi-directional triplexer based on PLC," Photonic application in devices and communication systems, Proc. SPIE 5970, (2005).

Shen, L. P.

L. P. Shen, C. L. Xu, and W.-P. Huang, "Integrated grating-assisted coarse/dense WDM multiplexers," in Optical components and Devices, Proc. SPIE 5577, 698-706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Uamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, "PHASAR-Based WDM-Devices: Principles, Design and Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. H.

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, and D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Uamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Uamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Uamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Uamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Uamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, C.

M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, "PHASAR-Based WDM-Devices: Principles, Design and Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Uamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wildermuth, E. K.

C. K. Nadler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5,1407-1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, L. Shen, D. Zhou, W.-P. Huang, and J. Hong"Novel design of bi-directional triplexer based on PLC," Photonic application in devices and communication systems, Proc. SPIE 5970, (2005).

N.-N. Feng, G.-R. Zhou, C. Xu; and W.-P. Huang, "Computation of full-vector modes for bending waveguide using cylindrical perfectly matched layers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1976-1980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. L.

L. P. Shen, C. L. Xu, and W.-P. Huang, "Integrated grating-assisted coarse/dense WDM multiplexers," in Optical components and Devices, Proc. SPIE 5577, 698-706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.L.

T. Nakamura, C.L. Xu, X. Li, and W.-P Huang, "A Spot-Size Transformer Based on Mode Interference," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 325-327 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoneda, S.

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, and S. Matsuura, "Temperature-independent filter at 1.55μm wavelength using a silica-based athemal waveguide," Electron. Lett. 34,367-368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

C. Xu, L. Shen, D. Zhou, W.-P. Huang, and J. Hong"Novel design of bi-directional triplexer based on PLC," Photonic application in devices and communication systems, Proc. SPIE 5970, (2005).

Zhou, G.-R.

N.-N. Feng, G.-R. Zhou, C. Xu; and W.-P. Huang, "Computation of full-vector modes for bending waveguide using cylindrical perfectly matched layers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1976-1980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, and S. Matsuura, "Temperature-independent filter at 1.55μm wavelength using a silica-based athemal waveguide," Electron. Lett. 34,367-368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

N.-N. Feng, G.-R. Zhou, C. Xu; and W.-P. Huang, "Computation of full-vector modes for bending waveguide using cylindrical perfectly matched layers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1976-1980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, "PHASAR-Based WDM-Devices: Principles, Design and Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Nadler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5,1407-1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Uamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Nakamura, C.L. Xu, X. Li, and W.-P Huang, "A Spot-Size Transformer Based on Mode Interference," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 325-327 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xun Li, Gui-Rong Zhou, Ning-Ning Feng, and Wei-Ping Huang, "A novel planar waveguide wavelength demultiplexer design for integrated optical triplexer transceiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1214-1216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song, J. H. Lim, R. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, K. Y. Kim, J. Cho, D. Han, S. H. Jung, Y. Oh, and D. H. Jang, "Bragg grating-assisted WDM filter for integrated optical triplexer transceivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2607-2609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Lang, J. J. He, and S. He, "Cross-Order Arrayed Waveguide Grating Design for Triplexers in Fiber Access Networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 232-234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

L. B. Soldano and C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lightwave

Meghan Fuller, "Price pressure rules PON transceivers," Lightwave 21, 24-26 (2004).

Proc. SPIE

L. P. Shen, C. L. Xu, and W.-P. Huang, "Integrated grating-assisted coarse/dense WDM multiplexers," in Optical components and Devices, Proc. SPIE 5577, 698-706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, L. Shen, D. Zhou, W.-P. Huang, and J. Hong"Novel design of bi-directional triplexer based on PLC," Photonic application in devices and communication systems, Proc. SPIE 5970, (2005).

Other

ITU-T G.984.2, "Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPON): Physical media dependent (PMD) layer specification."

BrentE.  Little, "A VLSI photonics platform," Optical Fiber Communication Conference 444 (2003).

APSS, Apollo Photonics Solution Suite, Apollo Inc., Hamilton, Ontario Canada.

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[CrossRef]

N. Frigo, K. Reichmann, and P. Lannone, "Whatever happened to fiber-to-the-home?" Optical Fiber Communication Conference 280-281 (2003).

ITU-T G.983.3, "A broadband optical access system with increased service capability by wavelength allocation."

W. Chen, B. Little, W. Chen, S. Chu, J. Hryniewicz, D. Gill, O. King, F. Johnson, R. Davidson, K. Donovan, and J. Gibson, "Compact, low loss chip scale triplexer WDM filter," Optical fiber communication conference, post deadline paper, (2006).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the bi-directional triplexer

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Leak loss and effective index of the first high order mode

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Bending loss of the channel waveguide at different bending radius

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

spectral response of a standard 2x2 MMI without optimization

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral response of a optimized 2×2 MMI

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

field pattern of the optimized MMI at λ=1310nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

field pattern of the optimized MMI at λ=1555nm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Layout of the 1×2 AWG

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Peak powers from output waveguides at different taper widths of arrayed waveguides connecting to the second star coupler.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Spectral response of the optimized 1×2 AWG

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Circuit layout of the designed triplexer

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Spectral response of the triplexer

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Cross-talk from the laser to the detectors.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Polarization dependence of the 2×2 MMI coupler

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Polarization dependence of the AWG

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Simulation results of the final designed triplexer

Equations (4)

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L = 20 log e n i 2 π λ = 5.4575 × 10 4 n i λ dB mm
Δ = λ 0 2 N eff FSR
λ c = N eff Δ m
δ λ c = Δ m δ N eff Δ m δ n

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