Abstract

Electrochromic phenomena accompanying the ferroelectric domain inversion in congruent RuO2-doped z-cut LiNbO3 crystals at room temperature are observed in experiments. During the electric poling process, the electrochromism accompanies the ferroelectric domain inversion simultaneously in the same poled area. The electrochromism is completely reversible when the domain is inverted from the reverse direction. The influences of electric field and annealing conditions on domain inversion and electrochromism are also discussed. We propose the reasonable assumption that charge redistribution within the crystal structure caused by domain inversion is the source for electrochemically oxidation and reduction of Ru ion to produce the electrochromic effect.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. Ya. Shur , E. L. Rumyantsev , R. G. Batchko , G. D. Miller , M. M. Fejer , and R. L. Byer , “ Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics ,” Ferroelectrics   221 , 157 – 167 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. Chiang , Y. Y. Lin , T. D. Wang , and Y. C. Huang , “ Distributed-feedback optical parametric oscillation by use of a photorefractive grating in periodically poled lithium niobate ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1815 – 1817 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. W. Chen and K. Masters , “ Continuous-wave 4.3-μm intracavity difference frequency generation in an optical parametric oscillator ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 25 – 27 ( 2001 )
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Sasaki , A. Yuri , K. Kawase , and H. Ito , “ Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO 3 crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 3323 – 3325 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Kawase , T. Hatanaka , H. Takahashi , K. Nakamura , T. Taniuchi , and H. Ito , “ Tunable terahertz-wave generation from DAST crystal by dual signal-wave parametric oscillation of periodically poled lithium niobate ,” Opt. Lett.   25 , 1714 – 1716 , ( 2000 )
    [Crossref]
  6. R. W. Eason , A. J. Boyland , S. Mailis , and P. G. R. Smith , “ Electro-optically controlled beam deflection for grazing incidence geometry on a domain-engineered interface in LiNbO 3 ,” Opt. Commun.   197 , 201 – 207 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Yamada , M. Saitoh , and H. Ooki , “ Electric-field induced cylindrical lens,switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO 3 crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 3659 – 3661 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Q. Lu , Z. L. Wan , Q. Wang , Y. X. Xi , and N. B. Ming , “ Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO 3 and its applications ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 3719 – 3721 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  9. N. G. R. Broderick , G. W. Ross , H. L. Offerhaus , D. J. Richardson , and D. C. Hanna , “ Hexagonally Poled Lithium Niobate: A Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Crystal ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4345 – 4348 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. Kuroda , S. Kurimura , and Y. Uesu , “ Domain inversion in ferroelectric MgO:LiNbO 3 by applying electric fields ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 1565 – 1567 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. Nakamura , J. Kurz , K. Parameswaran , and M. M. Fejer , “ Periodic poling of magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 4528 – 4534 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. Ishizuki , I. Shoji , and T. Taira , “ Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO 3 crystals at elevated temperature ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4062 – 4064 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. L.-H. Peng , Y.-C. Zhang , and Y.-C. Lin , “ Zinc oxide doping effects in polarization switching of lithium niobate ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 4 – 6 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. W. Faughnan , R. S. Crandall , and P. M. Heyman , “ Electrochromism in tungsten (VI) oxide amorphous films ,” RCA Review ,   36 , 177 – 197 ( 1975 ).
  15. S. Gottesfeld , J. D. E. McIntyre , G. Beni , and J. L. Shay , “ Electrochromism in anodic iridium oxide films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   33 , 208 – 210 ( 1978 ).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Grätzel , “ Ultrafast colour displays ,” Nature   409 , 575 – 576 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Q. X. Xi , D. A. Liu , Y. N. Zhi , Z. Luan , and L. R. Liu , “ Reversible electrochromic effect accompanying domain-inversion in LiNbO 3 :Ru:Fe crystals. ” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 121103 – 121105 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. H. Lee , P. Liu , H. M. Cheong , C. Edwin Tracy , and S. K. Deb , “ Electrochromism of amorphous ruthenium oxide thin films ,” Solid State Ionic   165 , 217 – 221 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  19. V. Gopalan , T. E. Mitchell , and K. E. Sicakfus , “ Switching kinetics of 180° domains in congruent LiNbO 3 and LiTaO 3 crystals ,” Solid State Commun.   109 , 111 – 117 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Yamada , N. Nada , M. Saitoh , and K. Watanabe , “ First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO 3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   62 , 435 – 436 ( 1993 ).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. C. Wengler , M. Müller , E. Soergel , and K. Buse , “ Poling dynamics of lithium niobate crystals ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 393 – 396 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Müller , E. Soergel , and K. Buse , “ Visualization of ferroelectric domains with coherent light ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2515 – 2517 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. Grilli , P. Ferraro , M. Paturzo , D. Alfieri , and P. D. Natale , “ In-situ visualization, monitoring and analysis of electric field domain reversal process in ferroelectric crystal by digital holography ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1832 – 1842 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-9-1832 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. V. Marinova , M. L. Hsieh , S. H. Lin , and K. Y. Hsu , “ Effect of ruthenium doping on the optical and photorefractive properties of Bi 12 TiO 20 single crystals. ” Opt. Commun.   203 , 377 – 384 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]

2005 (1)

Q. X. Xi , D. A. Liu , Y. N. Zhi , Z. Luan , and L. R. Liu , “ Reversible electrochromic effect accompanying domain-inversion in LiNbO 3 :Ru:Fe crystals. ” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 121103 – 121105 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

M. C. Wengler , M. Müller , E. Soergel , and K. Buse , “ Poling dynamics of lithium niobate crystals ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 393 – 396 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

M. Müller , E. Soergel , and K. Buse , “ Visualization of ferroelectric domains with coherent light ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2515 – 2517 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee , P. Liu , H. M. Cheong , C. Edwin Tracy , and S. K. Deb , “ Electrochromism of amorphous ruthenium oxide thin films ,” Solid State Ionic   165 , 217 – 221 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

H. Ishizuki , I. Shoji , and T. Taira , “ Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO 3 crystals at elevated temperature ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4062 – 4064 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

K. Nakamura , J. Kurz , K. Parameswaran , and M. M. Fejer , “ Periodic poling of magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 4528 – 4534 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

C. Chiang , Y. Y. Lin , T. D. Wang , and Y. C. Huang , “ Distributed-feedback optical parametric oscillation by use of a photorefractive grating in periodically poled lithium niobate ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1815 – 1817 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki , A. Yuri , K. Kawase , and H. Ito , “ Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO 3 crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 3323 – 3325 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

V. Marinova , M. L. Hsieh , S. H. Lin , and K. Y. Hsu , “ Effect of ruthenium doping on the optical and photorefractive properties of Bi 12 TiO 20 single crystals. ” Opt. Commun.   203 , 377 – 384 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

M. Grätzel , “ Ultrafast colour displays ,” Nature   409 , 575 – 576 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Chen and K. Masters , “ Continuous-wave 4.3-μm intracavity difference frequency generation in an optical parametric oscillator ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 25 – 27 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

R. W. Eason , A. J. Boyland , S. Mailis , and P. G. R. Smith , “ Electro-optically controlled beam deflection for grazing incidence geometry on a domain-engineered interface in LiNbO 3 ,” Opt. Commun.   197 , 201 – 207 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Peng , Y.-C. Zhang , and Y.-C. Lin , “ Zinc oxide doping effects in polarization switching of lithium niobate ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 4 – 6 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

Y. Q. Lu , Z. L. Wan , Q. Wang , Y. X. Xi , and N. B. Ming , “ Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO 3 and its applications ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 3719 – 3721 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

N. G. R. Broderick , G. W. Ross , H. L. Offerhaus , D. J. Richardson , and D. C. Hanna , “ Hexagonally Poled Lithium Niobate: A Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Crystal ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4345 – 4348 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kawase , T. Hatanaka , H. Takahashi , K. Nakamura , T. Taniuchi , and H. Ito , “ Tunable terahertz-wave generation from DAST crystal by dual signal-wave parametric oscillation of periodically poled lithium niobate ,” Opt. Lett.   25 , 1714 – 1716 , ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

V. Ya. Shur , E. L. Rumyantsev , R. G. Batchko , G. D. Miller , M. M. Fejer , and R. L. Byer , “ Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics ,” Ferroelectrics   221 , 157 – 167 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

V. Gopalan , T. E. Mitchell , and K. E. Sicakfus , “ Switching kinetics of 180° domains in congruent LiNbO 3 and LiTaO 3 crystals ,” Solid State Commun.   109 , 111 – 117 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

A. Kuroda , S. Kurimura , and Y. Uesu , “ Domain inversion in ferroelectric MgO:LiNbO 3 by applying electric fields ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 1565 – 1567 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

M. Yamada , M. Saitoh , and H. Ooki , “ Electric-field induced cylindrical lens,switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO 3 crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 3659 – 3661 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Yamada , N. Nada , M. Saitoh , and K. Watanabe , “ First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO 3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   62 , 435 – 436 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

S. Gottesfeld , J. D. E. McIntyre , G. Beni , and J. L. Shay , “ Electrochromism in anodic iridium oxide films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   33 , 208 – 210 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

B. W. Faughnan , R. S. Crandall , and P. M. Heyman , “ Electrochromism in tungsten (VI) oxide amorphous films ,” RCA Review ,   36 , 177 – 197 ( 1975 ).

Alfieri, D.

Batchko, R. G.

V. Ya. Shur , E. L. Rumyantsev , R. G. Batchko , G. D. Miller , M. M. Fejer , and R. L. Byer , “ Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics ,” Ferroelectrics   221 , 157 – 167 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Beni, G.

S. Gottesfeld , J. D. E. McIntyre , G. Beni , and J. L. Shay , “ Electrochromism in anodic iridium oxide films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   33 , 208 – 210 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Boyland, A. J.

R. W. Eason , A. J. Boyland , S. Mailis , and P. G. R. Smith , “ Electro-optically controlled beam deflection for grazing incidence geometry on a domain-engineered interface in LiNbO 3 ,” Opt. Commun.   197 , 201 – 207 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Broderick, N. G. R.

N. G. R. Broderick , G. W. Ross , H. L. Offerhaus , D. J. Richardson , and D. C. Hanna , “ Hexagonally Poled Lithium Niobate: A Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Crystal ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4345 – 4348 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buse, K.

M. Müller , E. Soergel , and K. Buse , “ Visualization of ferroelectric domains with coherent light ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2515 – 2517 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Wengler , M. Müller , E. Soergel , and K. Buse , “ Poling dynamics of lithium niobate crystals ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 393 – 396 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

V. Ya. Shur , E. L. Rumyantsev , R. G. Batchko , G. D. Miller , M. M. Fejer , and R. L. Byer , “ Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics ,” Ferroelectrics   221 , 157 – 167 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Chen, D. W.

Cheong, H. M.

S. H. Lee , P. Liu , H. M. Cheong , C. Edwin Tracy , and S. K. Deb , “ Electrochromism of amorphous ruthenium oxide thin films ,” Solid State Ionic   165 , 217 – 221 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Chiang, C.

Crandall, R. S.

B. W. Faughnan , R. S. Crandall , and P. M. Heyman , “ Electrochromism in tungsten (VI) oxide amorphous films ,” RCA Review ,   36 , 177 – 197 ( 1975 ).

Deb, S. K.

S. H. Lee , P. Liu , H. M. Cheong , C. Edwin Tracy , and S. K. Deb , “ Electrochromism of amorphous ruthenium oxide thin films ,” Solid State Ionic   165 , 217 – 221 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Eason, R. W.

R. W. Eason , A. J. Boyland , S. Mailis , and P. G. R. Smith , “ Electro-optically controlled beam deflection for grazing incidence geometry on a domain-engineered interface in LiNbO 3 ,” Opt. Commun.   197 , 201 – 207 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Edwin Tracy, C.

S. H. Lee , P. Liu , H. M. Cheong , C. Edwin Tracy , and S. K. Deb , “ Electrochromism of amorphous ruthenium oxide thin films ,” Solid State Ionic   165 , 217 – 221 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Faughnan, B. W.

B. W. Faughnan , R. S. Crandall , and P. M. Heyman , “ Electrochromism in tungsten (VI) oxide amorphous films ,” RCA Review ,   36 , 177 – 197 ( 1975 ).

Fejer, M. M.

K. Nakamura , J. Kurz , K. Parameswaran , and M. M. Fejer , “ Periodic poling of magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 4528 – 4534 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

V. Ya. Shur , E. L. Rumyantsev , R. G. Batchko , G. D. Miller , M. M. Fejer , and R. L. Byer , “ Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics ,” Ferroelectrics   221 , 157 – 167 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Ferraro, P.

Gopalan, V.

V. Gopalan , T. E. Mitchell , and K. E. Sicakfus , “ Switching kinetics of 180° domains in congruent LiNbO 3 and LiTaO 3 crystals ,” Solid State Commun.   109 , 111 – 117 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Gottesfeld, S.

S. Gottesfeld , J. D. E. McIntyre , G. Beni , and J. L. Shay , “ Electrochromism in anodic iridium oxide films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   33 , 208 – 210 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Grätzel, M.

M. Grätzel , “ Ultrafast colour displays ,” Nature   409 , 575 – 576 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grilli, S.

Hanna, D. C.

N. G. R. Broderick , G. W. Ross , H. L. Offerhaus , D. J. Richardson , and D. C. Hanna , “ Hexagonally Poled Lithium Niobate: A Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Crystal ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4345 – 4348 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hatanaka, T.

Heyman, P. M.

B. W. Faughnan , R. S. Crandall , and P. M. Heyman , “ Electrochromism in tungsten (VI) oxide amorphous films ,” RCA Review ,   36 , 177 – 197 ( 1975 ).

Hsieh, M. L.

V. Marinova , M. L. Hsieh , S. H. Lin , and K. Y. Hsu , “ Effect of ruthenium doping on the optical and photorefractive properties of Bi 12 TiO 20 single crystals. ” Opt. Commun.   203 , 377 – 384 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Hsu, K. Y.

V. Marinova , M. L. Hsieh , S. H. Lin , and K. Y. Hsu , “ Effect of ruthenium doping on the optical and photorefractive properties of Bi 12 TiO 20 single crystals. ” Opt. Commun.   203 , 377 – 384 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. C.

Ishizuki, H.

H. Ishizuki , I. Shoji , and T. Taira , “ Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO 3 crystals at elevated temperature ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4062 – 4064 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Ito, H.

Y. Sasaki , A. Yuri , K. Kawase , and H. Ito , “ Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO 3 crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 3323 – 3325 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

K. Kawase , T. Hatanaka , H. Takahashi , K. Nakamura , T. Taniuchi , and H. Ito , “ Tunable terahertz-wave generation from DAST crystal by dual signal-wave parametric oscillation of periodically poled lithium niobate ,” Opt. Lett.   25 , 1714 – 1716 , ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

Kawase, K.

Y. Sasaki , A. Yuri , K. Kawase , and H. Ito , “ Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO 3 crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 3323 – 3325 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

K. Kawase , T. Hatanaka , H. Takahashi , K. Nakamura , T. Taniuchi , and H. Ito , “ Tunable terahertz-wave generation from DAST crystal by dual signal-wave parametric oscillation of periodically poled lithium niobate ,” Opt. Lett.   25 , 1714 – 1716 , ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

Kurimura, S.

A. Kuroda , S. Kurimura , and Y. Uesu , “ Domain inversion in ferroelectric MgO:LiNbO 3 by applying electric fields ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 1565 – 1567 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Kuroda, A.

A. Kuroda , S. Kurimura , and Y. Uesu , “ Domain inversion in ferroelectric MgO:LiNbO 3 by applying electric fields ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 1565 – 1567 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Kurz, J.

K. Nakamura , J. Kurz , K. Parameswaran , and M. M. Fejer , “ Periodic poling of magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 4528 – 4534 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee , P. Liu , H. M. Cheong , C. Edwin Tracy , and S. K. Deb , “ Electrochromism of amorphous ruthenium oxide thin films ,” Solid State Ionic   165 , 217 – 221 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. H.

V. Marinova , M. L. Hsieh , S. H. Lin , and K. Y. Hsu , “ Effect of ruthenium doping on the optical and photorefractive properties of Bi 12 TiO 20 single crystals. ” Opt. Commun.   203 , 377 – 384 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. Y.

Lin, Y.-C.

L.-H. Peng , Y.-C. Zhang , and Y.-C. Lin , “ Zinc oxide doping effects in polarization switching of lithium niobate ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 4 – 6 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Liu, D. A.

Q. X. Xi , D. A. Liu , Y. N. Zhi , Z. Luan , and L. R. Liu , “ Reversible electrochromic effect accompanying domain-inversion in LiNbO 3 :Ru:Fe crystals. ” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 121103 – 121105 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Liu, L. R.

Q. X. Xi , D. A. Liu , Y. N. Zhi , Z. Luan , and L. R. Liu , “ Reversible electrochromic effect accompanying domain-inversion in LiNbO 3 :Ru:Fe crystals. ” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 121103 – 121105 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Liu, P.

S. H. Lee , P. Liu , H. M. Cheong , C. Edwin Tracy , and S. K. Deb , “ Electrochromism of amorphous ruthenium oxide thin films ,” Solid State Ionic   165 , 217 – 221 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Lu , Z. L. Wan , Q. Wang , Y. X. Xi , and N. B. Ming , “ Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO 3 and its applications ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 3719 – 3721 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Luan, Z.

Q. X. Xi , D. A. Liu , Y. N. Zhi , Z. Luan , and L. R. Liu , “ Reversible electrochromic effect accompanying domain-inversion in LiNbO 3 :Ru:Fe crystals. ” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 121103 – 121105 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Mailis, S.

R. W. Eason , A. J. Boyland , S. Mailis , and P. G. R. Smith , “ Electro-optically controlled beam deflection for grazing incidence geometry on a domain-engineered interface in LiNbO 3 ,” Opt. Commun.   197 , 201 – 207 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Marinova, V.

V. Marinova , M. L. Hsieh , S. H. Lin , and K. Y. Hsu , “ Effect of ruthenium doping on the optical and photorefractive properties of Bi 12 TiO 20 single crystals. ” Opt. Commun.   203 , 377 – 384 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Masters, K.

McIntyre, J. D. E.

S. Gottesfeld , J. D. E. McIntyre , G. Beni , and J. L. Shay , “ Electrochromism in anodic iridium oxide films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   33 , 208 – 210 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Miller, G. D.

V. Ya. Shur , E. L. Rumyantsev , R. G. Batchko , G. D. Miller , M. M. Fejer , and R. L. Byer , “ Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics ,” Ferroelectrics   221 , 157 – 167 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Ming, N. B.

Y. Q. Lu , Z. L. Wan , Q. Wang , Y. X. Xi , and N. B. Ming , “ Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO 3 and its applications ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 3719 – 3721 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, T. E.

V. Gopalan , T. E. Mitchell , and K. E. Sicakfus , “ Switching kinetics of 180° domains in congruent LiNbO 3 and LiTaO 3 crystals ,” Solid State Commun.   109 , 111 – 117 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Müller, M.

M. Müller , E. Soergel , and K. Buse , “ Visualization of ferroelectric domains with coherent light ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2515 – 2517 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Wengler , M. Müller , E. Soergel , and K. Buse , “ Poling dynamics of lithium niobate crystals ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 393 – 396 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Nada, N.

M. Yamada , N. Nada , M. Saitoh , and K. Watanabe , “ First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO 3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   62 , 435 – 436 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, K.

Natale, P. D.

Offerhaus, H. L.

N. G. R. Broderick , G. W. Ross , H. L. Offerhaus , D. J. Richardson , and D. C. Hanna , “ Hexagonally Poled Lithium Niobate: A Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Crystal ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4345 – 4348 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ooki, H.

M. Yamada , M. Saitoh , and H. Ooki , “ Electric-field induced cylindrical lens,switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO 3 crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 3659 – 3661 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Parameswaran, K.

K. Nakamura , J. Kurz , K. Parameswaran , and M. M. Fejer , “ Periodic poling of magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 4528 – 4534 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Paturzo, M.

Peng, L.-H.

L.-H. Peng , Y.-C. Zhang , and Y.-C. Lin , “ Zinc oxide doping effects in polarization switching of lithium niobate ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 4 – 6 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

N. G. R. Broderick , G. W. Ross , H. L. Offerhaus , D. J. Richardson , and D. C. Hanna , “ Hexagonally Poled Lithium Niobate: A Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Crystal ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4345 – 4348 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ross, G. W.

N. G. R. Broderick , G. W. Ross , H. L. Offerhaus , D. J. Richardson , and D. C. Hanna , “ Hexagonally Poled Lithium Niobate: A Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Crystal ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4345 – 4348 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rumyantsev, E. L.

V. Ya. Shur , E. L. Rumyantsev , R. G. Batchko , G. D. Miller , M. M. Fejer , and R. L. Byer , “ Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics ,” Ferroelectrics   221 , 157 – 167 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, M.

M. Yamada , M. Saitoh , and H. Ooki , “ Electric-field induced cylindrical lens,switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO 3 crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 3659 – 3661 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

M. Yamada , N. Nada , M. Saitoh , and K. Watanabe , “ First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO 3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   62 , 435 – 436 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Sasaki , A. Yuri , K. Kawase , and H. Ito , “ Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO 3 crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 3323 – 3325 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Shay, J. L.

S. Gottesfeld , J. D. E. McIntyre , G. Beni , and J. L. Shay , “ Electrochromism in anodic iridium oxide films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   33 , 208 – 210 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Shoji, I.

H. Ishizuki , I. Shoji , and T. Taira , “ Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO 3 crystals at elevated temperature ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4062 – 4064 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Shur, V. Ya.

V. Ya. Shur , E. L. Rumyantsev , R. G. Batchko , G. D. Miller , M. M. Fejer , and R. L. Byer , “ Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics ,” Ferroelectrics   221 , 157 – 167 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Sicakfus, K. E.

V. Gopalan , T. E. Mitchell , and K. E. Sicakfus , “ Switching kinetics of 180° domains in congruent LiNbO 3 and LiTaO 3 crystals ,” Solid State Commun.   109 , 111 – 117 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Smith, P. G. R.

R. W. Eason , A. J. Boyland , S. Mailis , and P. G. R. Smith , “ Electro-optically controlled beam deflection for grazing incidence geometry on a domain-engineered interface in LiNbO 3 ,” Opt. Commun.   197 , 201 – 207 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Soergel, E.

M. C. Wengler , M. Müller , E. Soergel , and K. Buse , “ Poling dynamics of lithium niobate crystals ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 393 – 396 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

M. Müller , E. Soergel , and K. Buse , “ Visualization of ferroelectric domains with coherent light ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2515 – 2517 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taira, T.

H. Ishizuki , I. Shoji , and T. Taira , “ Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO 3 crystals at elevated temperature ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4062 – 4064 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

Taniuchi, T.

Uesu, Y.

A. Kuroda , S. Kurimura , and Y. Uesu , “ Domain inversion in ferroelectric MgO:LiNbO 3 by applying electric fields ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 1565 – 1567 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Wan, Z. L.

Y. Q. Lu , Z. L. Wan , Q. Wang , Y. X. Xi , and N. B. Ming , “ Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO 3 and its applications ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 3719 – 3721 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Y. Q. Lu , Z. L. Wan , Q. Wang , Y. X. Xi , and N. B. Ming , “ Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO 3 and its applications ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 3719 – 3721 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Wang, T. D.

Watanabe, K.

M. Yamada , N. Nada , M. Saitoh , and K. Watanabe , “ First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO 3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   62 , 435 – 436 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Wengler, M. C.

M. C. Wengler , M. Müller , E. Soergel , and K. Buse , “ Poling dynamics of lithium niobate crystals ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 393 – 396 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Xi, Q. X.

Q. X. Xi , D. A. Liu , Y. N. Zhi , Z. Luan , and L. R. Liu , “ Reversible electrochromic effect accompanying domain-inversion in LiNbO 3 :Ru:Fe crystals. ” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 121103 – 121105 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Xi, Y. X.

Y. Q. Lu , Z. L. Wan , Q. Wang , Y. X. Xi , and N. B. Ming , “ Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO 3 and its applications ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 3719 – 3721 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada , M. Saitoh , and H. Ooki , “ Electric-field induced cylindrical lens,switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO 3 crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 3659 – 3661 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

M. Yamada , N. Nada , M. Saitoh , and K. Watanabe , “ First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO 3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   62 , 435 – 436 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Yuri, A.

Y. Sasaki , A. Yuri , K. Kawase , and H. Ito , “ Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO 3 crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 3323 – 3325 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.-C.

L.-H. Peng , Y.-C. Zhang , and Y.-C. Lin , “ Zinc oxide doping effects in polarization switching of lithium niobate ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 4 – 6 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Zhi, Y. N.

Q. X. Xi , D. A. Liu , Y. N. Zhi , Z. Luan , and L. R. Liu , “ Reversible electrochromic effect accompanying domain-inversion in LiNbO 3 :Ru:Fe crystals. ” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 121103 – 121105 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. C. Wengler , M. Müller , E. Soergel , and K. Buse , “ Poling dynamics of lithium niobate crystals ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 393 – 396 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

M. Yamada , N. Nada , M. Saitoh , and K. Watanabe , “ First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO 3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   62 , 435 – 436 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki , A. Yuri , K. Kawase , and H. Ito , “ Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO 3 crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   81 , 3323 – 3325 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

M. Yamada , M. Saitoh , and H. Ooki , “ Electric-field induced cylindrical lens,switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO 3 crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 3659 – 3661 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Lu , Z. L. Wan , Q. Wang , Y. X. Xi , and N. B. Ming , “ Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO 3 and its applications ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 3719 – 3721 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

A. Kuroda , S. Kurimura , and Y. Uesu , “ Domain inversion in ferroelectric MgO:LiNbO 3 by applying electric fields ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 1565 – 1567 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

H. Ishizuki , I. Shoji , and T. Taira , “ Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO 3 crystals at elevated temperature ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 4062 – 4064 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Peng , Y.-C. Zhang , and Y.-C. Lin , “ Zinc oxide doping effects in polarization switching of lithium niobate ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 4 – 6 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

S. Gottesfeld , J. D. E. McIntyre , G. Beni , and J. L. Shay , “ Electrochromism in anodic iridium oxide films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   33 , 208 – 210 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Q. X. Xi , D. A. Liu , Y. N. Zhi , Z. Luan , and L. R. Liu , “ Reversible electrochromic effect accompanying domain-inversion in LiNbO 3 :Ru:Fe crystals. ” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 121103 – 121105 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Ferroelectrics (1)

V. Ya. Shur , E. L. Rumyantsev , R. G. Batchko , G. D. Miller , M. M. Fejer , and R. L. Byer , “ Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics ,” Ferroelectrics   221 , 157 – 167 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Nakamura , J. Kurz , K. Parameswaran , and M. M. Fejer , “ Periodic poling of magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 4528 – 4534 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Grätzel , “ Ultrafast colour displays ,” Nature   409 , 575 – 576 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. W. Eason , A. J. Boyland , S. Mailis , and P. G. R. Smith , “ Electro-optically controlled beam deflection for grazing incidence geometry on a domain-engineered interface in LiNbO 3 ,” Opt. Commun.   197 , 201 – 207 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

V. Marinova , M. L. Hsieh , S. H. Lin , and K. Y. Hsu , “ Effect of ruthenium doping on the optical and photorefractive properties of Bi 12 TiO 20 single crystals. ” Opt. Commun.   203 , 377 – 384 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. G. R. Broderick , G. W. Ross , H. L. Offerhaus , D. J. Richardson , and D. C. Hanna , “ Hexagonally Poled Lithium Niobate: A Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Crystal ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4345 – 4348 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

RCA Review (1)

B. W. Faughnan , R. S. Crandall , and P. M. Heyman , “ Electrochromism in tungsten (VI) oxide amorphous films ,” RCA Review ,   36 , 177 – 197 ( 1975 ).

Solid State Commun. (1)

V. Gopalan , T. E. Mitchell , and K. E. Sicakfus , “ Switching kinetics of 180° domains in congruent LiNbO 3 and LiTaO 3 crystals ,” Solid State Commun.   109 , 111 – 117 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Solid State Ionic (1)

S. H. Lee , P. Liu , H. M. Cheong , C. Edwin Tracy , and S. K. Deb , “ Electrochromism of amorphous ruthenium oxide thin films ,” Solid State Ionic   165 , 217 – 221 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of the experimental facility

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Observation of the crystal after forward poling. The poled area (central area) is “bleached” during the forward poling, and correspondent with the shape of liquid electrode which is distorted a little by extrusion of the silicon gaskets. After reverse poling the poled area is “colored” again and there is no contrast between central area and edge area

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the transmission spectrum among three different states during a poling cycle: virgin state, after forward poling and after reverse poling.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Change of transmission spectrum induced by annealing treatment at 150 °C for different time. The comparison is among virgin state, after poling, after poling and annealing for 18 hours, and after poling and annealing for 32 hours

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Real-time visualization of the transmitting coherent optical field at 633nm wavelength through a lens. The hexagonal shape discontinuity (marked by the dash line) represents the domain boundary. The domain boundary is expanding outside

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Domain boundary between two areas with opposite polarization state and different color after being etched in hydrofluoric acid. The left area is poled and bleached, and the right area is not poled

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Finer Structure of ferroelectric domain with hexagonal shape boundary after being etched in hydrofluoric acid. The dimension magnitude of domain is 1 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a). Transmissivity change of collimated light at 514nm wavelength which is illuminating entire electrode area (square dot) and the change of poling current (circle dot) during forward poling with constant voltage of 9.8kV

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(b). Transmissivity change of collimated light at 514nm wavelength (square dot), and change of poling current (circle dot) during reverse poling with constant voltage of 7.6kV

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ru 4 + + e Ru 3 +
Ru 3 + e Ru 4 +

Metrics