Abstract

In this work, the numerical and experimental investigation of the cladding modes re-organization in high refractive index (HRI) coated Long Period Gratings (LPGs) is reported. Moreover, the effects of the cladding modes re-organization on the sensitivity to the surrounding medium refractive index (SRI) have been outlined. When azimuthally symmetric nano-scale HRI coatings are deposited along LPGs devices, a significant modification of the cladding modes distribution occurs, depending on the layer features (refractive index and thickness) and on the SRI. In particular, if layer parameters are properly chosen, the transition of the lowest order cladding mode into an overlay mode occurs. As a consequence, a cladding modes re-organization can be observed leading to relevant improvements in the SRI sensitivity in terms of wavelength shift and amplitude variations of the LPGs attenuation bands.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. Qiang and H. E. Chen, “Gain flattening fibre filters using phase shifted long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1132–1133 (1998).
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  4. K. W. Chung and S. Yin, “Analysis of widely tunable long-period grating by use of an ultrathin cladding layer and higher-order cladding mode coupling,” Opt. Lett. 29, 812–814 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Room-temperature operation of widely tunable loss filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 216–218 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “All-optical switching in long period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Bhatia, “Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing,” Opt. Express 4, 457–466 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-11-457.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Y. Lin, L. A. Wang, and G. W. Chern, “Corrugated long period fiber gratings as Strain, Torsion, and Bending Sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1159–1168 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606–1612 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. S. T. Lee, R. D. Kumar, P. S. Kumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Long period gratings in multimode optical fibers: application in chemical sensing,” Opt. Comm. 224, 237–241 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fiber,” Optical Fiber Technol. 9, 210–223 (2003).
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  13. S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 9, 686–688 (2002).
  14. I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30, 720–722 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor based on long period gratings coated with δ form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding modes re-organization in high refractive index coated long period gratings: Effects on the refractive index sensitivity,“ Opt. Lett. 30, (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
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  20. T. Erdogan, “Cladding mode resonances in short and long period fibre grating filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1760–1773 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Transmission characteristics of long- period fiber gratings having arbitrary azimutal/radial refractive index variation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 218–227 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, “Leaky cladding mode propagation in long-period fiber grating devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 343–345 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. O. Duhem, J.-F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and M. Douay “Demonstration of long-period grating efficient couplings with an external medium of a refractive index higher than that of silica,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7223–7228 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Koyamada, “Numerical analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 308–310 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Koyamada, “Analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in Fiber Bragg Gratings with Finite Cladding Radius,” Journal of Lightwave Technol. 18, 1220–1225, (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Monerie, “Propagation in doubly clad single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. of Quantun Electron. 18, (1982).
  29. G. Guerra, V. M. Vitagliano, C. De Rosa, V. Petraccone, and P. Corradini, “Polymorphism in melt crystallized syndiotactic polystyrene samples,” Macromolecules,  23(5), 1539-44 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  30. V. Petraccone, F. Auriemma, F. Dal Poggetto, C. De Rosa, G. Guerra, and P. Corradini, “On the structure of the mesomorphic form of syndiotactic polystyrene,” Makromolekulare Chemie 194, 1335–1345, (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. Guerra, C. Manfredi, P. Musto, and S. Tavone, “Guest conformation and diffusion into Amorphous and emptied Clathrate phases of Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” Macromolecules,  31(4), (1998), 1329–1334.
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Mensitieri, V. Venditto, and G. Guerra, “Polymeric sensing films absorbing organic guests into a nanoporous host crystalline phase,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical B92(3), (2003), 255–261.
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, G. Mensitieri, and G. Guerra “Syndiotactic Polystyrene Thin Film as sensitive layer for an optoelectronic chemical sensing device”, Sensors and Actuators B 109, 177–184 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, G. Mensitieri, and L. Nicolais, “Optical sensor based on ultrathin films of δ-form syndiotactic polystyrene for fast and high resolution detection of chloroform”, Applied Physics Lett. 85, 5349–5351 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. L. D. Landau and B. G. Levich, Acta Physiochim, U.R.S.S.,  17, 42–54 (1942).

2005 (6)

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Exp. 13, 56–69 (2005),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-56.
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coatings,” Opt. Exp. 13, 2808–2813 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-2808.
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor based on long period gratings coated with δ form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding modes re-organization in high refractive index coated long period gratings: Effects on the refractive index sensitivity,“ Opt. Lett. 30, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, G. Mensitieri, and G. Guerra “Syndiotactic Polystyrene Thin Film as sensitive layer for an optoelectronic chemical sensing device”, Sensors and Actuators B 109, 177–184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30, 720–722 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. W. Chung and S. Yin, “Analysis of widely tunable long-period grating by use of an ultrathin cladding layer and higher-order cladding mode coupling,” Opt. Lett. 29, 812–814 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, G. Mensitieri, and L. Nicolais, “Optical sensor based on ultrathin films of δ-form syndiotactic polystyrene for fast and high resolution detection of chloroform”, Applied Physics Lett. 85, 5349–5351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

G. Mensitieri, V. Venditto, and G. Guerra, “Polymeric sensing films absorbing organic guests into a nanoporous host crystalline phase,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical B92(3), (2003), 255–261.
[CrossRef]

E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Transmission characteristics of long- period fiber gratings having arbitrary azimutal/radial refractive index variation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 218–227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14,R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Lee, R. D. Kumar, P. S. Kumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Long period gratings in multimode optical fibers: application in chemical sensing,” Opt. Comm. 224, 237–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fiber,” Optical Fiber Technol. 9, 210–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 9, 686–688 (2002).

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

C. Y. Lin, L. A. Wang, and G. W. Chern, “Corrugated long period fiber gratings as Strain, Torsion, and Bending Sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1159–1168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koyamada, “Numerical analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 308–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Room-temperature operation of widely tunable loss filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 216–218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Koyamada, “Analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in Fiber Bragg Gratings with Finite Cladding Radius,” Journal of Lightwave Technol. 18, 1220–1225, (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

V. Bhatia, “Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing,” Opt. Express 4, 457–466 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-11-457.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, “Leaky cladding mode propagation in long-period fiber grating devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 343–345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606–1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Duhem, J.-F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and M. Douay “Demonstration of long-period grating efficient couplings with an external medium of a refractive index higher than that of silica,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7223–7228 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Qiang and H. E. Chen, “Gain flattening fibre filters using phase shifted long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1132–1133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Guerra, C. Manfredi, P. Musto, and S. Tavone, “Guest conformation and diffusion into Amorphous and emptied Clathrate phases of Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” Macromolecules,  31(4), (1998), 1329–1334.
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, “Cladding mode resonances in short and long period fibre grating filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1760–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “All-optical switching in long period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

V. Petraccone, F. Auriemma, F. Dal Poggetto, C. De Rosa, G. Guerra, and P. Corradini, “On the structure of the mesomorphic form of syndiotactic polystyrene,” Makromolekulare Chemie 194, 1335–1345, (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. Guerra, V. M. Vitagliano, C. De Rosa, V. Petraccone, and P. Corradini, “Polymorphism in melt crystallized syndiotactic polystyrene samples,” Macromolecules,  23(5), 1539-44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. Monerie, “Propagation in doubly clad single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. of Quantun Electron. 18, (1982).

1942 (1)

L. D. Landau and B. G. Levich, Acta Physiochim, U.R.S.S.,  17, 42–54 (1942).

Achaerandio, M.

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fiber,” Optical Fiber Technol. 9, 210–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Room-temperature operation of widely tunable loss filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 216–218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anemogiannis, E.

Arregui, F. J.

I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30, 720–722 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Exp. 13, 56–69 (2005),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-56.
[CrossRef]

Ashwell, G. J.

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 9, 686–688 (2002).

Auriemma, F.

V. Petraccone, F. Auriemma, F. Dal Poggetto, C. De Rosa, G. Guerra, and P. Corradini, “On the structure of the mesomorphic form of syndiotactic polystyrene,” Makromolekulare Chemie 194, 1335–1345, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fiber,” Optical Fiber Technol. 9, 210–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Room-temperature operation of widely tunable loss filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 216–218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia, “Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing,” Opt. Express 4, 457–466 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-11-457.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, F.

Campopiano, S.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding modes re-organization in high refractive index coated long period gratings: Effects on the refractive index sensitivity,“ Opt. Lett. 30, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor based on long period gratings coated with δ form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. E.

J. R. Qiang and H. E. Chen, “Gain flattening fibre filters using phase shifted long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1132–1133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chern, G. W.

Chung, K. W.

Contessa, L.

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor based on long period gratings coated with δ form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding modes re-organization in high refractive index coated long period gratings: Effects on the refractive index sensitivity,“ Opt. Lett. 30, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corradini, P.

V. Petraccone, F. Auriemma, F. Dal Poggetto, C. De Rosa, G. Guerra, and P. Corradini, “On the structure of the mesomorphic form of syndiotactic polystyrene,” Makromolekulare Chemie 194, 1335–1345, (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Guerra, V. M. Vitagliano, C. De Rosa, V. Petraccone, and P. Corradini, “Polymorphism in melt crystallized syndiotactic polystyrene samples,” Macromolecules,  23(5), 1539-44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding modes re-organization in high refractive index coated long period gratings: Effects on the refractive index sensitivity,“ Opt. Lett. 30, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, G. Mensitieri, and G. Guerra “Syndiotactic Polystyrene Thin Film as sensitive layer for an optoelectronic chemical sensing device”, Sensors and Actuators B 109, 177–184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor based on long period gratings coated with δ form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, G. Mensitieri, and L. Nicolais, “Optical sensor based on ultrathin films of δ-form syndiotactic polystyrene for fast and high resolution detection of chloroform”, Applied Physics Lett. 85, 5349–5351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor based on long period gratings coated with δ form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding modes re-organization in high refractive index coated long period gratings: Effects on the refractive index sensitivity,“ Opt. Lett. 30, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, G. Mensitieri, and L. Nicolais, “Optical sensor based on ultrathin films of δ-form syndiotactic polystyrene for fast and high resolution detection of chloroform”, Applied Physics Lett. 85, 5349–5351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dal Poggetto, F.

V. Petraccone, F. Auriemma, F. Dal Poggetto, C. De Rosa, G. Guerra, and P. Corradini, “On the structure of the mesomorphic form of syndiotactic polystyrene,” Makromolekulare Chemie 194, 1335–1345, (1993).
[CrossRef]

De Rosa, C.

V. Petraccone, F. Auriemma, F. Dal Poggetto, C. De Rosa, G. Guerra, and P. Corradini, “On the structure of the mesomorphic form of syndiotactic polystyrene,” Makromolekulare Chemie 194, 1335–1345, (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Guerra, V. M. Vitagliano, C. De Rosa, V. Petraccone, and P. Corradini, “Polymorphism in melt crystallized syndiotactic polystyrene samples,” Macromolecules,  23(5), 1539-44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Del Villar, I.

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Exp. 13, 56–69 (2005),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-56.
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30, 720–722 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douay, M.

Dowker, K. P.

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duhem, O.

Eggleton, B. J.

Erdogan, T.

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, “Leaky cladding mode propagation in long-period fiber grating devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 343–345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, “Cladding mode resonances in short and long period fibre grating filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1760–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Ghassemlooy, Z.

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor based on long period gratings coated with δ form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding modes re-organization in high refractive index coated long period gratings: Effects on the refractive index sensitivity,“ Opt. Lett. 30, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, G. Mensitieri, and G. Guerra “Syndiotactic Polystyrene Thin Film as sensitive layer for an optoelectronic chemical sensing device”, Sensors and Actuators B 109, 177–184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, G. Mensitieri, and L. Nicolais, “Optical sensor based on ultrathin films of δ-form syndiotactic polystyrene for fast and high resolution detection of chloroform”, Applied Physics Lett. 85, 5349–5351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

Guerra, G.

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, G. Mensitieri, and G. Guerra “Syndiotactic Polystyrene Thin Film as sensitive layer for an optoelectronic chemical sensing device”, Sensors and Actuators B 109, 177–184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Mensitieri, V. Venditto, and G. Guerra, “Polymeric sensing films absorbing organic guests into a nanoporous host crystalline phase,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical B92(3), (2003), 255–261.
[CrossRef]

G. Guerra, C. Manfredi, P. Musto, and S. Tavone, “Guest conformation and diffusion into Amorphous and emptied Clathrate phases of Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” Macromolecules,  31(4), (1998), 1329–1334.
[CrossRef]

V. Petraccone, F. Auriemma, F. Dal Poggetto, C. De Rosa, G. Guerra, and P. Corradini, “On the structure of the mesomorphic form of syndiotactic polystyrene,” Makromolekulare Chemie 194, 1335–1345, (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Guerra, V. M. Vitagliano, C. De Rosa, V. Petraccone, and P. Corradini, “Polymorphism in melt crystallized syndiotactic polystyrene samples,” Macromolecules,  23(5), 1539-44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gwandu, B.

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Room-temperature operation of widely tunable loss filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 216–218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, A.

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heflin, J. R.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coatings,” Opt. Exp. 13, 2808–2813 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-2808.
[CrossRef]

Henninot, J.-F.

Hou, R.

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor based on long period gratings coated with δ form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding modes re-organization in high refractive index coated long period gratings: Effects on the refractive index sensitivity,“ Opt. Lett. 30, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14,R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 9, 686–688 (2002).

Judkins, J. B.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “All-optical switching in long period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

Koyamada, Y.

Y. Koyamada, “Numerical analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 308–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koyamada, “Analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in Fiber Bragg Gratings with Finite Cladding Radius,” Journal of Lightwave Technol. 18, 1220–1225, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P. S.

S. T. Lee, R. D. Kumar, P. S. Kumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Long period gratings in multimode optical fibers: application in chemical sensing,” Opt. Comm. 224, 237–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R. D.

S. T. Lee, R. D. Kumar, P. S. Kumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Long period gratings in multimode optical fibers: application in chemical sensing,” Opt. Comm. 224, 237–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Exp. 13, 56–69 (2005),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-56.
[CrossRef]

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and B. G. Levich, Acta Physiochim, U.R.S.S.,  17, 42–54 (1942).

Lee, S. T.

S. T. Lee, R. D. Kumar, P. S. Kumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Long period gratings in multimode optical fibers: application in chemical sensing,” Opt. Comm. 224, 237–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Levich, B. G.

L. D. Landau and B. G. Levich, Acta Physiochim, U.R.S.S.,  17, 42–54 (1942).

Lin, C. Y.

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, “Optical waveguide theory,” (Chapman and Hall, New York, 1983).

Lu, C.

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Manfredi, C.

G. Guerra, C. Manfredi, P. Musto, and S. Tavone, “Guest conformation and diffusion into Amorphous and emptied Clathrate phases of Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” Macromolecules,  31(4), (1998), 1329–1334.
[CrossRef]

Matias, I. R.

I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30, 720–722 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Exp. 13, 56–69 (2005),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-56.
[CrossRef]

Mensitieri, G.

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, G. Mensitieri, and G. Guerra “Syndiotactic Polystyrene Thin Film as sensitive layer for an optoelectronic chemical sensing device”, Sensors and Actuators B 109, 177–184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, G. Mensitieri, and L. Nicolais, “Optical sensor based on ultrathin films of δ-form syndiotactic polystyrene for fast and high resolution detection of chloroform”, Applied Physics Lett. 85, 5349–5351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Mensitieri, V. Venditto, and G. Guerra, “Polymeric sensing films absorbing organic guests into a nanoporous host crystalline phase,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical B92(3), (2003), 255–261.
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

M. Monerie, “Propagation in doubly clad single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. of Quantun Electron. 18, (1982).

Musto, P.

G. Guerra, C. Manfredi, P. Musto, and S. Tavone, “Guest conformation and diffusion into Amorphous and emptied Clathrate phases of Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” Macromolecules,  31(4), (1998), 1329–1334.
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

S. T. Lee, R. D. Kumar, P. S. Kumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Long period gratings in multimode optical fibers: application in chemical sensing,” Opt. Comm. 224, 237–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nicolais, L.

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, G. Mensitieri, and L. Nicolais, “Optical sensor based on ultrathin films of δ-form syndiotactic polystyrene for fast and high resolution detection of chloroform”, Applied Physics Lett. 85, 5349–5351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

Petraccone, V.

V. Petraccone, F. Auriemma, F. Dal Poggetto, C. De Rosa, G. Guerra, and P. Corradini, “On the structure of the mesomorphic form of syndiotactic polystyrene,” Makromolekulare Chemie 194, 1335–1345, (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Guerra, V. M. Vitagliano, C. De Rosa, V. Petraccone, and P. Corradini, “Polymorphism in melt crystallized syndiotactic polystyrene samples,” Macromolecules,  23(5), 1539-44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pilla, P.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding modes re-organization in high refractive index coated long period gratings: Effects on the refractive index sensitivity,“ Opt. Lett. 30, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor based on long period gratings coated with δ form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qiang, J. R.

J. R. Qiang and H. E. Chen, “Gain flattening fibre filters using phase shifted long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1132–1133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, P.

S. T. Lee, R. D. Kumar, P. S. Kumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Long period gratings in multimode optical fibers: application in chemical sensing,” Opt. Comm. 224, 237–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coatings,” Opt. Exp. 13, 2808–2813 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-2808.
[CrossRef]

Rees, N. D.

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 9, 686–688 (2002).

Russo, M.

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, G. Mensitieri, and G. Guerra “Syndiotactic Polystyrene Thin Film as sensitive layer for an optoelectronic chemical sensing device”, Sensors and Actuators B 109, 177–184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, G. Mensitieri, and L. Nicolais, “Optical sensor based on ultrathin films of δ-form syndiotactic polystyrene for fast and high resolution detection of chloroform”, Applied Physics Lett. 85, 5349–5351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Room-temperature operation of widely tunable loss filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 216–218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, “Optical waveguide theory,” (Chapman and Hall, New York, 1983).

Stark, J. B.

Stegall, D. B.

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, “Leaky cladding mode propagation in long-period fiber grating devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 343–345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coatings,” Opt. Exp. 13, 2808–2813 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-2808.
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14,R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 9, 686–688 (2002).

Tavone, S.

G. Guerra, C. Manfredi, P. Musto, and S. Tavone, “Guest conformation and diffusion into Amorphous and emptied Clathrate phases of Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” Macromolecules,  31(4), (1998), 1329–1334.
[CrossRef]

Vallabhan, C. P. G.

S. T. Lee, R. D. Kumar, P. S. Kumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Long period gratings in multimode optical fibers: application in chemical sensing,” Opt. Comm. 224, 237–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Venditto, V.

G. Mensitieri, V. Venditto, and G. Guerra, “Polymeric sensing films absorbing organic guests into a nanoporous host crystalline phase,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical B92(3), (2003), 255–261.
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “All-optical switching in long period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vitagliano, V. M.

G. Guerra, V. M. Vitagliano, C. De Rosa, V. Petraccone, and P. Corradini, “Polymorphism in melt crystallized syndiotactic polystyrene samples,” Macromolecules,  23(5), 1539-44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. A.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coatings,” Opt. Exp. 13, 2808–2813 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-2808.
[CrossRef]

Warenghem, M.

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fiber,” Optical Fiber Technol. 9, 210–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yin, S.

Zhang, L.

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Room-temperature operation of widely tunable loss filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 216–218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Applied Physics Lett. (1)

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, G. Mensitieri, and L. Nicolais, “Optical sensor based on ultrathin films of δ-form syndiotactic polystyrene for fast and high resolution detection of chloroform”, Applied Physics Lett. 85, 5349–5351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. R. Qiang and H. E. Chen, “Gain flattening fibre filters using phase shifted long period fibre grating,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1132–1133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Room-temperature operation of widely tunable loss filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 216–218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. of Quantun Electron. (1)

M. Monerie, “Propagation in doubly clad single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. of Quantun Electron. 18, (1982).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. Koyamada, “Numerical analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 308–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor based on long period gratings coated with δ form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, “Leaky cladding mode propagation in long-period fiber grating devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 343–345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

T. Erdogan, “Cladding mode resonances in short and long period fibre grating filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1760–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Lightwave Technol. (1)

Y. Koyamada, “Analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in Fiber Bragg Gratings with Finite Cladding Radius,” Journal of Lightwave Technol. 18, 1220–1225, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (2)

G. Guerra, V. M. Vitagliano, C. De Rosa, V. Petraccone, and P. Corradini, “Polymorphism in melt crystallized syndiotactic polystyrene samples,” Macromolecules,  23(5), 1539-44 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Guerra, C. Manfredi, P. Musto, and S. Tavone, “Guest conformation and diffusion into Amorphous and emptied Clathrate phases of Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” Macromolecules,  31(4), (1998), 1329–1334.
[CrossRef]

Makromolekulare Chemie (1)

V. Petraccone, F. Auriemma, F. Dal Poggetto, C. De Rosa, G. Guerra, and P. Corradini, “On the structure of the mesomorphic form of syndiotactic polystyrene,” Makromolekulare Chemie 194, 1335–1345, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14,R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comm. (1)

S. T. Lee, R. D. Kumar, P. S. Kumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Long period gratings in multimode optical fibers: application in chemical sensing,” Opt. Comm. 224, 237–241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (2)

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Exp. 13, 56–69 (2005),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-56.
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coatings,” Opt. Exp. 13, 2808–2813 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-2808.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

K. W. Chung and S. Yin, “Analysis of widely tunable long-period grating by use of an ultrathin cladding layer and higher-order cladding mode coupling,” Opt. Lett. 29, 812–814 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30, 720–722 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 9, 686–688 (2002).

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “All-optical switching in long period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22, 883–885 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Cladding modes re-organization in high refractive index coated long period gratings: Effects on the refractive index sensitivity,“ Opt. Lett. 30, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optical Fiber Technol. (1)

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fiber,” Optical Fiber Technol. 9, 210–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sensors and Actuators B (1)

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, G. Mensitieri, and G. Guerra “Syndiotactic Polystyrene Thin Film as sensitive layer for an optoelectronic chemical sensing device”, Sensors and Actuators B 109, 177–184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical (1)

G. Mensitieri, V. Venditto, and G. Guerra, “Polymeric sensing films absorbing organic guests into a nanoporous host crystalline phase,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical B92(3), (2003), 255–261.
[CrossRef]

U.R.S.S. (1)

L. D. Landau and B. G. Levich, Acta Physiochim, U.R.S.S.,  17, 42–54 (1942).

Other (1)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, “Optical waveguide theory,” (Chapman and Hall, New York, 1983).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transversal section of the investiated structure (not in scale).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effective refractive index of the LP02-LP08 cladding modes versus the surrounding refractive index in HRI coated fiber with: (a) 150nm thin film; (b) 200nm; (c) 250nm and (d) 300nm thin film.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Coupling coefficients of the LP02-LP08 cladding modes versus the surrounding refractive index in HRI coated fiber with: (a) 150nm thin film; (b) 200nm; (c) 250nm and (d) 300nm thin film.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SRI corresponding to the maximum sensitivity versus the overlay thickness for first 7 cladding modes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Cladding mode field in a 200nm coated LPG, before transition (SRI=1), in transition (SRI=1.40) and after transition (SRI=1.45): (a) LP02; (b) LP03; and (c) LP04.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM Photogram reveals an overlay thickness of about 150nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Bare and 150nm sPS coated LPG transmission spectra for the LP06 cladding mode.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Transmission spectra of a 150nm sPS coated LPG for different values of SRI in the range 1.33-1.472

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Transmission spectra of a 150nm sPS coated LPG zoomed on LP07 and LP08 cladding modes

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Wavelength shift of different cladding modes for the LPG coated with a 150nm sPS overlay versus SRI.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Peak Loss of different cladding modes versus SRI for the LPG coated with a 150nm sPS overlay.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Wavelength shift of different cladding modes for the LPG coated with a 140nm sPS overlay versus SRI.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Wavelength shift of a higher cladding mode for the LPG coated with a 180nm sPS overlay versus SRI.

Equations (12)

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2 π λ ( n eff , 01 n eff , 0 i ) + s 0 ( ζ 01,01 ( λ ) ζ 0 i , 0 i ( λ ) ) = 2 π Λ
T = cos 2 ( k i L )
K vj , μi = ω 4 P 0 × ϕ = 0 2 π r = 0 Δε ( r , ϕ , z ) ψ vj ( r , ϕ ) ψ μi ( r , ϕ ) rdrdϕ
K 0 j , 0 i = [ s 0 + s 1 cos ( ( 2 π Λ ) z ) ] ζ 0 j , 0 i
ζ 0 j , 0 i = 2 πω 2 P 0 n 1 r = 0 r 1 R 0 j ( r ) R 0 i ( r ) rdr
R v ( r ) = { A 0 Z v , 1 ( u 1 r r 1 ) for r r 1 A 1 Z v , 2 ( u 2 r r 2 ) + A 2 T v , 2 ( u 2 r r 2 ) for r 1 < r r 2 A 3 Z v , 3 ( u 3 r r 3 ) + A 4 T v , 3 ( u 3 r r 3 ) for r 2 < r r 3 A 5 K v ( v r r 3 ) for r > r 3
Z v , i ( x ) = { J v ( x ) if n eff < n i I v ( x ) if n eff > n i
T v , i ( x ) = { Y v ( x ) if n eff < n i K v ( x ) if n eff > n i
u i = r i k 0 n i 2 n eff 2 for i = 1,2,3
v = r 3 k 0 n eff 2 n out 2
n 2 1 n 2 + 1 = N 3 ρβ
t = k ( U ) 2 3 ( ρ ) 1 2

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