Abstract

Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy is used for detection of bacterial spores in aqueous solution. Polarization CARS spectroscopy is employed to suppress the non-resonant background. CARS spectrum recorded in the spectral region from 700 to 1900 cm-1 exhibits all the characteristic features of spontaneous Raman spectrum taken for a solid powder and resembles that one of the dipicolinic acid, which is considered to be the major component of bacterial spores, including anthrax.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. O. Scully , G. W. Kattawar , R. P. Lucht , T. Opatrny , H. Pilloff , A. Rebane , A. V. Sokolov , and M. S. Zubairy , “ FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   99 , 10994 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Mehendale , B. Bosacciii , E. Gatzigiannis , A. Dogariu , W. S. Warren , and M. O. Scully , “ Towards an anthrax detector using the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic technique for coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectrosopy: coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy signal from dipicolinic acid in bacterial spores ,” J. Mod. Opt.   51 , 2645 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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  23. J. L. Oudar , R. W. Smith , and Y. R. Shen , “ Polarization-sensitive coherent anti Stokes Raman spectroscopy ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   34 , 758 ( 1979 ).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. A. Weippert and W. Kiefer , “ CARS difference spectroscopy ,” J. Raman Spectrosc.   23 , 713 ( 1992 ).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. X. Cheng , Y. K. Jia , G. F. Zheng , and X. S. Xie , “ Laser-scanning coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology ,” Biophys. J.   83 , 502 – 509 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. A. Volkmer , “ Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy ,” J. Phys. D.   38 , R59 ( 2005 ).
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  28. C. L. Evans , E. O. Potma , and X. S. Xie , “ Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ (3) for vibrational microscopy ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2923 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  29. L. Ujj , B. Volodin , A. Popp , J. K. Delaney , and G. A. Atkinson , “ Picosecond resonance coherent anti-Stokes-Raman spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin - spectra and quantitative third-order susceptibility analysis of the light adapted BR-570 ,” Chem. Phys.   182 , 291 ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

C. L. Evans , E. O. Potma , and X. S. Xie , “ Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ (3) for vibrational microscopy ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2923 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

M. Mehendale , B. Bosacciii , E. Gatzigiannis , A. Dogariu , W. S. Warren , and M. O. Scully , “ Towards an anthrax detector using the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic technique for coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectrosopy: coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy signal from dipicolinic acid in bacterial spores ,” J. Mod. Opt.   51 , 2645 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart , “ Nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 123905 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. A. Kolomenskii , S. N. Jerebtsov , T. Opatrny , H. A. Schuessler , and M. O. Scully , “ Spontaneous Raman spectra of dipicolinic acid in microcrystalline form ,” J. Mod. Opt.   50 , 2369 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

A. P. Esposito , C. E. Talley , T. Huser , C. W. Hollars , C. M. Schaldach , and S. M. Lane , “ Analysis of single bacterial spores by micro-Raman spectroscopy ,” Appl. Spectrosc.   57 , 868 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Yakovlev , “ Advanced instrumentation for non-linear Raman microscopy ,” J. Raman Spectrosc.   34 , 957 – 964 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

M. O. Scully , G. W. Kattawar , R. P. Lucht , T. Opatrny , H. Pilloff , A. Rebane , A. V. Sokolov , and M. S. Zubairy , “ FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   99 , 10994 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

G. W. H. Wurpel , J. M. Schins , and M. Müller , “ Chemical specificity in three-dimensional imaging with multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1093 – 1095 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J. X. Cheng , Y. K. Jia , G. F. Zheng , and X. S. Xie , “ Laser-scanning coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology ,” Biophys. J.   83 , 502 – 509 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich , D. Oron , and Y. Silberberg , “ Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy ,” Nature   418 , 512 – 514 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

E. O. Potma , W. P. de Boeij , P. J. M. van Haastert , and D. A. Wiersma , “ Real-time visualization of intracellular hydrodynamics in single living cells ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.   98 , 1577 – 1582 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger , D. L. Heintzelman , A. Mahadevan-Jansen , A. Malpica , M. Follen , and R. Richards-Kortum , “ Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancers ,” Appl. Spectrosc.   55 , 955 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

A. Zumbusch , G. R. Holton , and X. S. Xie , “ Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 4142 – 4145 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

W. Suen , T. G. Spiro , L. C. Sowers , and J. R. Fresco , “ Identification by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy of an imino tautomer of 5-hydroxy-2’ deoxycytidine, a powerful base analog transition mutagen with a much higher unfavored tautomer frequency than that of the natural residue 2’-deoxycytidine ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   96 , 4500 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

V. H. Astinov and G. M. Georgiev , “ Ultrabroadband single-pulse CARS of liquids using a spatially dispersive Stokes beam ,” Appl. Phys.   B63 , 62 ( 1996 ).

D. L. Popham and P. Setlow , “ Phenotypes of Bacillus subtilis mutants lacking multiple class A high-molecular-weight penicillin-binding ” J. Bacteriol.   178 , 2079 ( 1996 ).
[PubMed]

1994 (2)

B. N. Toleutaev , T. Tahara , and H. Hamaguchi , “ Broad-band (1000 cm -1 ) multiplex CARS spectroscopy - application to polarization-sensitive and time-resolved measurements ,” Appl. Phys.   B59 , 369 ( 1994 ).

L. Ujj , B. Volodin , A. Popp , J. K. Delaney , and G. A. Atkinson , “ Picosecond resonance coherent anti-Stokes-Raman spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin - spectra and quantitative third-order susceptibility analysis of the light adapted BR-570 ,” Chem. Phys.   182 , 291 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Weippert and W. Kiefer , “ CARS difference spectroscopy ,” J. Raman Spectrosc.   23 , 713 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

J. L. Oudar , R. W. Smith , and Y. R. Shen , “ Polarization-sensitive coherent anti Stokes Raman spectroscopy ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   34 , 758 ( 1979 ).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. P. Régnier and J. P. E. Taran , “ On the possibility of measuring gas concentrations by stimulated anti-Stokes scattering ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   23 , 24 ( 1973 ).
[Crossref]

Araki, T.

Astinov, V. H.

V. H. Astinov and G. M. Georgiev , “ Ultrabroadband single-pulse CARS of liquids using a spatially dispersive Stokes beam ,” Appl. Phys.   B63 , 62 ( 1996 ).

Atkinson, G. A.

L. Ujj , B. Volodin , A. Popp , J. K. Delaney , and G. A. Atkinson , “ Picosecond resonance coherent anti-Stokes-Raman spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin - spectra and quantitative third-order susceptibility analysis of the light adapted BR-570 ,” Chem. Phys.   182 , 291 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Boeij, W. P. de

E. O. Potma , W. P. de Boeij , P. J. M. van Haastert , and D. A. Wiersma , “ Real-time visualization of intracellular hydrodynamics in single living cells ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.   98 , 1577 – 1582 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart , “ Nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 123905 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosacciii, B.

M. Mehendale , B. Bosacciii , E. Gatzigiannis , A. Dogariu , W. S. Warren , and M. O. Scully , “ Towards an anthrax detector using the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic technique for coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectrosopy: coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy signal from dipicolinic acid in bacterial spores ,” J. Mod. Opt.   51 , 2645 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J. X.

J. X. Cheng , Y. K. Jia , G. F. Zheng , and X. S. Xie , “ Laser-scanning coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology ,” Biophys. J.   83 , 502 – 509 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delaney, J. K.

L. Ujj , B. Volodin , A. Popp , J. K. Delaney , and G. A. Atkinson , “ Picosecond resonance coherent anti-Stokes-Raman spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin - spectra and quantitative third-order susceptibility analysis of the light adapted BR-570 ,” Chem. Phys.   182 , 291 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Dogariu, A.

M. Mehendale , B. Bosacciii , E. Gatzigiannis , A. Dogariu , W. S. Warren , and M. O. Scully , “ Towards an anthrax detector using the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic technique for coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectrosopy: coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy signal from dipicolinic acid in bacterial spores ,” J. Mod. Opt.   51 , 2645 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich , D. Oron , and Y. Silberberg , “ Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy ,” Nature   418 , 512 – 514 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duncan, M. D.

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth , Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species . Abacus, Cambridge, MA , 1988 .

Esposito, A. P.

Evans, C. L.

Follen, M.

Fresco, J. R.

W. Suen , T. G. Spiro , L. C. Sowers , and J. R. Fresco , “ Identification by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy of an imino tautomer of 5-hydroxy-2’ deoxycytidine, a powerful base analog transition mutagen with a much higher unfavored tautomer frequency than that of the natural residue 2’-deoxycytidine ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   96 , 4500 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Gatzigiannis, E.

M. Mehendale , B. Bosacciii , E. Gatzigiannis , A. Dogariu , W. S. Warren , and M. O. Scully , “ Towards an anthrax detector using the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic technique for coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectrosopy: coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy signal from dipicolinic acid in bacterial spores ,” J. Mod. Opt.   51 , 2645 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Georgiev, G. M.

V. H. Astinov and G. M. Georgiev , “ Ultrabroadband single-pulse CARS of liquids using a spatially dispersive Stokes beam ,” Appl. Phys.   B63 , 62 ( 1996 ).

Haastert, P. J. M. van

E. O. Potma , W. P. de Boeij , P. J. M. van Haastert , and D. A. Wiersma , “ Real-time visualization of intracellular hydrodynamics in single living cells ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.   98 , 1577 – 1582 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamaguchi, H.

B. N. Toleutaev , T. Tahara , and H. Hamaguchi , “ Broad-band (1000 cm -1 ) multiplex CARS spectroscopy - application to polarization-sensitive and time-resolved measurements ,” Appl. Phys.   B59 , 369 ( 1994 ).

Hashimoto, M.

Heintzelman, D. L.

Hollars, C. W.

Holton, G. R.

A. Zumbusch , G. R. Holton , and X. S. Xie , “ Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 4142 – 4145 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Huser, T.

Jerebtsov, S. N.

A. A. Kolomenskii , S. N. Jerebtsov , T. Opatrny , H. A. Schuessler , and M. O. Scully , “ Spontaneous Raman spectra of dipicolinic acid in microcrystalline form ,” J. Mod. Opt.   50 , 2369 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Jia, Y. K.

J. X. Cheng , Y. K. Jia , G. F. Zheng , and X. S. Xie , “ Laser-scanning coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology ,” Biophys. J.   83 , 502 – 509 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kattawar, G. W.

M. O. Scully , G. W. Kattawar , R. P. Lucht , T. Opatrny , H. Pilloff , A. Rebane , A. V. Sokolov , and M. S. Zubairy , “ FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   99 , 10994 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Kiefer, W.

A. Weippert and W. Kiefer , “ CARS difference spectroscopy ,” J. Raman Spectrosc.   23 , 713 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Kolomenskii, A. A.

A. A. Kolomenskii , S. N. Jerebtsov , T. Opatrny , H. A. Schuessler , and M. O. Scully , “ Spontaneous Raman spectra of dipicolinic acid in microcrystalline form ,” J. Mod. Opt.   50 , 2369 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Lane, S. M.

Lucht, R. P.

M. O. Scully , G. W. Kattawar , R. P. Lucht , T. Opatrny , H. Pilloff , A. Rebane , A. V. Sokolov , and M. S. Zubairy , “ FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   99 , 10994 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Malpica, A.

Manuccia, T. J.

Marks, D. L.

D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart , “ Nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 123905 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehendale, M.

M. Mehendale , B. Bosacciii , E. Gatzigiannis , A. Dogariu , W. S. Warren , and M. O. Scully , “ Towards an anthrax detector using the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic technique for coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectrosopy: coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy signal from dipicolinic acid in bacterial spores ,” J. Mod. Opt.   51 , 2645 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Müller, M.

Opatrny, T.

A. A. Kolomenskii , S. N. Jerebtsov , T. Opatrny , H. A. Schuessler , and M. O. Scully , “ Spontaneous Raman spectra of dipicolinic acid in microcrystalline form ,” J. Mod. Opt.   50 , 2369 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

M. O. Scully , G. W. Kattawar , R. P. Lucht , T. Opatrny , H. Pilloff , A. Rebane , A. V. Sokolov , and M. S. Zubairy , “ FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   99 , 10994 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich , D. Oron , and Y. Silberberg , “ Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy ,” Nature   418 , 512 – 514 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oudar, J. L.

J. L. Oudar , R. W. Smith , and Y. R. Shen , “ Polarization-sensitive coherent anti Stokes Raman spectroscopy ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   34 , 758 ( 1979 ).
[Crossref]

Petrov, G. I.

Pilloff, H.

M. O. Scully , G. W. Kattawar , R. P. Lucht , T. Opatrny , H. Pilloff , A. Rebane , A. V. Sokolov , and M. S. Zubairy , “ FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   99 , 10994 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Popham, D. L.

D. L. Popham and P. Setlow , “ Phenotypes of Bacillus subtilis mutants lacking multiple class A high-molecular-weight penicillin-binding ” J. Bacteriol.   178 , 2079 ( 1996 ).
[PubMed]

Popp, A.

L. Ujj , B. Volodin , A. Popp , J. K. Delaney , and G. A. Atkinson , “ Picosecond resonance coherent anti-Stokes-Raman spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin - spectra and quantitative third-order susceptibility analysis of the light adapted BR-570 ,” Chem. Phys.   182 , 291 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans , E. O. Potma , and X. S. Xie , “ Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ (3) for vibrational microscopy ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2923 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

E. O. Potma , W. P. de Boeij , P. J. M. van Haastert , and D. A. Wiersma , “ Real-time visualization of intracellular hydrodynamics in single living cells ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.   98 , 1577 – 1582 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rebane, A.

M. O. Scully , G. W. Kattawar , R. P. Lucht , T. Opatrny , H. Pilloff , A. Rebane , A. V. Sokolov , and M. S. Zubairy , “ FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   99 , 10994 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Régnier, R. P.

R. P. Régnier and J. P. E. Taran , “ On the possibility of measuring gas concentrations by stimulated anti-Stokes scattering ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   23 , 24 ( 1973 ).
[Crossref]

Reintjes, J.

Richards-Kortum, R.

Schaldach, C. M.

Schins, J. M.

Schuessler, H. A.

A. A. Kolomenskii , S. N. Jerebtsov , T. Opatrny , H. A. Schuessler , and M. O. Scully , “ Spontaneous Raman spectra of dipicolinic acid in microcrystalline form ,” J. Mod. Opt.   50 , 2369 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Scully, M. O.

M. Mehendale , B. Bosacciii , E. Gatzigiannis , A. Dogariu , W. S. Warren , and M. O. Scully , “ Towards an anthrax detector using the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic technique for coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectrosopy: coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy signal from dipicolinic acid in bacterial spores ,” J. Mod. Opt.   51 , 2645 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kolomenskii , S. N. Jerebtsov , T. Opatrny , H. A. Schuessler , and M. O. Scully , “ Spontaneous Raman spectra of dipicolinic acid in microcrystalline form ,” J. Mod. Opt.   50 , 2369 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

M. O. Scully , G. W. Kattawar , R. P. Lucht , T. Opatrny , H. Pilloff , A. Rebane , A. V. Sokolov , and M. S. Zubairy , “ FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   99 , 10994 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Setlow, P.

D. L. Popham and P. Setlow , “ Phenotypes of Bacillus subtilis mutants lacking multiple class A high-molecular-weight penicillin-binding ” J. Bacteriol.   178 , 2079 ( 1996 ).
[PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

J. L. Oudar , R. W. Smith , and Y. R. Shen , “ Polarization-sensitive coherent anti Stokes Raman spectroscopy ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   34 , 758 ( 1979 ).
[Crossref]

Silberberg, Y.

N. Dudovich , D. Oron , and Y. Silberberg , “ Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy ,” Nature   418 , 512 – 514 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, R. W.

J. L. Oudar , R. W. Smith , and Y. R. Shen , “ Polarization-sensitive coherent anti Stokes Raman spectroscopy ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   34 , 758 ( 1979 ).
[Crossref]

Sokolov, A. V.

M. O. Scully , G. W. Kattawar , R. P. Lucht , T. Opatrny , H. Pilloff , A. Rebane , A. V. Sokolov , and M. S. Zubairy , “ FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   99 , 10994 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Sowers, L. C.

W. Suen , T. G. Spiro , L. C. Sowers , and J. R. Fresco , “ Identification by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy of an imino tautomer of 5-hydroxy-2’ deoxycytidine, a powerful base analog transition mutagen with a much higher unfavored tautomer frequency than that of the natural residue 2’-deoxycytidine ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   96 , 4500 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Spiro, T. G.

W. Suen , T. G. Spiro , L. C. Sowers , and J. R. Fresco , “ Identification by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy of an imino tautomer of 5-hydroxy-2’ deoxycytidine, a powerful base analog transition mutagen with a much higher unfavored tautomer frequency than that of the natural residue 2’-deoxycytidine ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   96 , 4500 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Suen, W.

W. Suen , T. G. Spiro , L. C. Sowers , and J. R. Fresco , “ Identification by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy of an imino tautomer of 5-hydroxy-2’ deoxycytidine, a powerful base analog transition mutagen with a much higher unfavored tautomer frequency than that of the natural residue 2’-deoxycytidine ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   96 , 4500 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Tahara, T.

B. N. Toleutaev , T. Tahara , and H. Hamaguchi , “ Broad-band (1000 cm -1 ) multiplex CARS spectroscopy - application to polarization-sensitive and time-resolved measurements ,” Appl. Phys.   B59 , 369 ( 1994 ).

Talley, C. E.

Taran, J. P. E.

R. P. Régnier and J. P. E. Taran , “ On the possibility of measuring gas concentrations by stimulated anti-Stokes scattering ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   23 , 24 ( 1973 ).
[Crossref]

Toleutaev, B. N.

B. N. Toleutaev , T. Tahara , and H. Hamaguchi , “ Broad-band (1000 cm -1 ) multiplex CARS spectroscopy - application to polarization-sensitive and time-resolved measurements ,” Appl. Phys.   B59 , 369 ( 1994 ).

Ujj, L.

L. Ujj , B. Volodin , A. Popp , J. K. Delaney , and G. A. Atkinson , “ Picosecond resonance coherent anti-Stokes-Raman spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin - spectra and quantitative third-order susceptibility analysis of the light adapted BR-570 ,” Chem. Phys.   182 , 291 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Utzinger, U.

Volkmer, A.

A. Volkmer , “ Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy ,” J. Phys. D.   38 , R59 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Volodin, B.

L. Ujj , B. Volodin , A. Popp , J. K. Delaney , and G. A. Atkinson , “ Picosecond resonance coherent anti-Stokes-Raman spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin - spectra and quantitative third-order susceptibility analysis of the light adapted BR-570 ,” Chem. Phys.   182 , 291 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Warren, W. S.

M. Mehendale , B. Bosacciii , E. Gatzigiannis , A. Dogariu , W. S. Warren , and M. O. Scully , “ Towards an anthrax detector using the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic technique for coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectrosopy: coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy signal from dipicolinic acid in bacterial spores ,” J. Mod. Opt.   51 , 2645 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Weippert, A.

A. Weippert and W. Kiefer , “ CARS difference spectroscopy ,” J. Raman Spectrosc.   23 , 713 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D. A.

E. O. Potma , W. P. de Boeij , P. J. M. van Haastert , and D. A. Wiersma , “ Real-time visualization of intracellular hydrodynamics in single living cells ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.   98 , 1577 – 1582 ( 2001 ).
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Wurpel, G. W. H.

Xie, X. S.

C. L. Evans , E. O. Potma , and X. S. Xie , “ Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ (3) for vibrational microscopy ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2923 ( 2004 ).
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J. X. Cheng , Y. K. Jia , G. F. Zheng , and X. S. Xie , “ Laser-scanning coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology ,” Biophys. J.   83 , 502 – 509 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch , G. R. Holton , and X. S. Xie , “ Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 4142 – 4145 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V. V.

Zheng, G. F.

J. X. Cheng , Y. K. Jia , G. F. Zheng , and X. S. Xie , “ Laser-scanning coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology ,” Biophys. J.   83 , 502 – 509 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zubairy, M. S.

M. O. Scully , G. W. Kattawar , R. P. Lucht , T. Opatrny , H. Pilloff , A. Rebane , A. V. Sokolov , and M. S. Zubairy , “ FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   99 , 10994 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

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A. Zumbusch , G. R. Holton , and X. S. Xie , “ Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 4142 – 4145 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. (2)

B. N. Toleutaev , T. Tahara , and H. Hamaguchi , “ Broad-band (1000 cm -1 ) multiplex CARS spectroscopy - application to polarization-sensitive and time-resolved measurements ,” Appl. Phys.   B59 , 369 ( 1994 ).

V. H. Astinov and G. M. Georgiev , “ Ultrabroadband single-pulse CARS of liquids using a spatially dispersive Stokes beam ,” Appl. Phys.   B63 , 62 ( 1996 ).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. L. Oudar , R. W. Smith , and Y. R. Shen , “ Polarization-sensitive coherent anti Stokes Raman spectroscopy ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   34 , 758 ( 1979 ).
[Crossref]

R. P. Régnier and J. P. E. Taran , “ On the possibility of measuring gas concentrations by stimulated anti-Stokes scattering ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   23 , 24 ( 1973 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Biophys. J. (1)

J. X. Cheng , Y. K. Jia , G. F. Zheng , and X. S. Xie , “ Laser-scanning coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology ,” Biophys. J.   83 , 502 – 509 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Ujj , B. Volodin , A. Popp , J. K. Delaney , and G. A. Atkinson , “ Picosecond resonance coherent anti-Stokes-Raman spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin - spectra and quantitative third-order susceptibility analysis of the light adapted BR-570 ,” Chem. Phys.   182 , 291 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

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D. L. Popham and P. Setlow , “ Phenotypes of Bacillus subtilis mutants lacking multiple class A high-molecular-weight penicillin-binding ” J. Bacteriol.   178 , 2079 ( 1996 ).
[PubMed]

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M. Mehendale , B. Bosacciii , E. Gatzigiannis , A. Dogariu , W. S. Warren , and M. O. Scully , “ Towards an anthrax detector using the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic technique for coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectrosopy: coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy signal from dipicolinic acid in bacterial spores ,” J. Mod. Opt.   51 , 2645 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kolomenskii , S. N. Jerebtsov , T. Opatrny , H. A. Schuessler , and M. O. Scully , “ Spontaneous Raman spectra of dipicolinic acid in microcrystalline form ,” J. Mod. Opt.   50 , 2369 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D. (1)

A. Volkmer , “ Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy ,” J. Phys. D.   38 , R59 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (2)

A. Weippert and W. Kiefer , “ CARS difference spectroscopy ,” J. Raman Spectrosc.   23 , 713 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

V. V. Yakovlev , “ Advanced instrumentation for non-linear Raman microscopy ,” J. Raman Spectrosc.   34 , 957 – 964 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

N. Dudovich , D. Oron , and Y. Silberberg , “ Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy ,” Nature   418 , 512 – 514 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Zumbusch , G. R. Holton , and X. S. Xie , “ Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 4142 – 4145 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart , “ Nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 123905 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA (2)

M. O. Scully , G. W. Kattawar , R. P. Lucht , T. Opatrny , H. Pilloff , A. Rebane , A. V. Sokolov , and M. S. Zubairy , “ FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   99 , 10994 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

W. Suen , T. G. Spiro , L. C. Sowers , and J. R. Fresco , “ Identification by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy of an imino tautomer of 5-hydroxy-2’ deoxycytidine, a powerful base analog transition mutagen with a much higher unfavored tautomer frequency than that of the natural residue 2’-deoxycytidine ,” Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA   96 , 4500 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

E. O. Potma , W. P. de Boeij , P. J. M. van Haastert , and D. A. Wiersma , “ Real-time visualization of intracellular hydrodynamics in single living cells ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.   98 , 1577 – 1582 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

G. W. Gould and A. Hurst , eds., The Bacterial Spore . Academic Press, London , 1969 .

J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths , eds., Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy , John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chichester , 2002 .

R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak , eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering , Plenum Press, New York , 1982 .
[Crossref]

A. C. Eckbreth , Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species . Abacus, Cambridge, MA , 1988 .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Raman spectrum from B. subtilis spores recorded as it is (a), and with digital background subtraction (b).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the experimental CARS set-up [22].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The experimentally measured CARS spectrum of bacterial spores in water solution (10mg/mL) - (b) and (d), compared with the experimentally measured spontaneous Raman spectrum of bacterial spores in a powder form (a) and (c).

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