Abstract

We report an alternative approach to image and analyze a large number of adjacent, optically-bound particles without using microscope objective lenses. A dynamic assembly of polystyrene spheres were initiated by two counter-propagating laser beams and configured by fine tuning the incident angle of the laser beams. Diffraction patterns from such polystyrene sphere assembly were studied. This method offers a significantly larger field of view and faster analysis over the conventional high-power microscope-based imaging technique. The application of the diffraction technique for real time analysis of the dynamic optically bounded assembly was reported.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Hyeon, and D. Thirumalai, "Mechanical unfolding of RNA hairpins," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 6789-6794 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. X. W. Zhuang, "Unraveling DNA condensation with optical tweezers," Science 305, 188-190 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, "Microfluidic control using colloidal devices," Science 296, 1841-1844 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures," Science 296, 1101-1103 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, "Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. P. Chikkatur, Y. Shin, A. E. Leanhardt, D. Kielpinski, E. Tsikata, T. L. Gustavson, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "A continuous source of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Science 296, 2193-2195 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Calander, and M. Willander, "Optical trapping of single fluorescent molecules at the detection spots of nanoprobes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. X. Redl, K. S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and S. O'Brien, "Three-dimensional binary superlattices of magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots," Nature 423, 968-971 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, "Microporous materials - Electrochemically grown photonic crystals," Nature 402, 603-604 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Garces-Chavez, K. Dholakia, and G. C. Spalding, "Extended-area optically induced organization of microparticles on a surface," App. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, and J. B. Ketterson, "Defect-free Optical Assembly of Polystyrene Spheres," Proc. SPIE 5514, 747 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Mu, G. Wang, L. Luan, G. C. Spalding, and J. B. Ketterson, "Dynamic control of defects in two-dimensional optically assisted assembly," In press (2006).
  14. G. Wang, and J. B. Ketterson, "Lens-less approach to image the optically-tweezed assembly," Proc. SPIE 5930, 568 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005

C. Hyeon, and D. Thirumalai, "Mechanical unfolding of RNA hairpins," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 6789-6794 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, and J. B. Ketterson, "Lens-less approach to image the optically-tweezed assembly," Proc. SPIE 5930, 568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, and J. B. Ketterson, "Defect-free Optical Assembly of Polystyrene Spheres," Proc. SPIE 5514, 747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Zhuang, "Unraveling DNA condensation with optical tweezers," Science 305, 188-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, "Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Redl, K. S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and S. O'Brien, "Three-dimensional binary superlattices of magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots," Nature 423, 968-971 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. P. Chikkatur, Y. Shin, A. E. Leanhardt, D. Kielpinski, E. Tsikata, T. L. Gustavson, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "A continuous source of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Science 296, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Calander, and M. Willander, "Optical trapping of single fluorescent molecules at the detection spots of nanoprobes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures," Science 296, 1101-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, "Microfluidic control using colloidal devices," Science 296, 1841-1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, "Microporous materials - Electrochemically grown photonic crystals," Nature 402, 603-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures," Science 296, 1101-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechinger, C.

K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, "Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, P. V.

P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, "Microporous materials - Electrochemically grown photonic crystals," Nature 402, 603-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Calander, N.

N. Calander, and M. Willander, "Optical trapping of single fluorescent molecules at the detection spots of nanoprobes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chikkatur, A. P.

A. P. Chikkatur, Y. Shin, A. E. Leanhardt, D. Kielpinski, E. Tsikata, T. L. Gustavson, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "A continuous source of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Science 296, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, K. S.

F. X. Redl, K. S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and S. O'Brien, "Three-dimensional binary superlattices of magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots," Nature 423, 968-971 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures," Science 296, 1101-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustavson, T. L.

A. P. Chikkatur, Y. Shin, A. E. Leanhardt, D. Kielpinski, E. Tsikata, T. L. Gustavson, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "A continuous source of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Science 296, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyeon, C.

C. Hyeon, and D. Thirumalai, "Mechanical unfolding of RNA hairpins," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 6789-6794 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketterle, W.

A. P. Chikkatur, Y. Shin, A. E. Leanhardt, D. Kielpinski, E. Tsikata, T. L. Gustavson, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "A continuous source of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Science 296, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketterson, J. B.

G. Wang, and J. B. Ketterson, "Lens-less approach to image the optically-tweezed assembly," Proc. SPIE 5930, 568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, and J. B. Ketterson, "Defect-free Optical Assembly of Polystyrene Spheres," Proc. SPIE 5514, 747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kielpinski, D.

A. P. Chikkatur, Y. Shin, A. E. Leanhardt, D. Kielpinski, E. Tsikata, T. L. Gustavson, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "A continuous source of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Science 296, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leanhardt, A. E.

A. P. Chikkatur, Y. Shin, A. E. Leanhardt, D. Kielpinski, E. Tsikata, T. L. Gustavson, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "A continuous source of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Science 296, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leiderer, P.

K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, "Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures," Science 296, 1101-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangold, K.

K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, "Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marr, D. W. M.

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, "Microfluidic control using colloidal devices," Science 296, 1841-1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, C. B.

F. X. Redl, K. S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and S. O'Brien, "Three-dimensional binary superlattices of magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots," Nature 423, 968-971 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oakey, J.

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, "Microfluidic control using colloidal devices," Science 296, 1841-1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Brien, S.

F. X. Redl, K. S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and S. O'Brien, "Three-dimensional binary superlattices of magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots," Nature 423, 968-971 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paterson, L.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures," Science 296, 1101-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

A. P. Chikkatur, Y. Shin, A. E. Leanhardt, D. Kielpinski, E. Tsikata, T. L. Gustavson, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "A continuous source of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Science 296, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Redl, F. X.

F. X. Redl, K. S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and S. O'Brien, "Three-dimensional binary superlattices of magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots," Nature 423, 968-971 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, Y.

A. P. Chikkatur, Y. Shin, A. E. Leanhardt, D. Kielpinski, E. Tsikata, T. L. Gustavson, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "A continuous source of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Science 296, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures," Science 296, 1101-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spalding, G. C.

G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, and J. B. Ketterson, "Defect-free Optical Assembly of Polystyrene Spheres," Proc. SPIE 5514, 747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terray, A.

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, "Microfluidic control using colloidal devices," Science 296, 1841-1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thirumalai, D.

C. Hyeon, and D. Thirumalai, "Mechanical unfolding of RNA hairpins," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 6789-6794 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsikata, E.

A. P. Chikkatur, Y. Shin, A. E. Leanhardt, D. Kielpinski, E. Tsikata, T. L. Gustavson, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "A continuous source of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Science 296, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volke-Sepulveda, K.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures," Science 296, 1101-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, and J. B. Ketterson, "Lens-less approach to image the optically-tweezed assembly," Proc. SPIE 5930, 568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, and J. B. Ketterson, "Defect-free Optical Assembly of Polystyrene Spheres," Proc. SPIE 5514, 747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Willander, M.

N. Calander, and M. Willander, "Optical trapping of single fluorescent molecules at the detection spots of nanoprobes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiltzius, P.

P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, "Microporous materials - Electrochemically grown photonic crystals," Nature 402, 603-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, X. W.

X. W. Zhuang, "Unraveling DNA condensation with optical tweezers," Science 305, 188-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Redl, K. S. Cho, C. B. Murray, and S. O'Brien, "Three-dimensional binary superlattices of magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots," Nature 423, 968-971 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, "Microporous materials - Electrochemically grown photonic crystals," Nature 402, 603-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, "Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Calander, and M. Willander, "Optical trapping of single fluorescent molecules at the detection spots of nanoprobes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

G. Wang, and J. B. Ketterson, "Lens-less approach to image the optically-tweezed assembly," Proc. SPIE 5930, 568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, G. C. Spalding, and J. B. Ketterson, "Defect-free Optical Assembly of Polystyrene Spheres," Proc. SPIE 5514, 747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

C. Hyeon, and D. Thirumalai, "Mechanical unfolding of RNA hairpins," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 6789-6794 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

X. W. Zhuang, "Unraveling DNA condensation with optical tweezers," Science 305, 188-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, "Microfluidic control using colloidal devices," Science 296, 1841-1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures," Science 296, 1101-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Chikkatur, Y. Shin, A. E. Leanhardt, D. Kielpinski, E. Tsikata, T. L. Gustavson, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "A continuous source of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Science 296, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

V. Garces-Chavez, K. Dholakia, and G. C. Spalding, "Extended-area optically induced organization of microparticles on a surface," App. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Mu, G. Wang, L. Luan, G. C. Spalding, and J. B. Ketterson, "Dynamic control of defects in two-dimensional optically assisted assembly," In press (2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Polystyrene spheres assemblies. (a) an assembly trapped on a template of square lattices. (b) an assembly trapped on a template of hexagonal lattices.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diffraction patterns of the polystyrene spheres assemblies. (a) the assembly trapped on a template of square lattices. (b) the assembly trapped on a template of hexagonal lattices.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Diffraction patterns from a dynamic optically-bound assembly.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(2.3MB) Diffractive approach to image a dynamic optically-bound assembly.

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