Abstract

This paper reports a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser operating at 946-nm by utilizing the 4 F 3/2-4 I 9/2 transition. We demonstrated that at an incident pump power of 27.7 W, an output power of 8.3-W could be achieved with a slope efficiency of 33.5%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest CW output power at 946 nm generated by LD end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. By using intracavity frequency doubling with an LBO crystal, we further obtained a 473-nm blue laser with an output power of 1.2 W, achieving an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 7.1% at a pump power of 16.9 W. The short-term power instability of the blue laser was less than 1 %.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer , “ Modeling and CW Operation of a Quasi-Three-Level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser ,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron.   23 , 605 ( 1987 ).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. P. Risk and W. Length , “ Room-temperature, continuous-wave, 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by laser-diode arrays and intracavity frequency doubling to 473 nm ,” Opt. Lett.   12 , 993 ( 1987 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. J. Dixon , Z. M. Zhang , R. S. F. Chang , and N. Djeu , “ Efficient blue emission from an intracavity-doubled 946-nm Nd:YAG laser ,” Opt. Lett.   13 , 137 ( 1988 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Hollemann , E. Peik , and H. Walther , “ Frequency-stabilized diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 946 nm with harmonics at 473 and 237 nm ,” Opt. Lett.   19 , 192 ( 1994 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. A. Clarkson , R. Koch , and D. C. Hanna , “ Room-temperature diode-bar-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 946 nm ,” Opt. Lett.   21 , 737 ( 1996 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Kellner , F. Heine , and G. Huber , “ Efficient laser performance of Nd:YAG at 946 nm and intracavity frequency doubling with LiJO3, β-BaB2O4, and LiB3O5 ,” Appl. Phys. B   65 , 789 ( 1997 ).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Pierrou , F. Laurell , H. Karlsson , T. Kellner , C. Czeranowsky , and G. Huber , “ Generation of 740 mW of blue light by intracavity frequency doubling with a first-order quasi-phase-matched KTiOPO4 crystal ,” Opt. Lett.   24 , 205 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  8. ZHOU Rui , ZHAO Shi-Yong , CAI Zhi-Qiang , ZHANG Qiang , WEN Wu-Qi , DING Xin , WANG Peng , DING Li-Li , and YAO Jian-Quan , “ High Power Diode-End-Pumped Nd:YAG 946-nm laser and its Efficient Frequency doubling ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   22 , 1413 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Abraham , A. Bar-Lev , H. Epshtein , A. Goldring , Y. Zimmermann , E. Lebiush , and R. Lavi , “ 7.4W CW output power of Nd:YAG laser radiation at 946nm and 500mW of 473nm laser by extra cavity doubling using periodically poled KTP ,” In: Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest ( Seattle, Washington, USA 28-31 Jan 2001 ), 543 ( 2001 )
  10. C. Czeranowsky , E. Heumann , and G. Huber , “ All-solid-state continuous-wave frequency-doubled Nd:YAG-BiBO laser with 2.8-W output power at 473 nm ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 432 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A.K. Cousins , “ Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   28 , 1057 ( 1992 ).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

ZHOU Rui , ZHAO Shi-Yong , CAI Zhi-Qiang , ZHANG Qiang , WEN Wu-Qi , DING Xin , WANG Peng , DING Li-Li , and YAO Jian-Quan , “ High Power Diode-End-Pumped Nd:YAG 946-nm laser and its Efficient Frequency doubling ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   22 , 1413 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Kellner , F. Heine , and G. Huber , “ Efficient laser performance of Nd:YAG at 946 nm and intracavity frequency doubling with LiJO3, β-BaB2O4, and LiB3O5 ,” Appl. Phys. B   65 , 789 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

A.K. Cousins , “ Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   28 , 1057 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

W. P. Risk and W. Length , “ Room-temperature, continuous-wave, 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by laser-diode arrays and intracavity frequency doubling to 473 nm ,” Opt. Lett.   12 , 993 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer , “ Modeling and CW Operation of a Quasi-Three-Level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser ,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron.   23 , 605 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, M.

M. Abraham , A. Bar-Lev , H. Epshtein , A. Goldring , Y. Zimmermann , E. Lebiush , and R. Lavi , “ 7.4W CW output power of Nd:YAG laser radiation at 946nm and 500mW of 473nm laser by extra cavity doubling using periodically poled KTP ,” In: Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest ( Seattle, Washington, USA 28-31 Jan 2001 ), 543 ( 2001 )

Bar-Lev, A.

M. Abraham , A. Bar-Lev , H. Epshtein , A. Goldring , Y. Zimmermann , E. Lebiush , and R. Lavi , “ 7.4W CW output power of Nd:YAG laser radiation at 946nm and 500mW of 473nm laser by extra cavity doubling using periodically poled KTP ,” In: Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest ( Seattle, Washington, USA 28-31 Jan 2001 ), 543 ( 2001 )

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer , “ Modeling and CW Operation of a Quasi-Three-Level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser ,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron.   23 , 605 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. S. F.

Clarkson, W. A.

Cousins, A.K.

A.K. Cousins , “ Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   28 , 1057 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

Czeranowsky, C.

Dixon, G. J.

Djeu, N.

Epshtein, H.

M. Abraham , A. Bar-Lev , H. Epshtein , A. Goldring , Y. Zimmermann , E. Lebiush , and R. Lavi , “ 7.4W CW output power of Nd:YAG laser radiation at 946nm and 500mW of 473nm laser by extra cavity doubling using periodically poled KTP ,” In: Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest ( Seattle, Washington, USA 28-31 Jan 2001 ), 543 ( 2001 )

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer , “ Modeling and CW Operation of a Quasi-Three-Level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser ,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron.   23 , 605 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

Goldring, A.

M. Abraham , A. Bar-Lev , H. Epshtein , A. Goldring , Y. Zimmermann , E. Lebiush , and R. Lavi , “ 7.4W CW output power of Nd:YAG laser radiation at 946nm and 500mW of 473nm laser by extra cavity doubling using periodically poled KTP ,” In: Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest ( Seattle, Washington, USA 28-31 Jan 2001 ), 543 ( 2001 )

Hanna, D. C.

Heine, F.

T. Kellner , F. Heine , and G. Huber , “ Efficient laser performance of Nd:YAG at 946 nm and intracavity frequency doubling with LiJO3, β-BaB2O4, and LiB3O5 ,” Appl. Phys. B   65 , 789 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Heumann, E.

Hollemann, G.

Huber, G.

Jian-Quan, YAO

ZHOU Rui , ZHAO Shi-Yong , CAI Zhi-Qiang , ZHANG Qiang , WEN Wu-Qi , DING Xin , WANG Peng , DING Li-Li , and YAO Jian-Quan , “ High Power Diode-End-Pumped Nd:YAG 946-nm laser and its Efficient Frequency doubling ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   22 , 1413 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, H.

Kellner, T.

M. Pierrou , F. Laurell , H. Karlsson , T. Kellner , C. Czeranowsky , and G. Huber , “ Generation of 740 mW of blue light by intracavity frequency doubling with a first-order quasi-phase-matched KTiOPO4 crystal ,” Opt. Lett.   24 , 205 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

T. Kellner , F. Heine , and G. Huber , “ Efficient laser performance of Nd:YAG at 946 nm and intracavity frequency doubling with LiJO3, β-BaB2O4, and LiB3O5 ,” Appl. Phys. B   65 , 789 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Koch, R.

Laurell, F.

Lavi, R.

M. Abraham , A. Bar-Lev , H. Epshtein , A. Goldring , Y. Zimmermann , E. Lebiush , and R. Lavi , “ 7.4W CW output power of Nd:YAG laser radiation at 946nm and 500mW of 473nm laser by extra cavity doubling using periodically poled KTP ,” In: Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest ( Seattle, Washington, USA 28-31 Jan 2001 ), 543 ( 2001 )

Lebiush, E.

M. Abraham , A. Bar-Lev , H. Epshtein , A. Goldring , Y. Zimmermann , E. Lebiush , and R. Lavi , “ 7.4W CW output power of Nd:YAG laser radiation at 946nm and 500mW of 473nm laser by extra cavity doubling using periodically poled KTP ,” In: Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest ( Seattle, Washington, USA 28-31 Jan 2001 ), 543 ( 2001 )

Length, W.

Li-Li, DING

ZHOU Rui , ZHAO Shi-Yong , CAI Zhi-Qiang , ZHANG Qiang , WEN Wu-Qi , DING Xin , WANG Peng , DING Li-Li , and YAO Jian-Quan , “ High Power Diode-End-Pumped Nd:YAG 946-nm laser and its Efficient Frequency doubling ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   22 , 1413 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Peik, E.

Peng, WANG

ZHOU Rui , ZHAO Shi-Yong , CAI Zhi-Qiang , ZHANG Qiang , WEN Wu-Qi , DING Xin , WANG Peng , DING Li-Li , and YAO Jian-Quan , “ High Power Diode-End-Pumped Nd:YAG 946-nm laser and its Efficient Frequency doubling ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   22 , 1413 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Pierrou, M.

Qiang, ZHANG

ZHOU Rui , ZHAO Shi-Yong , CAI Zhi-Qiang , ZHANG Qiang , WEN Wu-Qi , DING Xin , WANG Peng , DING Li-Li , and YAO Jian-Quan , “ High Power Diode-End-Pumped Nd:YAG 946-nm laser and its Efficient Frequency doubling ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   22 , 1413 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W. P.

Rui, ZHOU

ZHOU Rui , ZHAO Shi-Yong , CAI Zhi-Qiang , ZHANG Qiang , WEN Wu-Qi , DING Xin , WANG Peng , DING Li-Li , and YAO Jian-Quan , “ High Power Diode-End-Pumped Nd:YAG 946-nm laser and its Efficient Frequency doubling ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   22 , 1413 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Shi-Yong, ZHAO

ZHOU Rui , ZHAO Shi-Yong , CAI Zhi-Qiang , ZHANG Qiang , WEN Wu-Qi , DING Xin , WANG Peng , DING Li-Li , and YAO Jian-Quan , “ High Power Diode-End-Pumped Nd:YAG 946-nm laser and its Efficient Frequency doubling ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   22 , 1413 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

Wu-Qi, WEN

ZHOU Rui , ZHAO Shi-Yong , CAI Zhi-Qiang , ZHANG Qiang , WEN Wu-Qi , DING Xin , WANG Peng , DING Li-Li , and YAO Jian-Quan , “ High Power Diode-End-Pumped Nd:YAG 946-nm laser and its Efficient Frequency doubling ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   22 , 1413 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Xin, DING

ZHOU Rui , ZHAO Shi-Yong , CAI Zhi-Qiang , ZHANG Qiang , WEN Wu-Qi , DING Xin , WANG Peng , DING Li-Li , and YAO Jian-Quan , “ High Power Diode-End-Pumped Nd:YAG 946-nm laser and its Efficient Frequency doubling ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   22 , 1413 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. M.

Zhi-Qiang, CAI

ZHOU Rui , ZHAO Shi-Yong , CAI Zhi-Qiang , ZHANG Qiang , WEN Wu-Qi , DING Xin , WANG Peng , DING Li-Li , and YAO Jian-Quan , “ High Power Diode-End-Pumped Nd:YAG 946-nm laser and its Efficient Frequency doubling ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   22 , 1413 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, Y.

M. Abraham , A. Bar-Lev , H. Epshtein , A. Goldring , Y. Zimmermann , E. Lebiush , and R. Lavi , “ 7.4W CW output power of Nd:YAG laser radiation at 946nm and 500mW of 473nm laser by extra cavity doubling using periodically poled KTP ,” In: Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest ( Seattle, Washington, USA 28-31 Jan 2001 ), 543 ( 2001 )

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Kellner , F. Heine , and G. Huber , “ Efficient laser performance of Nd:YAG at 946 nm and intracavity frequency doubling with LiJO3, β-BaB2O4, and LiB3O5 ,” Appl. Phys. B   65 , 789 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

ZHOU Rui , ZHAO Shi-Yong , CAI Zhi-Qiang , ZHANG Qiang , WEN Wu-Qi , DING Xin , WANG Peng , DING Li-Li , and YAO Jian-Quan , “ High Power Diode-End-Pumped Nd:YAG 946-nm laser and its Efficient Frequency doubling ,” Chin. Phys. Lett.   22 , 1413 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A.K. Cousins , “ Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   28 , 1057 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer , “ Modeling and CW Operation of a Quasi-Three-Level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser ,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron.   23 , 605 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Other (1)

M. Abraham , A. Bar-Lev , H. Epshtein , A. Goldring , Y. Zimmermann , E. Lebiush , and R. Lavi , “ 7.4W CW output power of Nd:YAG laser radiation at 946nm and 500mW of 473nm laser by extra cavity doubling using periodically poled KTP ,” In: Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest ( Seattle, Washington, USA 28-31 Jan 2001 ), 543 ( 2001 )

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the high power diode-end-pumped 946-nm laser

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated and measured thermal focal lengths under different incident pump powers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured output powers and beam qualities at 946 nm as a function of incident pump powers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured output powers of the blue laser (473 nm) under different incident pump powers.

Equations (1)

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f th = 2 π K c ω p 2 ξ P abs [ d n d T + ( n 0 1 ) ( 1 + ν ) α T + n 0 3 α T C r ] 1 ,

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