Abstract

The propagation and combination of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in Y-shaped metallic nanochannels are investigated numerically via finite difference time domain (FDTD). It is shown that the behavior of SPPs in nano-size channels resembles that of light guiding in conventional waveguides, and SPPs can also be combined effectively with appropriately designed structures. The loss associated with metal absorption and scattering with the multiple reflections between slit openings on the bend angle are analyzed numerically. The Fabry–Perot cavity effect displayed by SPPs traveling in channels with finite length is discussed as well.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Raether , “ Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings ,” ( Springer, Heidelberg , 1988 ).
  2. T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T.W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. J. Lezec , A. Degiron , E. Devaux , R. A. Linke , L. Martin-Moreno , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture ,” Science   297 , 820 – 822 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. L. Barnes , A. Dereux , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Surface plasmon subwavelength optics ,” Nature   424 , 824 – 830 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. J. Sun and H. K. Kim , “ Refractive transmission of light and beam shaping with metallic nano-optic lenses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 642 – 644 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. I. Bozhevolnyi , V. S. Volkov , E. Devaux , and T.W. Ebbessen , “ Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 046802 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Hasegawa , J. U. Nockel , and M. Deutsch , “ Surface plasmon polaritons propagation around bends at a metal-dielectric interface ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1835 – 1837 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka , “ Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1158 – 1159 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance ,” Opt. Express   12 , 3055 – 3065 ( 2004 ) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3055 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Luo , H. Wang , JP. Shi , and H. Yao . “ Light propagation through unperforated metallic structure: Plasmon resonance induced transparency ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 1181 – 1188 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Luo , JP Shi , H. Wang , and G. Yu . “ Surface plasmon polariton radiation from metallic photonic crystal slabs breaking the diffraction limit: Nano-storage and nano-fabrication ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 945 – 953 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Sub-100-nm photolithography based on plasmon resonance ,” Japan. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 4017 – 4021 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4780 – 4782 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. F. Shi , C. T. Wang , C. L. Du , X. G. Luo , X. C. Dong , and H. T. Gao , “ Beam manipulating by metallic nano-slits with variant widths ,” Opt. Express   13 , 6815 – 6820 ( 2005 )
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. X. Luo , Y. G. Lv , C. L. Du , J. X. Ma , H. Wang , H. Y. Li , G. R. Yang , and H. M. Yao , “ Spatial distribution of surface plasmon polariton from metallic nanostructures ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   19 , 599 – 606 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi , V. S. Volkov , E. Devaux , and T.W. Ebbessen , “ Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 046802 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Luo , Y. G. Lv , C. L. Du , J. X. Ma , H. Wang , H. Y. Li , G. R. Yang , and H. M. Yao , “ Spatial distribution of surface plasmon polariton from metallic nanostructures ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   19 , 599 – 606 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Shi , C. T. Wang , C. L. Du , X. G. Luo , X. C. Dong , and H. T. Gao , “ Beam manipulating by metallic nano-slits with variant widths ,” Opt. Express   13 , 6815 – 6820 ( 2005 )
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance ,” Opt. Express   12 , 3055 – 3065 ( 2004 ) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3055 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hasegawa , J. U. Nockel , and M. Deutsch , “ Surface plasmon polaritons propagation around bends at a metal-dielectric interface ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1835 – 1837 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo , H. Wang , JP. Shi , and H. Yao . “ Light propagation through unperforated metallic structure: Plasmon resonance induced transparency ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 1181 – 1188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo , JP Shi , H. Wang , and G. Yu . “ Surface plasmon polariton radiation from metallic photonic crystal slabs breaking the diffraction limit: Nano-storage and nano-fabrication ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 945 – 953 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Sub-100-nm photolithography based on plasmon resonance ,” Japan. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 4017 – 4021 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4780 – 4782 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

W. L. Barnes , A. Dereux , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Surface plasmon subwavelength optics ,” Nature   424 , 824 – 830 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. J. Sun and H. K. Kim , “ Refractive transmission of light and beam shaping with metallic nano-optic lenses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 642 – 644 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka , “ Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1158 – 1159 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec , A. Degiron , E. Devaux , R. A. Linke , L. Martin-Moreno , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture ,” Science   297 , 820 – 822 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T.W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes , A. Dereux , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Surface plasmon subwavelength optics ,” Nature   424 , 824 – 830 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi , V. S. Volkov , E. Devaux , and T.W. Ebbessen , “ Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 046802 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec , A. Degiron , E. Devaux , R. A. Linke , L. Martin-Moreno , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture ,” Science   297 , 820 – 822 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes , A. Dereux , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Surface plasmon subwavelength optics ,” Nature   424 , 824 – 830 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deutsch, M.

K. Hasegawa , J. U. Nockel , and M. Deutsch , “ Surface plasmon polaritons propagation around bends at a metal-dielectric interface ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1835 – 1837 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi , V. S. Volkov , E. Devaux , and T.W. Ebbessen , “ Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 046802 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec , A. Degiron , E. Devaux , R. A. Linke , L. Martin-Moreno , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture ,” Science   297 , 820 – 822 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, X. C.

Du, C. L.

H. F. Shi , C. T. Wang , C. L. Du , X. G. Luo , X. C. Dong , and H. T. Gao , “ Beam manipulating by metallic nano-slits with variant widths ,” Opt. Express   13 , 6815 – 6820 ( 2005 )
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Luo , Y. G. Lv , C. L. Du , J. X. Ma , H. Wang , H. Y. Li , G. R. Yang , and H. M. Yao , “ Spatial distribution of surface plasmon polariton from metallic nanostructures ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   19 , 599 – 606 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes , A. Dereux , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Surface plasmon subwavelength optics ,” Nature   424 , 824 – 830 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec , A. Degiron , E. Devaux , R. A. Linke , L. Martin-Moreno , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture ,” Science   297 , 820 – 822 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T.W.

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T.W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbessen, T.W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi , V. S. Volkov , E. Devaux , and T.W. Ebbessen , “ Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 046802 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H. T.

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec , A. Degiron , E. Devaux , R. A. Linke , L. Martin-Moreno , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture ,” Science   297 , 820 – 822 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T.W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, K.

K. Hasegawa , J. U. Nockel , and M. Deutsch , “ Surface plasmon polaritons propagation around bends at a metal-dielectric interface ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1835 – 1837 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, T.

X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Sub-100-nm photolithography based on plasmon resonance ,” Japan. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 4017 – 4021 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance ,” Opt. Express   12 , 3055 – 3065 ( 2004 ) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3055 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4780 – 4782 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

Z. J. Sun and H. K. Kim , “ Refractive transmission of light and beam shaping with metallic nano-optic lenses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 642 – 644 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec , A. Degiron , E. Devaux , R. A. Linke , L. Martin-Moreno , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture ,” Science   297 , 820 – 822 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T.W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. Y.

X. Luo , Y. G. Lv , C. L. Du , J. X. Ma , H. Wang , H. Y. Li , G. R. Yang , and H. M. Yao , “ Spatial distribution of surface plasmon polariton from metallic nanostructures ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   19 , 599 – 606 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec , A. Degiron , E. Devaux , R. A. Linke , L. Martin-Moreno , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture ,” Science   297 , 820 – 822 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

X. Luo , Y. G. Lv , C. L. Du , J. X. Ma , H. Wang , H. Y. Li , G. R. Yang , and H. M. Yao , “ Spatial distribution of surface plasmon polariton from metallic nanostructures ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   19 , 599 – 606 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4780 – 4782 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance ,” Opt. Express   12 , 3055 – 3065 ( 2004 ) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3055 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Luo , JP Shi , H. Wang , and G. Yu . “ Surface plasmon polariton radiation from metallic photonic crystal slabs breaking the diffraction limit: Nano-storage and nano-fabrication ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 945 – 953 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Sub-100-nm photolithography based on plasmon resonance ,” Japan. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 4017 – 4021 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo , H. Wang , JP. Shi , and H. Yao . “ Light propagation through unperforated metallic structure: Plasmon resonance induced transparency ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 1181 – 1188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. G.

Lv, Y. G.

X. Luo , Y. G. Lv , C. L. Du , J. X. Ma , H. Wang , H. Y. Li , G. R. Yang , and H. M. Yao , “ Spatial distribution of surface plasmon polariton from metallic nanostructures ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   19 , 599 – 606 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J. X.

X. Luo , Y. G. Lv , C. L. Du , J. X. Ma , H. Wang , H. Y. Li , G. R. Yang , and H. M. Yao , “ Spatial distribution of surface plasmon polariton from metallic nanostructures ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   19 , 599 – 606 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec , A. Degiron , E. Devaux , R. A. Linke , L. Martin-Moreno , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture ,” Science   297 , 820 – 822 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T.W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nockel, J. U.

K. Hasegawa , J. U. Nockel , and M. Deutsch , “ Surface plasmon polaritons propagation around bends at a metal-dielectric interface ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1835 – 1837 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T.W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T.W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raether, H.

H. Raether , “ Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings ,” ( Springer, Heidelberg , 1988 ).

Shi, H. F.

Shi, JP

X. Luo , JP Shi , H. Wang , and G. Yu . “ Surface plasmon polariton radiation from metallic photonic crystal slabs breaking the diffraction limit: Nano-storage and nano-fabrication ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 945 – 953 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Shi, JP.

X. Luo , H. Wang , JP. Shi , and H. Yao . “ Light propagation through unperforated metallic structure: Plasmon resonance induced transparency ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 1181 – 1188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z. J.

Z. J. Sun and H. K. Kim , “ Refractive transmission of light and beam shaping with metallic nano-optic lenses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 642 – 644 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka , “ Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1158 – 1159 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka , “ Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1158 – 1159 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T.W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi , V. S. Volkov , E. Devaux , and T.W. Ebbessen , “ Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 046802 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. T.

Wang, H.

X. Luo , Y. G. Lv , C. L. Du , J. X. Ma , H. Wang , H. Y. Li , G. R. Yang , and H. M. Yao , “ Spatial distribution of surface plasmon polariton from metallic nanostructures ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   19 , 599 – 606 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo , JP Shi , H. Wang , and G. Yu . “ Surface plasmon polariton radiation from metallic photonic crystal slabs breaking the diffraction limit: Nano-storage and nano-fabrication ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 945 – 953 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo , H. Wang , JP. Shi , and H. Yao . “ Light propagation through unperforated metallic structure: Plasmon resonance induced transparency ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 1181 – 1188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. R.

X. Luo , Y. G. Lv , C. L. Du , J. X. Ma , H. Wang , H. Y. Li , G. R. Yang , and H. M. Yao , “ Spatial distribution of surface plasmon polariton from metallic nanostructures ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   19 , 599 – 606 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Yao, H.

X. Luo , H. Wang , JP. Shi , and H. Yao . “ Light propagation through unperforated metallic structure: Plasmon resonance induced transparency ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 1181 – 1188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Yao, H. M.

X. Luo , Y. G. Lv , C. L. Du , J. X. Ma , H. Wang , H. Y. Li , G. R. Yang , and H. M. Yao , “ Spatial distribution of surface plasmon polariton from metallic nanostructures ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   19 , 599 – 606 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

X. Luo , JP Shi , H. Wang , and G. Yu . “ Surface plasmon polariton radiation from metallic photonic crystal slabs breaking the diffraction limit: Nano-storage and nano-fabrication ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 945 – 953 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. Hasegawa , J. U. Nockel , and M. Deutsch , “ Surface plasmon polaritons propagation around bends at a metal-dielectric interface ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1835 – 1837 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka , “ Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1158 – 1159 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4780 – 4782 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Sun and H. K. Kim , “ Refractive transmission of light and beam shaping with metallic nano-optic lenses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 642 – 644 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Japan. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. Luo and T. Ishihara , “ Sub-100-nm photolithography based on plasmon resonance ,” Japan. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 4017 – 4021 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Mod. Phys. Lett. B (3)

X. Luo , Y. G. Lv , C. L. Du , J. X. Ma , H. Wang , H. Y. Li , G. R. Yang , and H. M. Yao , “ Spatial distribution of surface plasmon polariton from metallic nanostructures ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   19 , 599 – 606 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo , H. Wang , JP. Shi , and H. Yao . “ Light propagation through unperforated metallic structure: Plasmon resonance induced transparency ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 1181 – 1188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo , JP Shi , H. Wang , and G. Yu . “ Surface plasmon polariton radiation from metallic photonic crystal slabs breaking the diffraction limit: Nano-storage and nano-fabrication ,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B   18 , 945 – 953 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes , A. Dereux , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Surface plasmon subwavelength optics ,” Nature   424 , 824 – 830 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi , V. S. Volkov , E. Devaux , and T.W. Ebbessen , “ Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 046802 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T.W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

H. J. Lezec , A. Degiron , E. Devaux , R. A. Linke , L. Martin-Moreno , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture ,” Science   297 , 820 – 822 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Raether , “ Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings ,” ( Springer, Heidelberg , 1988 ).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dependence of complex propagation constant of SPPs in metallic channels on the channel width at the wavelength of 650 nm. The solid and dashed curves represent real and imaginary parts, respectively. The dotted curve corresponds to the propagation constant for the electromagnetic wave in a vacuum.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The schematic of the Y-shaped metallic channel for SPP combination.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of the cascaded Y-shaped metallic channels structure for four SPPs combined into one.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

FDTD simulation result of Poynting vector Sz of the combination structure shown in Fig. 3 for λ = 650 nm and w= 30 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output intensity of the Y combiner of 2 to 1 with a different bend angle. The two arms are 150 nm long and the total length of the combiner is set to 400 nm. Channel width and wavelength are the same as in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Output intensity for the Y combiner of 2 to 1 with different length of the stem channel. The bend angle here is 60° and arms length is 150 nm. Channels width and wavelength are as stated in Fig. 4.

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