Abstract

We describe the first observation of spontaneous Raman emission, stimulated amplification, and lasing in a SiGe waveguide. A pulsed optical gain of 16dB and a lasing threshold of 25 W peak pulse power (20 mW average) is observed for a Si1-xGex waveguide with x=7.5%. At the same time, a 40 GHz frequency downshift is observed in the Raman spectrum compared to that of a silicon waveguide. The spectral shift can be attributed to the combination of composition- and strain-induced shift in the optical phonon frequency. The prospect of Germanium-Silicon-on-Oxide as a flexible Raman medium is discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, B. Jalali, �??Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305</a>
    [PubMed]
  2. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731</a>
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    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 2862-2872 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, �??Wavelength conversion in Silicon using Raman induced four-wave mixing,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 34-36 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultra small silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3713-3718 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3713">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3713</a>
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. Raghunathan, O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, �??20 dB on-off Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,�?? Proceedings of CLEO, Baltimore (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Paniccia, H.S. Rong, A.S. Liu, �??Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,�?? Opt. Express 13, 519-525 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-519">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-519</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M.W.C. Dharma-wardana, G.C. Aers, D. J. Lockwood and J.M. Baribeau, �??Interpretation of Raman Spectra of Ge/Si ultrathin superlattices,�?? Phys. Rev B 41, 5319 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Robillard, P.E. Jessop, D.M. Bruce, S. Janz, R.L. Williams, S. Mailhot, H. Lafontaine, S.J. Kovacic, J.J. Ojha; �??Strain-induced birefringence in Si1-xGex optical waveguides,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1773-1776 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. R. People, J.C. Bean; �??Calculation of critical layer thickness versus lattice mismatch for GexSi1-x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 322-324 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G.P. Agrawal, �??Nonlinear fiber optics,�?? Academic Press (1995)
  18. M.I. Alonso, K. Winer; �??Raman spectra of c-Si1-xGex alloys,�?? Phys. Rev. B 39, 10056-10062 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Kutsukake, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima; �??On the origin of strain fluctuation in strained-Si grown on SiGe-on-insulator and SiGe virtual substrates,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1335-1337 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Byra, �??Raman Scattering in Ge-Si alloys,�?? Solid State Comm. 12, 253 (1973).
  21. J.C. Tsang, P.M. Mooney, F. Dacol, J. O. Chou, �??Measurements of alloy composition and strain in thin GexSi1-x layers,�?? J. of Appl. Phys. 75, 8098-8108 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. A. Logan, J.M. Rowell, and F.A. Trumbore; �??Phonon Spectra of Ge-Si Alloys,�?? Phys. Rev. 136, A 1751-A 1755 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H.K. Shin, D.J. Lockwood, J.-M Baribeau; �??Strain in coherent-wave SiGe/Si superlattices,�?? Solid State Comm. 114, 505-510 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Schaffler, �??Properties of Advanced Semiconductor Materials GaN, AlN, InN, BN, SiC, SiGe,�?? pp. 149-188, Eds. Levinshtein M.E., Rumyantsev S.L., Shur M.S., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (2001).
  25. F. Cerdeira, C.J. Buchenauer, F. H. Pollack and M. Cardona; �??Stress-Induced Shifts of First-Order Raman Frequencies of Diamond- and Zinc-Blende-Type Semiconductors,�?? Phys. Rev. B 5, 580-593 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. Anastassakis, A. Pinczuk, E. Burstein, F.H. Pollack, M. Cardona; �??Effect of static uniaxial stress on the Raman spectrum of silicon,�?? Sol. State Comm. 8, 133-138 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Liang TK, Tsang HK; �??Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343-3345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, �??Wavelength conversion in Silicon using Raman induced four-wave mixing,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 34-36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. People, J.C. Bean; �??Calculation of critical layer thickness versus lattice mismatch for GexSi1-x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 322-324 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Kutsukake, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima; �??On the origin of strain fluctuation in strained-Si grown on SiGe-on-insulator and SiGe virtual substrates,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1335-1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rong HS, Liu AS, Nicolaescu R, Paniccia M, Cohen O, Hak D; �??Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. of Appl. Phys. (1)

J.C. Tsang, P.M. Mooney, F. Dacol, J. O. Chou, �??Measurements of alloy composition and strain in thin GexSi1-x layers,�?? J. of Appl. Phys. 75, 8098-8108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Robillard, P.E. Jessop, D.M. Bruce, S. Janz, R.L. Williams, S. Mailhot, H. Lafontaine, S.J. Kovacic, J.J. Ojha; �??Strain-induced birefringence in Si1-xGex optical waveguides,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1773-1776 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, �??A continuous-wave Raman Silicon Laser,�?? Nature 433, 425-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, B. Jalali, �??Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305</a>
[PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 2862-2872 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultra small silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3713-3718 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3713">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3713</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, "Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4437-4442 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paniccia, H.S. Rong, A.S. Liu, �??Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,�?? Opt. Express 13, 519-525 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-519">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-519</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev B (1)

M.W.C. Dharma-wardana, G.C. Aers, D. J. Lockwood and J.M. Baribeau, �??Interpretation of Raman Spectra of Ge/Si ultrathin superlattices,�?? Phys. Rev B 41, 5319 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. A. Logan, J.M. Rowell, and F.A. Trumbore; �??Phonon Spectra of Ge-Si Alloys,�?? Phys. Rev. 136, A 1751-A 1755 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M.I. Alonso, K. Winer; �??Raman spectra of c-Si1-xGex alloys,�?? Phys. Rev. B 39, 10056-10062 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Cerdeira, C.J. Buchenauer, F. H. Pollack and M. Cardona; �??Stress-Induced Shifts of First-Order Raman Frequencies of Diamond- and Zinc-Blende-Type Semiconductors,�?? Phys. Rev. B 5, 580-593 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of CLEO (1)

V. Raghunathan, O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, �??20 dB on-off Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,�?? Proceedings of CLEO, Baltimore (2005).

Sol. State Comm. (1)

E. Anastassakis, A. Pinczuk, E. Burstein, F.H. Pollack, M. Cardona; �??Effect of static uniaxial stress on the Raman spectrum of silicon,�?? Sol. State Comm. 8, 133-138 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Comm. (2)

W. Byra, �??Raman Scattering in Ge-Si alloys,�?? Solid State Comm. 12, 253 (1973).

H.K. Shin, D.J. Lockwood, J.-M Baribeau; �??Strain in coherent-wave SiGe/Si superlattices,�?? Solid State Comm. 114, 505-510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

F. Schaffler, �??Properties of Advanced Semiconductor Materials GaN, AlN, InN, BN, SiC, SiGe,�?? pp. 149-188, Eds. Levinshtein M.E., Rumyantsev S.L., Shur M.S., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (2001).

G.P. Agrawal, �??Nonlinear fiber optics,�?? Academic Press (1995)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spontaneous Raman spectrum from a SiGe waveguide, compared to that of a Silicon waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time domain trace of the maximum Raman amplification obtained with the SiGe alloy waveguide, using a pulsed pump scheme.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Gain curve as a function of average pump power in the pulsed pump experiment.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The signal laser line for the wavelength at which maximum Raman amplification is observed. Two cases are shown: a pure SOI waveguide, and an SGOI waveguide.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Free-Carrier lifetime measurements. The cw signal laser has been de-tuned from the Raman resonance of the pulsed pump laser, and a net TPA loss is observed. The slow decay of the FCA effect is clear, and has been fitted to an exponential decay with a lifetime of τ=9 ns.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Variation of the average output Stokes power versus input pump power, for the SiGe laser.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Critical layer thickness for SiGe alloy as a function of the Ge concentration. After [16].

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The spatial profile of the optical mode is shown (red curve) along with the Ge content spatial profile as obtained by a SIMS technique (blue curve)

Equations (4)

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ω S i ( cm 1 ) = 520.1 65 x
ω S i ( cm 1 ) = 520.2 + Δ · Σ
Ω s Ω d = τ 2 ω 0 ( p q ) ( s 11 s 12 ) .
τ = e 1 ( s 11 + s 12 ) = 0.529 GPa ,

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